Sll 10030 lecturei (1)

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Sll 10030 lecturei (1)

  1. 1. SLL 10030The Shaping ofEurope 2
  2. 2. Class TimesMonday, 15:00 – 16:00 C 108Wednesday, 15:00-16:00 NTh1
  3. 3. Teaching TeamDr Sabine Krobb (Coordinator)Dr Gillian Pye,Dr Philip Johnston,Dr Douglas Smith(for contact details look on Blackboard)
  4. 4. Course PlanWeeks 1-4 (Dr Sabine Krobb)Nationalism and Imperialism in the 19thcenturyWeeks 5-7 (Dr Gillian Pye)Art, Architecture and IndustryWeek 8 (Dr Philip Johnston)Spanish Civil WarWeeks 9-10 (Dr Sabine Krobb/Dr Gillian Pye)Cold WarWeeks 11-12 (Dr Douglas Smith)The Invention of the Third World
  5. 5. AssessmentClass Test 1: Mon, 18 Feb (week 5) 25%Class Test 2: Wed, 3 April (week 9) 25%Exam: End of semester 50%
  6. 6. 19thCentury EuropeImportant events to frame developmentsin the 19thcentury:•The French Revolution 1789•The beginning of World War I 1914
  7. 7. The Ascent of the NationCatalysts for the ‘birth of the nation’:•US Declaration of Independence 1776•French Revolution 1789Nation becomes powerful agent in local andinternational politics
  8. 8. What is a nation?•State•Nation•Nation-State
  9. 9. StateTerritorial state as a legal concept:“The state in the modern conception is a legallydefined term that refers, at the level ofsubstance to a state power that possesses bothinternal and external sovereignty – at the spatiallevel, to a clearly delimited terrain, the stateterritory, and at the social level, to the totalityof members, the body of citizens or the people.”(Jürgen Habermas: The European Nation-State. Quoted in Robert Guerrina:Europe. Histories, Ideas and Ideologies. London: Arnold, 2002, p. 39)
  10. 10. Nation- Persecution, says he, all the history of the world isfull of it. Perpetuating national hatred amongnations.- But do you know what a nation is? Says John Wyse.- Yes, says Bloom.- What is it? Says John Wyse.- A nation? Says Bloom. A nation is the same peopleliving in the same place.
  11. 11. - By God, then, says Ned, laughing, if that’s so,I’m a nation for I’m living in the same place forthe past five years.- Or also living in different places.- That covers my case, says Joe.(James Joyce: Ulysseshttp://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=2875055&pageno=302)
  12. 12. Nation Definition 1A nation is a group of people identified as sharing anynumber of real or perceived characteristics – such ascommon ancestry, language, religion, culture,historical, traditions and a shared territory – themembers of which can identify themselves and theothers as belonging to a group, and who have the willor desire to remain as a group, united through someform of organisation, most often political.(Timothy Bancroft: Nationalism in Europe, 1789-1945. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1998, p. 3)
  13. 13. Nation-State• Where geographical boundaries of the nationare superimposed on those of the state.• Where the boundaries of state and nationcorrespond, the state is granted the power torepresent the nation
  14. 14. Nations and nation states in first halfof 19thcentury• Nation-states (Examples: France, Britain)• Fragmented political entities where nationalistfeeling was based on joint language, cultureand customs but formation of nation-stateonly occurred towards end of century(Examples: Germany, Italy)• National groups struggling for independencewithin multinational empires (Examples:Poland, Greece)
  15. 15. Nation Building• Movement towards unification of disparatelands with a common cultural, linguisticheritage• Movement towards fragmentation ofmultinational empires into independentnation-states
  16. 16. Nationalism• Movement that emerged in conjunction withthe development of nation states or that isassociated with the struggle of the a nation toassert its independence and sovereignty
  17. 17. The redrawing of the map of Europe in 19thcentury• 1799-1812 Napoleon’s attempt to createa French-dominated empire in Europe• 1815 The Congress of Vienna andrestoration• 1860/1871 Unification of Italy andGermany
  18. 18. Europe 1812
  19. 19. Europe 1815
  20. 20. Europe 1871
  21. 21. 2 types of nationalismCivic nation• Emphasis on citizenship• Individual rights• Obligations within a politicalcommunity• Often early development ofa unified state• Long and shared politicalhistory• Within defined territorialand legal frameworkEthnic nation• Shared myths of ancestryand historical memories• Common culture• Early democratization ORlate modernization• Often emerging frompolyglot empires or from afragmentation into smallstates
  22. 22. Representatives of ideas of the nationin late 18thand 19thcenturyJohann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803)Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)
  23. 23. Representatives of ideas of the nation in19thcenturyGiuseppe MazziniThe duties of man (1844-1858)A Country is not a mereterritory; the particularterritory is only its foundation.The Country is the idea whichrises upon that foundation; itis the sentiment of love, thesense of fellowship whichbinds together all the sons ofthat territory.
  24. 24. Ideas of the nation in 19thCenutryErnest Renan (1832-1892) Qu’est-ce qu’une nation? (1882)A nation is a soul, a spiritualprinciple. Two things, which arereally only one, go to make up thissoul or spiritual principle. One ofthese things lies in the past, theother in the present. The one is thepossession in common of a richheritage of memories; and the otheris the actual agreement, the desireto live together, and the will tocontinue to make the most of thejoint inheritance
  25. 25. Two men are of the same nation if and only ifthey share the same culture, where culture inturn means a system of ideas and signs andassociations and ways of behaving andcommunicating(Ernest Gellner)Nations as “imagined communities” (BenedictAnderson)
  26. 26. Homework for Wednesday, 23 Jan• Find information on Herder, Fichte, Mazziniand Renan• Read the excerpts you have been assigned(excerpts are available on Blackboard. Youmust have the texts with you in class, either aspaper copy or on screen)• Make notes on the guided reading questionsfor the excerpts assigned to you

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