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Claude levi

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    Claude levi Claude levi Document Transcript

    • Claude Levi-Strauss Claude Levi-Strauss was a French anthropologist, ethnologist and the founder of intellectual movement, or structuralism. Levi-Strauss developed a main theory surrounding the concept of binary opposites. He was very interested in how many of these oppositions the world had. He picked up on the fact that there were several of these oppositions, such as antagonist/protagonist or black/white, which often occurred in media texts. Some of these texts included films, stories, plays or even music videos. http://heathenmedia.co.uk/insanity/2011/10/20/narrative-–-claude- levi-strauss‟-theory/ Binary opposites are important for certain media texts in order to create an interesting and effective story line. For example, in a love story film, the plot is much for satisfying for the audience if the stereotypical unpopular character manages to win the heart of the popular girl. The opposition here being popularity. Furthermore in other media texts there may be evil characters and good characters fighting against each other. Additionallysciencefictionfilmsplayaroleinthisstyletoowithbinaryoppositionssuch as; Earth–Space.Humans -Aliens. Past–Present. Normal–Strange. Known–Unknown. http://www.scribd.com/doc/8332523/Narrative-theory-notes
    • Edward Branigan Branigan suggests that narrative is „a way of organising spatial and temporal data into a cause-effect chain of events with a beginning, a middle and end that embodies a judgement about the nature of events.‟ Narration, according to Branigan, should be understood as “the overall regulation and distribution of knowledge which determines how and when a spectator acquires knowledge [of narrative events]” (1992). http://www.slideshare.net/jphibbert1979/narrative-theory-7091030 http://perspectivecriticism.com/2013/01/21/narration-in-film-edward- branigan-on-point-of-view-versus-focalization-laura-copier/ Vladimir Propp Vladimir Propp, a Russian critic. Characters, according to Propp, have a narrative function; they provide a structure for the text. Characters that perform a function The Hero – a character that seeks something The Villain – who opposes or actively blocks the hero‟s quest The Donor – who provides an object with magical properties The Dispatcher – who sends the hero on his/her quest via a message The False Hero – who disrupts the hero‟s success by making false claims The Helper – who aids the hero The Princess – acts as the reward for the hero and the object of the villain‟s plots Her Father – who acts to reward the hero for his effort Actions as functions of narrative Preparation A community/kingdom/family is in an ordered state of being A member of the community/kingdom/family leaves home
    • A warning is given to the leaders of the community or a rule is imposed on the hero The warning is discounted/ the rule is broken The villain attempts to discover something about the victim of the broken rule The villain tries to deceive the victim to gain advantage The victim unwittingly helps the villain Complication A state of disorder The villain harms a member of the community/kingdom/family One of the members of the community/kingdom/family desires something The hero is sent to get what is desired The hero plans action against the villain Transference The hero leaves home The hero is tested or attacked/ he meets the test and is given a magical gift or helper The hero reacts to the donor The hero arrives at the place he can fulfil his quest Struggle There is a struggle between the hero and the villain |The hero is branded The villain is overcome The state of disorder is settled Return The hero returns The hero is pursued
    • The hero escapes or is rescued The hero arrives home and is not recognised A false hero claims rewards A task is set for the hero The task is accomplished Recognition The hero is recognised The false hero or villain is unmasked The false hero is punished The hero attains the reward (princess/ kingdom) To Propp events are not just about character and action but also about progressing the narrative. http://www.adamranson.plus.com/Propp.htm http://media-studies-thriller.blogspot.de/2011/03/vladimir-propps-narrative- theory.html http://heathenmedia.co.uk/praise/2011/11/03/vladimir-propps-narrative- theory/ Tsuetan Todorov Tzvetan Todorov is a Franco-Bulgarian philosopher. He proposed a theory surrounding the different sections of a media narrative. The theory simply proposes that; The fictional environment begins with a state of equilibrium (everything is as it should be). It then suffers some disruption (disequilibrium). And finally a new equilibrium is produced at the end of the narrative. http://www.adamranson.plus.com/TODOROV.HTM http://www.mediaknowall.com/gcse/keyconceptsgcse/keycon.php?pageID=na rrative
    • Roland Barthes –Barthes codes All you need to know, again, very basically, is that texts may be ´open´ (ie unravelled in a lot of different ways) or ´closed´ (there is only one obvious thread to pull on). Barthes also decided that the threads that you pull on to try and unravel meaning are called narrative codes and that they could be categorised in the following five ways: Action/proiarectic code & enigma code (ie Answers & questions) Symbols & Signs Points of Cultural Reference Simple description/reproduction http://www.mediaknowall.com/as_alevel/alevkeyconcepts/alevelkeycon.ph p?pageID=narrative Robert Mckee Robert McKee Robert McKee is an accomplished writer, director, playwright and writing instructor. Rather than simply handling mechanical aspects of fiction technique such as plot or dialogue taken individually, McKee examines the narrative design of work and what makes the story compelling or not. This could work equally as well as an analysis of any other genre or form of narrative, whether in screenplay or any other form, and could any works that attempt to tell a story. http://www.storylogue.com/page/1/about-robert-mckee.html