Unit 9: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Cultural Heritage Sites In Vietnam

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  • TRAINER PLEASE NOTE. The aim of this seminar / unit is not to provide technical training on how to plan and manage cultural heritage sites. This would require a much longer and more detailed course. Moreover, we are tourism specialists, not cultural heritage advisors – cultural heritage planning and management is what they specialise in. Our objective is to improve the sustainability of tourism in cultural heritage sites in relation to what they are already doing. To do this we look at the key current activities undertaken in cultural heritage site planning and management and then identifying good practices in where and how responsible tourism principles can be incorporated or strengthened in those existing activities in order to make cultural heritage sites more economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. So the objective is to “mainstream” and /or reinforce RT into their existing practices. This approach is more effective because it builds on what they are doing rather than creating new or separate practices just for RT which would be less likely to be adopted. So in terms of where RT principles can be mainstreamed / reinforced, we have identified the key areas of policy & planning, interpretation & communication, tourism impact management, product development and financing.
  • Heritage is our common resource of knowledge, places and things that are passed to us from previous generations. Despite its many benefits, poorly planned and managed tourism can also threaten the cultural and natural heritage that visitors have come to see
  • Tangible cultural heritage: The physical manifestation or symbol of cultural expressions or traditions of the societies that are living or lived in the area (e.g. monuments, traditional buildings, archaeological sites, temples, and historic towns and districts). Types of tangible heritage can be either “moveable heritage” (e.g. books, sculptures) and “immovable” heritage (e.g. monuments, buildings).Intangible cultural heritage: The non-physical manifestation of cultural expressions and traditions of a society that has its roots in the cultural values and practices of the previous generations (e.g. traditional ways of life, social practices, festivals, music, and crafts).
  • In the world, there were 981 heritage sites listed , of which 759 were cultural, 193 natural, and 29 mixed properties, in 160 states parties
  • An inventory kept by the Vietnam Ministry of Culture Sport & Tourism indicates that the nation is home to more than 2 million items of protected cultural property (including movable heritage). Of Vietnam’s tangible cultural heritage assets, there are estimated to be over 3,000 national level heritage sites and nearly 7,500 provincial heritage sites (with inventory work still taking place).
  • Cultural heritage attractions play an important role in tourism, from the global highlights of world culture to attractions that underpin local identities. In fact the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) estimates that 37 per cent of global tourism has a cultural motivation. Research conducted by the National Trust for Heritage Prevention across 20 countries also reveals the importance of cultural heritage tourism, with research indicating that 57 per cent of respondents agreed that history and culture are strong influences on their choice of holiday destination (and only 15 per cent in disagreement). The European Travel Commission has also highlighted the considerable growth of a deeper level of engagement with local culture over the past decade. SNV Netherlands Development Organisation 2009, Market for Responsible Tourism Products, SNV, The Hague, Netherlands
  • The important link between society and cultural heritage is clearly displayed in cultural heritage tourism, a form of tourism connected with the movement of people to satisfy cultural motivations. Such tourists engage in activities to historical sites and monuments, take tours based around the arts and ethnic groups, or simply seek to immerse themselves in the way of life of a local people and enjoy the local identity and character.
  • Provides a cultural experience and enables cultural exchange: Cultural tourism creates new opportunities for tourists to gain an understanding of an unfamiliar place, people or time. Thanks to cultural heritage tourism activities, audiences and the public become more aware of the values of heritage and traditional culture. Cultural tourism also encourages interaction and sharing between hosts and visitors with respect to the local culture and environment.Contributes to the preservation of built heritage: Well-interpreted sites teach visitors their importance, and by extension, the importance of preserving other such sites elsewhere. In addition, revenue from tourism activities is often given back to preserve heritage sites and conserving cultures.Contributes to the revitalisation of traditional handicrafts and intangible cultural heritage: Demand from tourists for authentic products and services contribute to the revitalisation of such things as traditional handicrafts, folk music and arts, cultural traditions and festivities which are typically susceptible to erosion from the impacts of both development and conversely poverty.Provides new employment opportunities and contributes to local economic development: In Vietnam, tourists are an important market for handicraft and local products with thousands of local artisans in heritage cities and communities gaining employment and income from the sale of such products to tourism businesses and / or tourists. Tourism also brings other economic benefits to other parts of the service sector through its wide supply chain and fosters the creation of new businesses, increased property values, and other less tangible payoffs.Enhances the amenity of a region: Well-planned and managed cultural tourism improves the quality of life of residents who can take advantage of additional services and attractions such as restaurants, recreational areas, and entertainment precincts.Builds community pride: Culture is not only important as a tourism attraction, but also contributes to community pride and strength as they come together to develop a thriving tourism industry based upon their shared cultural heritage background.
