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Basic Concept of Foreign Policy
Foreign policy refers to the sum total of principles,
interests and objectives which a country promotes
while interacting with other countries. The thrust of
foreign policy keeps on changing according to the
changing international conditions.
The saffron color represents courage
White: truth, peace & purity
Ashok Chakra represents the Laws of Dharma
Long ago, India was ruled by
Mogul emperors. Then the empire
fell apart into smaller kingdoms,
ruled by maharajas.
By the 1600’s, Europeans had
come into India to trade for Indian
spices, silks, cotton cloth, and tea.
In 1857, the British took control of
India and ruled there until 1947.
India got independence on15
August 1947.One very important
man, Mohandas Gandhi helped
India gain independence.
28 states, 5 union territories.
The Republic of India is a country in Asia. It is at
the center of South Asia.
3.28 million sq. kilometers - Area (It is the seventh
largest country in the world by area)
7,516 kilometers – Coastline.
India has more than 1.12 billion(1,210,000,000)
people, which is the second largest population in the
325 languages spoken.18 official languages
India has formal diplomatic relations with most
nations. It is the world's second most populous
country, the world's most-populous democracy and
one of the fastest growing major economies. With the
world's eighth largest military expenditure, third
largest armed force, and third largest economy in
terms of purchasing power parity. May 18, 1974, in
the Pokharan desert, India conducted its first atomic
bomb test, cloaking it as a peaceful nuclear explosion.
In doing so, India became the world's sixth nuclear
India has seven
Pakistan in the north-
China and Nepal in the
Bhutan and Bangladesh
in the north-east,
Myanmar in the east
and Sri Lanka in the
Relation with Neighbors
Bilateral relations between India and Afghanistan
have been traditionally strong and friendly.
India was the first country to recognize Bangladesh
as a separate
China: Since 2004, the economic rise of both China
and India has also helped closer relations between
the two and independent state.
Pakistan and India not a good neighbor because the
issue of Kashmir.
The economy of the country is among world's
fastest growing. The economy of India is the
3rd largest in the world. India's economy is
diverse. Major industries include automobiles,
cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food
processing, machinery, mining, petroleum,
pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation
equipment, and textiles.
Form of government
Parliamentary form of Government.
India is the largest democracy in the world.
Its government is divided into three branches
Legislative Executive Judiciary
that makes the
the Cabinet Member that makes sure that
the laws are obeyed
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It is
the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in
the world, containing 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5
appendices and 98 amendments. Besides the English version,
there is an official Hindi translation. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji
Ambedkar is widely regarded as the father of the Indian
The Constitution of India is federal in nature. Each State and
each Union territory of India have their own government.
The Constitution was adopted by the India Constituent
Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26
January 1950. India celebrates the adoption of the
constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day.
Indian Political System
The current Minister of External
Affairs is Salman Khurshid of
the Indian National
Congress party, 28 October2012
Pranab Kumar Mukherjee is the
13th and current President of
India, in office since July 2012.
Manmohan Singh born is
the 13th and current Prime
Minister of India. the first Sikh to
hold the office. 22 May 2004
Indian general election, 2014
The longest election in the country's history, from 7 April to
12 May 2014 to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha in India.
Voting will take place in all 543 parliamentary
constituencies of India to elect members of parliament in
the Lok Sabha. The result of this election will be declared
on 16 May 2014.
According to the Election Commission of India, the
electoral population in 2014 is 81.45 crore, the largest in
the world. This also will be the longest and the most
expensive general election in the history of the country with
the Election Commission of India.
Brief history of India Foreign Policy
After India gained independence from the United Kingdom
in 1947, it soon joined the Commonwealth of Nations and
strongly supported independence movements in other
colonies, like the Indonesian National Revolution.
During the Cold War, India adopted a foreign policy of not
aligning itself with any major power bloc. However, India
developed close ties with the Soviet Union and received
extensive military support from it. The end of the Cold War
significantly affected India's foreign policy. the dissolution
of the Soviet Union in 1991, India began to review
its foreign policy in an unipolar world, and took steps to
develop closer ties with the European Union and the United
Foreign policy of India
Most Indians agree that its first Prime Minister
Jawaharlal Nehru had defined a unique foreign policy
for India at the very dawn of its independence.. Since
the 1990s, though, the challenge for the Indian leaders
has been to reinterpret Nehru’s ideas to suit the new
political context that had confronted it
Basic Concepts Of Foreign Policy of India
1) Preservation of national interest
2) Achievement of world peace
3) Disarmament have been important objectives of
India’s foreign policy.
4) Fostering cordial relations with other countries
5) Solving conflicts by peaceful means
6) Sovereignty and equality of all nations
7) Independence of thought and action as per the
principles of Non-align Movement or NAM
9) Equality in conducting international relations
Main Principle of India Foreign Policy
(I) Non - Alignment it is integral part of India's foreign
policy even after the end of cold war. The vitality of non-
alignment can be realized from the fact that it has not only
helped in securing friendship and cooperation, promoting
world peace. India and NAM countries played a vital role in
cold war politics by acting as a third force to reduce the
(ii) Opposition to Colonialism and Imperialism:
India firmly stands in opposition to any form of colonialism
and imperialism. It is with this line of thinking that India
played a major role in liberating the newly independent
countries of Asia and Africa from colonial shackles.
