Chapter 13       Building Systems13.1                      © 2007 by Prentice Hall
Management Information Systems                              Chapter 13 Building Systems                          LEARNING ...
Management Information Systems                                Chapter 13 Building Systems                       A New Orde...
Management Information Systems                              Chapter 13 Building Systems                     SYSTEMS AS PLA...
Management Information Systems                              Chapter 13 Building Systems                     SYSTEMS AS PLA...
Management Information Systems                        Chapter 13 Building Systems               SYSTEMS AS PLANNED ORGANIZ...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems               BUSINESS PROCESS REEN...
Management Information Systems                          Chapter 13 Building Systems            BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEER...
Management Information Systems                           Chapter 13 Building Systems             BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINE...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems               BUSINESS PROCESS REEN...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems               BUSINESS PROCESS REEN...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems              BUSINESS PROCESS REENG...
Management Information Systems                           Chapter 13 Building Systems                        OVERVIEW OF SY...
Management Information Systems                                Chapter 13 Building Systems                   Overview of Sy...
Management Information Systems                           Chapter 13 Building Systems                        OVERVIEW OF SY...
Management Information Systems                            Chapter 13 Building Systems                         OVERVIEW OF ...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems                       OVERVIEW OF S...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems                         OVERVIEW OF...
Management Information Systems                           Chapter 13 Building Systems                       OVERVIEW OF SYS...
Management Information Systems                           Chapter 13 Building Systems                       OVERVIEW OF SYS...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems                          OVERVIEW O...
Management Information Systems                            Chapter 13 Building Systems                    ALTERNATIVE SYSTE...
Management Information Systems                           Chapter 13 Building Systems                    ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM...
Management Information Systems               Chapter 13 Building Systems        ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES   ...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems                      ALTERNATIVE SY...
Management Information Systems                             Chapter 13 Building Systems                      ALTERNATIVE SY...
Management Information Systems                           Chapter 13 Building Systems                    ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM...
Management Information Systems                              Chapter 13 Building Systems                       ALTERNATIVE ...
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Bld system

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Building Systems13.1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Demonstrate how building new systems produces organizational change. • Identify and describe the core activities in the systems development process. • Evaluate alternative methods for building information systems. • Compare alternative methodologies for modeling systems. • Identify and describe new approaches for system- building in the digital firm era.13.2 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  3. 3. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems A New Ordering System for Girl Scout Cookies • Problem: Inefficient manual procedures, high error rate. • Solutions: Eliminate manual procedures, design new ordering process, and implement database building software to batch and track orders automatically and schedule order pickups. • QuickBase for Corporate Workgroups software service increased efficiency and reduced errors. • Demonstrates IT’s role in updating traditional business processes. • Illustrates digital technology as the focus of designing and building new information systems.13.3 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  4. 4. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems SYSTEMS AS PLANNED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Systems Development and Organizational Change Four Kinds of Structural Change: • Automation: Mechanizing procedures to speed up the performance of existing tasks • Rationalization of procedures: The streamlining of standard operating procedures13.4 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  5. 5. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems SYSTEMS AS PLANNED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Systems Development and Organizational Change ) Four Kinds of Structural Change: (Continued) • Business process reengineering: Analysis and redesign of business processes to reorganize workflows and reduce waste and repetitive tasks • Paradigm shift: Radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the nature of the organization13.5 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  6. 6. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems SYSTEMS AS PLANNED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Organizational Change Carries Risks and Rewards13.6 Figure 13-1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  7. 7. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Business Process Reengineering • Leading mortgage banks reduced time to obtain a mortgage from 6-8 weeks to one week, by radically changing the workflow and document management procedures13.7 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  8. 8. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Steps to effective reengineering: • Understanding which processes need improvement • Measuring performance of existing processes as a baseline • Allowing IT to influence process design from the start13.8 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  9. 9. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Redesigning Mortgage Processing in the United States13.9 Figure 13-2 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  10. 10. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Total Quality Management and Six Sigma Total Quality Management (TQM): • Sees achievement of quality control as an end in itself with responsibility shared by all people in an organization • Focuses on a series of continuous improvements rather than large change13.10 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  11. 11. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Total Quality Management and Six Sigma Six Sigma: • A specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities • Designates a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality and reducing costs • Uses statistical analysis to detect process flaws and make minor adjustments13.11 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  12. 12. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Benchmarking: Setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards13.12 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  13. 13. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT • Systems development: The activities that go into producing an information system solution to an organizational problem or opportunity • Systems analysis: The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system • Feasibility study: As part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization’s resources and constraints13.13 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  14. 14. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems Overview of Systems Development The Systems Development Process Building a system can be broken down into six core activities. Figure 13-313.14 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  15. 15. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Establishing Information Requirements Information requirements: • A detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy • Identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed13.15 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  16. 16. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Systems design: • Details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis • Includes creating design specifications13.16 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  17. 17. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT The role of end users: • Users must have sufficient control over the design process to ensure that the system reflects their business priorities and information needs. • Working on design increases users’ understanding and acceptance of the system13.17 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  18. 18. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Completing the Systems Development Process Programming: • Translating the system specifications prepared during the design stage into program code Testing: • The exhaustive testing to determine whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions13.18 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  19. 19. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Conversion: • Process of changing from the old system to the new system • Four main conversion strategies 1. Parallel strategy 2. Direct cutover strategy 3. Pilot study strategy 4. Phased approach strategy13.19 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  20. 20. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Production and Maintenance Production: • The stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals • May implement a post-implementation audit: Formal review process conducted after a system has been placed in production to determine how well the system has met its original objectives13.20 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  21. 21. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Production and Maintenance (Continued) Maintenance: • Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency13.21 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  22. 22. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES Systems life cycle: • Traditional methodology with sequential, formal stages and a formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists Prototyping / Iterative processes: • Building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation and used as a template for the final system13.22 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  23. 23. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES Prototyping / Iterative Processes: (Continued) • Prototyping is most useful when there is some uncertainty about requirements or design solutions. • Encourages end-user involvement and is more likely to fulfill end-user requirements • Hastily constructed systems, however, may not accommodate large quantities of data or numbers of users.13.23 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  24. 24. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES The Prototyping Process13.24 Figure 13-8 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  25. 25. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES End-User Development End-User Development: • The development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists13.25 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  26. 26. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES Application Software Packages and Outsourcing Application Software Package: • Prewritten, precoded application software programs that are commercially available for sale or lease • May include customization features allowing the software to be modified for an organization’s unique requirements13.26 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  27. 27. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES Application Software Package: (Continued) • Package evaluation criteria: Functions, flexibility, user friendliness, hardware and software resources, database requirements, installation and maintenance efforts, documentation, vendor quality, cost • Request For Proposal (RFP): A detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the vendor’s product will meet the organization’s specific requirements13.27 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  28. 28. Management Information Systems Chapter 13 Building Systems ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS-BUILDING APPROACHES Outsourcing: • Contracting computer center operations, telecommunications networks, or applications development to external vendors • Benefits from economies of scale and complementary core competencies • Disadvantages may be hidden costs, loss of control13.28 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
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