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THE OPIUM WAR(1839-1842)British East India Company wanted Merchants refused to stop, soto find another product besides military dumps tons of the drug,silver to trade w/China>>>Opium, enraging BEIC, and thereforean illegal drug grown in Britain(Bentley and Ziegler).India(Bentley and Ziegler). The war following is anThe opium trade is ignored by the embarrassing loss for China, andQing dynasty at first marks the beginning of foreign intrusion(Bentley and Ziegler). a loss of silver imports and an increase in societal problems in Southern China forced action(Bentley and Ziegler).
SPHERES OF INFLUENCEThe British force the Chinese to sign what was called the unequaltreaty, allowing Britain to trade as they wish, and carve their ownsphere of influence.Other European powers, as well as the US, follow Britain’sexample, and soon China is filled with foreign influence andmerchants.This leads to numerous rebellions, such as the Nanjing rebellion,which nearly took down the Qing dynasty. These were theforerunners to the movement that would take the dynastydown(Bentley an Ziegler).
THE FIRST REVOLUTIONIn 1908, the empress Dowager Cixi died, placing a young child,Puyi, on the throne of a crumbling dynasty with an incompetentregent(“ChineseRevolution”).The revolt was triggered by foreign stockholders blocking thecompletion of a railroad, causing riots, and eventually mutiny inWuchang, followed by many more cities(“Chinese Revolution”).The regent, in panic, allowed the adoption of a constitution, andasked Yuan Shikal, a former viceroy, to come out of retirement tosave the dynasty(“Chinese Revolution”).
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF REPUBLICYuan did not act quickly, and therevolution quickly became too large tosuppress.Sun Yat-sen, leader of the revolutionaries,set up a provisional republican governmentin Nanjing and was electedpresident(“Chinese Revolution”).Yuan called for an armistice and negotiateda new government with the republicans.The emperor child was allowed to keep histitle, but the government was made arepublic, led by Yuan with Li Yuanhong, aleader of the Wuchang uprising, as vice-president(“Chinese Revolution”).
THE FALL OF THE REPUBLICThe republic’s choice of Yuan as president was afatal decision, as Yuan abused the system bysigning treaties with other nations and formingarmies without parliament’s consent(“History ofRepublic”).Eventually, Yuan named himself emperor of theEmpire of China, which did not last long asrebellion spread through all of China. Yuanstepped down on 22 March 1916, and LiYuanhong became president(“History ofRepublic”).The republic survived, but it was the beginningof the end, as people began to question the newsystem, and regional warlords began their rise topower, which they would retain for adecade(“History of Republic”).
WWI DISPUTEWhen WWI broke, the vice-president Duan Qirui wanted to jointhe allies, but President Li did not. The debating became sointense, Duan was kicked out of office(“History of Republic”).Duan’s warlord allies declared independence and requested Listep down. Li asked general Zhang Xun to mediateissue(“History of Republic”).Zhang had his own agenda of restoring the Qing dynasty, so,aided by German funding, he put Puyi on the throne on July 11917(“History of Republic”).
China in DisarrayDuan marched on Beijing and defeated Zhang’s forces, dropping abomb on the Forbidden City in the process. Duan became the mostpowerful man in China after this, and sent China into war withGermany and Austo-Hungary(“History of Republic”).Duan abused this power, ignoring the constitution like hispredecessors and dissolving the parliament(“History of Republic”).The South revolted by forming a new government, theKuomintang, in Guangzhou led by Sun Yat-sen and hisConstitutional Protection Army, which ironically put Sun asmilitary leader(“History of Republic”).
Constitutional Protection WarThis war split the nation along the North-South border.The Northern warlords got sick of the war and forced Duan toresign so negotiations could begin(“History of Republic”).In the South, members of Sun’s government disliked Sun’s totalpower, so a cabinet was elected(“History of Republic”).Sun was not elected, again.
May Fourth MovementA national movement led by students from 1917 to1923,protesting against the many issues plaguing the nation including, WWI involvement(Treaty of Versailles not signed) Constitutional Protection War Warlordism
The KuomintangIn 1921, Sun returned to the KMT as president, and tried tounite China with Soviet support(“History of Republic”).Sun was soon ousted and replaced by Chiang Kai-shek. A yearlater Sun had the Soviets put their support behind the KMT. TheSoviets had the KMT and and newly founded ChineseCommunist Party unite(“History of Republic”).This united party allowed Chiang to undertake the NorthernExpedition in 1925, which, while successful at first, stalled asdivisions in the party grew(”History of Republic”).
