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Chapter 14 Sec 2

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30 Years War, Spanish Armada, Glorious Revolution

30 Years War, Spanish Armada, Glorious Revolution


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  • 1. Chapter 14 Sec 2 30 Years War & Glorious Revolution
  • 2. After the defeat of the Armada, Continental Europe is at odds over religion as well.
  • 3.  
  • 4. The Thirty Years’ War
    • All major European countries but England became involved.
    • Takes place on German soil, and Germany was plundered and destroyed for 30 years. 
    • Some countries gained new territories, and France emerged as the dominant nation in Europe.
  • 5. Reformation & Thirty Years War Video
  • 6. The Thirty Years’ War The Peace of Westphalia -1648. 
    • A German states could determine their own religion. 
    2. The states that made up the Holy Roman Empire became independent.  3. The Holy Roman Empire died, and Germany would not reunite for two hundred years.
  • 7. The Thirty Years’ War
    • The 30 Years’ War was Europe’s most destructive. 
    • flintlock musket : 
    • Armies had to be better disciplined and trained. 
    • Governments began to support standing armies. 
    • By 1700, France had a standing army of 400,000.
  • 8. Flintlock Musket
  • 9.  
  • 10. Revolutions in England
    • The 17th century saw England’s civil war, the English Revolution. 
    • It was a struggle between Parliament & King
    • James I King of England 
    • Divine right of kings – that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God. 
    • Parliament wanted equal power
  • 11. Revolutions in England
    • Parliament made up of mostly Protestants (Puritans) 
    • In 1628, Parliament passed a petition prohibiting passing taxes without Parliament’s consent. 
    • Civil war broke out in 1642 between supporters of the king ( Cavaliers or Royalists) and those of Parliament ( Roundheads ). 
  • 12. Revolutions in England Cavaliers – Royalists/King Roundheads - Parliament 
  • 13. Charles I: James I’s Son
  • 14. Charles I : Executed by Oliver Cromwell
  • 15. Revolutions in England
    • What Causes Revolution?
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Revolutions in England
    • Cromwell led the New Model Army 
    • Purged the Parliament of anyone not loyal to him, creating “Rump Parliament” 
    • Then Cromwell dispersed the Rump Parliament by force. 
    • Ruled until his death in 1658 
  • 19. English Dictator – Oliver Cromwell
  • 20. Glorious Revolution
    • James II – Catholic King of England 
    • Protestant parliament asks William of Orange, husband of James’ daughter Mary to “invade” 
    • James, wife and infant son “flee” to France 
    • No bloodshed & Bill of Rights 
  • 21. William and Mary
  • 22. Revolutions in England (cont.)
    • The Toleration Act of 1689 gave Puritans, not Catholics, the right of free public worship. 
    • Few English citizens were persecuted for religion ever again, however. 
    • By deposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had destroyed the divine right theory of kingship.
  • 23. What is Absolutism?
  • 24. Louis XIV French King
    • The best example of seventeenth-century absolutism is the reign of Louis XIV of France. 
  • 25. France under Louis XIV
    • One response to the crises of the seventeenth century was to seek stability by increasing the monarchy’s power. 
    • This response historians call absolutism, a system in which the ruler has total power. 
    • It also includes the idea of the divine right of kings. 
  • 26. France under Louis XIV (cont.)
    • Louis had an anti-Huguenot policy , wanting the Huguenots to convert to Catholicism. 
    • Destroyed Huguenot churches and schools. 
    • As many as 200,000 Protestants fled France. 
    • The mercantilist policies of the brilliant Jean-Baptiste Colbert helped Louis with the money he needed for maintaining his court and pursuing his wars.
  • 27. France under Louis XIV (cont.)
    • France was debt-ridden and surrounded by enemies at the time of Louis XIV’s death. 
    • On his deathbed he seemed remorseful for not caring for the people more.
  • 28. William Shakespeare
  • 29. A Golden Age of Literature (cont.)
    • William Shakespeare. 
    • Shakespeare’s works were performed principally at the Globe Theater . 
    • The low admission charge allowed the lower classes to attend, and Shakespeare had to write plays pleasing to all classes and types.
  • 30. Political Thought (cont.)
    • England’s revolutionary upheavals alarmed Thomas Hobbes. 
    • “ state of nature,” life is brutal and violent because human nature is self-interested. 
    • Life is not about morals, but self-preservation.
    • Believed in Absolute Rule – to save people from themselves
  • 31. Political Thought (cont.)
    • John Locke
    • Against the absolute rule of one person. 
    • People lived in a state of freedom and equality, not violence and war. 
    • In this state people had natural rights – rights with which people are born.
  • 32. Political Thought (cont.)
    • Locke’s ideas were important to the American and French Revolutions. 
    • They were used to support demands for constitutional government, the rule of law, and the protection of rights. 
    • Locke’s ideas are found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.

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