The investigator should employ a widely used data collection instrument, which helps minimize reporting bias because the data can then be compared with other published literature.
There should be no difference between the true value and the value that an investigator actually obtains– other than a difference caused by sampling variability.
Occurs when patients are assigned to treatments by means of a mechanism that prevents both the patients and the investigator from knowing which treatment is being assigned.
Can occur when a patient reports a treatment response or when an investigator assesses that response—either person can be influenced by knowing the treatment.
A patient or an investigator may have a preconceived idea of which treatment is better. The patient may also want to please the investigator.
Your Decision Based on Data Null Hypothesis True Null Hypothesis False Reject Null Hypothesis Correct Decision Do Not Reject Null Hypothesis Correct Decision
Your Decision Based on Data Null Hypothesis True Null Hypothesis False Reject Null Hypothesis Type I Error Correct Decision Do Not Reject Null Hypothesis Correct Decision
Your Decision Based on Data Null Hypothesis True Null Hypothesis False Reject Null Hypothesis Type I Error Correct Decision Do Not Reject Null Hypothesis Correct Decision Type ll Error
A p-value indicates how unlikely it is that a test statistic as extreme as—or more extreme than—the one derived from this study’s data will be found for this patient population if the null hypothesis is true.
Confidence Interval = range of differences between (or among) treatment groups. Confidence Interval data are extremely useful and their use needs to be encouraged.
p < .05 = statistical significance
95% sure that the difference is true – anything else assumes that it is not different or that the null hypothesis is true.
Be sure that the author makes statements only once . If it’s in the introduction, it should not be in the discussion. If it’s in a table, it should not be in the text.
Sole exception: If it first appears in the abstract, one repetition elsewhere is OK.
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