Chiang’s RiseChiang dismissed his Sovietadvisors, and limited the CCP’spower in the party(“History ofRepublic”).The CCP and KMT’s left wingmade a new capital in Wuhan, andChiang made a new capital inNanjing(“History of Republic”).China now split between threecapitals; Beijing, Wuhan, Nanjing.
China’s Communist PartyAfter their capital was established, they started encouraginginsurrections in rural and urban areas.Most notably was the Autumn Harvest Uprising in the Hunanprovince. It was led by Mao Zedong, co-founder of theCCP(“History of Republic”).By 1928, Chiang was in control of most of China, and kicked theCCP out of Wuhan during the Encirclement campaign. This setthe stage for the Long March, led by Mao Zedong, which was aNorthward 8,000 mile retreat(Szczepanski)
The Nanjing Decade(1928-1937)A short period of reform dominated by the KMT including regaining power to set own tariffs modernization of Chinese infrastructure Modern Standard Chinese women’s rights the decade was also marked by the pushing back of warlords to China’s limits and conflicts with Soviets in the West.
The Second Sino-Japanese WarIn 1931, Japan took Manchuria and putex-Emperor Puyi as head of a puppet-state(“History of Republic”).Japan continued to march throughNorthern China, as the KMT was pre-occupied with tracking down the remnantsof the CCP(“History of Republic”).Chiang was kidnapped and forced to workwith the CCP against theJapanese(“History of Republic”).Even with a united front, by 1937 Nanjingwas taken, followed by the NanjingMassacre(“History of Republic”).
Spread of CommunismThe united front never was very united, as the CCP tried tospread its influence, the KMT tried to neutralize its spread.The KMT run Republic of China arose from WWII on the vergeof civil war, as their was no need for cooperation any longer.The economy collapsed under the weight of national debt fromforeign and internal strife(“History of Republic”).
Foreign InterestThe United States and Britainwanted China to be a strong allyin East Asia, and thereforerevised the unequal treaties, andthe US threw out its anti-Chineseimmigration laws(“History ofRepublic”).US settles a truce betweenfactions, but fighting starts soonafterwards. goal to prevent war abandoned
Civil War3 year civil war>>>>War of Liberation(of Chaing)20 July 1946>>>>KMT invasion of Communist NorthSuccessful at first, but tide turned in 1947 as Communistsstaged a huge counter-attack(“Civil War”).From 1948 to 1949 in what is called the Pingjin conquest,Communists take all of Northern China(“Civil War”).
The Exodus21 April, 1949, CCP armycrosses Yangtze River, takeNanjing two days later(“CivilWar”).The KMT is forced to retreatto Taiwan, where theyremained, The END!
Mao and the People’s RepublicOn October 1 1949, Mao announced establishment of ThePeople’s Republic of China(Szczepanski). End of the worst,right?From 1949 to 1953 mass executions of landowners and“rightists”(remember communists and left wing united), such ascapitalists, commences, estimated death toll>>>1million(Szczepanski)Mao bans all parties but CCP, and becomespresident(Szczepanski).
More “Reformation”Implemented First Five Year Plan(1953-58) designed toencourage industrialization, industry is owned bypublic(Szczepanski).Insidious Hundred Flowers Campaign-in an effort to root outdissidents, Mao encourages criticism ofgovernment(Szczepanski).Second Five Year Plan: Great Leap Forward, redistribution offarm land, ending in catastophe as farmers are overwhelmed,possibly 20 million starve to death(Szczepanski).
The Cultural RevolutionMao steps down soon after total failure of ironically named GreatLeap Forward(but still CCP leader, and very powerful)In 1965, Mao starts the Cultural Revolution to reassert hispower in China by influencing the youth to have them condemnthe new upper classes(“Cultural Revolution”). Mao envisioned a China as a single class. Led to violence towards foreign embassies and upper classes by the Red Guard(bands of youth).
The End of an EraIn 1968, Liu Shao-chi, president of the republic, was expelledfrom the party, which Mao found satisfactory ending theturmoil(“Cultural Revolution”).In 9 years Mao would be dead, and the end of an era with it. TheRevolution finally ended, as China quickly modernized, catchingup with the rest of the world.