(iii) Supporting U.N. in Achieving World Peace:
India is one of the founding members of the UN (1945). She
has played a major role in its instrumentality to achieve
world peace. She has always advocated that resolution of
international disputes be done under the purview of U.N.
(iv) Fairness of Means:
Inspired by the ideas of Gandhi, India has always emphasized
that their means should be used in the resolution in international
disputes. She has advocated of peaceful and non-violent methods
are opposes war, aggression and power policies. Panchsheel is
an outgrowth of this line of thinking.
(v) Friendship with AH Countries:
Without being committed to military alliances, India has
opted for cultivating friendly relations with other countries.
For this purpose she has concluded treaties and bilateral
agreements in the fields of politics, economy, culture of
science and technology.
1) Prime Minister’s office;
Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister,
promoted a strong personal role for the Prime
Minister. Nehru served concurrently as Prime Minister
and Minister of External Affairs; he made all major
foreign policy decisions himself after consulting with
his advisers and then entrusted the conduct of
international affairs to senior members of the Indian
Foreign Service. He was the main founding fathers of
the Panchsheel or the five principles of peaceful co-
2) Ministry of External Affairs
The Ministry of External Affairs is the Indian
government's agency responsible for the foreign
relations of India. The Minister of External Affairs
holds cabinet rank as a member of the Council of
Ministers. Salman Khurshid is current Minister of
3) Indian Foreign Secretary
The Indian Foreign Secretary is the head of Indian
Foreign Service (IFS) and therefore, serves as the head
of all Indian ambassadors and high
commissioners. Sujatha Singh is the current Foreign
Secretary of India.
What is Panchsheel ?
India’s desired peaceful and friendly relations with all
countries, particularly the big powers and the neighboring
nations, while signing an agreement with China, on April 28,
1954, India advocated adherence to five guiding principles
known as Panchsheel for the conduct of bilateral relations. It
includes the following:
1) Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and
2) Mutual non-aggression.
3) Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
4) Equality and mutual benefit.
5) Peaceful co-existence.
Relation with organizations
India was one of the founding members of
several international organizations, most notably
the United Nations, the Asian Development
Bank, G20 industrial nations and the founder of
the Non-aligned movement. India has also
played an important and influential role in other
international organizations like East Asia
Summit, World Trade
Organization, International Monetary Fund
(IMF), G8+5 and IBSA Dialogue Forum.
India Role in United Nations
India foreign policy has been firmly committed to
the purposes and principles of the United Nations
and has made significant contributions like
participating in all peace-keeping operations.
India has taken part in 35 of UN peacekeeping
operations in four continents. Its most significant
contribution has been to peace and stability in Africa
Presently India is ranked as the largest troop
contributor to U N. India is currently seeking a
permanent seat in the UN Security Council.
India Role in United Nations
India has always believed that a world free of nuclear
weapons would enhance global security.
India has contributed to UN significantly on
disarmament in terms of ideas, resolutions, initiatives
and bridging differences through action plans.
In 1948,India had proposed limiting the use of
atomic energy to peaceful purposes and elimination
of nuclear weapons from national arsenals.
Trade Relations With United State
The US is one of India's largest trading partners. In
2011, the US exported $21.50 billion worth of
goods to India, and imported $36.15 billion worth
of Indian goods. Major items imported from India
include information technology services, textiles,
machinery, gems and diamonds, chemicals, iron an
d steel products, coffee, tea, and other edible food
products. Major American items imported by India
include aircraft, fertilizers, computer
hardware, scrap metal, and medical equipment.
Relation with United State
India is perceived by Americans as their 6th
favorite nation in the world, with 75% of
Americans viewing India favorably in
2012, though this declined somewhat to 72% in
RELATION WITH CHINA
INDIA’S RELATION WITH CHINAARE NOT
SINO INDIAN WAR
WATER SHARING DISPUTE
CLASH OVER ECONOMIC INTERESTS
RELATION IN RECENT HAVE IMPROVED AS
INDIA RECOGNIZED TIBET AS PART OF
RELATION WITH PAKISTAN
Being a part of india and sharing same
traditions and culture with india the relations
were still lukewarm
INDIAN ADMINISTRATION ON KASHMIR
FORCEFUL CONVERSATIONS OF HINDUS
RELATION WITH RUSSIA
RELATION BETWEEN BOTH COUNTRIES
WERE ALWAYS BASED ON TRUST AND
HELPED INDIA WITH MILITARY SUPPORT
TRADE CROSSED ABOUT $10 BILLION
HELPED INDIA IN DEVELOPMENT OF
KOODAN KERLAM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT