marketing research process
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  • 1. Marketing Research
  • 2. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Information • Reduces Uncertainty • Helps focus decision making
  • 3. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Research • Exploratory • Descriptive • Causal
  • 4. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE EXPLORATORY Uncertainty Influences the Type of Research
  • 5. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research (Unaware of Problem)(Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined) “Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “Would people be interested “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?” in our product?” Degree of Problem Definition possiblesituation
  • 6. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Exploratory Research Secondary Data Experience Survey Pilot Studies
  • 7. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Exploratory Research • Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem • Does not provide conclusive evidence • Subsequent research expected
  • 8. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Descriptive Research • Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon • Some understanding of the nature of the problem
  • 9. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Descriptive Research Example Weight Watchers average customer: • Woman about 40 years old • Household income of about $50,000 • At least some college education • Trying to juggle children and a job
  • 10. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Descriptive Research Example Men’s fragrance market: • 1/3 size of women’s fragrance market • But growing at a faster pace • Women buy 80 % of men’s fragrances
  • 11. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Causal Research • Conducted to identify cause-and-effect relationships
  • 12. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery and Definition Research Design Sampling Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Discovery and Definition and so on
  • 13. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Research Stages • Cyclical process - conclusions generate new ideas • Stages can overlap chronologically • Stages are functionally interrelated – Forward linkages – Backward linkages
  • 14. Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Experiment Survey Observation Secondary Data StudyLaboratory Field Interview Questionnaire Selection of exploratory research technique Sampling Probability Nonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Marketing Research ProcessProblem Discovery Exploratory Research Selection of the Basic Research Method Selection of Sample Design Collection of the Data
  • 16. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. The Research Process (cont.) Editing and Coding Data Processing Interpretation of the Findings Report
  • 17. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Stages in the Research Process • Problem discovery and problem definition • Research design • Sampling • Data gathering • Data processing and analysis • Conclusions and report
  • 18. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Problem Discovery and Definition • First step • Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations • Discovery before definition • Problem means management problem
  • 19. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. State the research questions and research objectives
  • 20. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Hypothesis • A statement that can be refuted by empirical data
  • 21. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there.
  • 22. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Selecting a Sample POPULATIONPOPULATION SAMPLESAMPLESample:Sample: subsetsubset of a larger population.of a larger population.
  • 23. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Sampling • Who is to be sampled? • How large a sample? • How will sample units be selected?
  • 24. Data Gathering Stage Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Data Processing and Analysis Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Copyright © 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Conclusions and Report Writing • Effective communication of the research findings