  • However under a backdrop of mass tourism Vietnam faces considerable challenges in ensuring its cultural heritage is effectively planed and managed to ensure its continued value and worth to the local people and visitors alike.In 2008, Vietnam welcomed 4.218 million international passengers, this figure in 2009 was 3.8 million.  In 2012, international visitors is about 6.8 million, domestic tourists reached 32.5 million.  In 2013, 7.2 million international visitors , 35 million domestic visitors. in 2015 Vietnam's tourism industry will attract 7-8 million passengers International, 32-35 million domestic tourists, in 2020 the corresponding figure is 11-12 million international visitors; 45-48 million domestic touristsAre heritage sites able to manage the visitors and control impacts? How well are we coping with the levels experienced today?
  • While it may be argued that the private sector and tourists have the most significant direct positive and negative impacts on destinations, governments create and influence the environment within which the tourism industry operates as well as the flow of visitors and their behaviour.Through their policies and plans governments have the power to foster the development of a tourism sector that is either sustainable and enjoys long term stability and growth, or alternatively enjoys a shorter period of growth before passing a threshold as a destination that is considered desirable and attractive to tourists, and results in visitor decline or even collapse.
  • While the notion of what is a negative or positive impact of cultural tourism ultimately depends on a person’s perspective (e.g. some community residents may desire cultural change, while others may oppose it), it is generally accepted that tourism can contribute to significant changes in destinations. Key impacts of cultural heritage tourism can be summarised as:Commodification and cheapening of culture and traditions: The provision and modification of cultural performances and traditions, artworks, music, dance, and the modern “recreation” of heritage buildings or sites specifically for the purpose of satisfying the “tastes” of tourists can result in a loss of original meaning and authenticity. Culture thus becomes something that is bought and sold for tourists with the real meaning or purpose of the cultural asset lost or modified.Alienation and loss of cultural identity: Because tourism is concerned with the movement of people to destinations outside their normal abode, there is the potential for cultural conflict – particularly in destinations that receive high volumes of foreign tourists. As tourism continues the cultural influences of visitors may slowly erode the traditional thinking, priorities and overall cultural identity of the local people. Undermining of local traditions and ways of life: The introduction of tourism to communities, villages, and towns can alter local traditions and ways of life by introducing alternative livelihoods that replace local traditions and ways of life – and ultimately lead to the demise of traditional knowledge, skills and practices.Displacement of local residents: Cultural heritage sites require protection in order to safeguard their cultural value for locals and visitors in the long term. In some cases this may result in the relocation of local residents to new areas. Highly popular tourism destinations can also result in increased land and property prices that become out of reach for local residents who are forced to settle in other, cheaper locations elsewhere.Increased division between those who do and do not benefit from tourism: Cultural heritage tourism favours those who possess heritage that is considered to be of “most value”. As such, people who live in or near cultural heritage sites are more able to access the benefits from tourism as opposed to those who don’t. Tourism can therefore create and increase a socio-economic divide between members of the local community.UNESCO Nordic World Heritage Foundation 1999, Sustainable Tourism and Cultural Heritage: A Review of Development Assistance and Its Potential to Promote Sustainability, Available [Online]: www.nwhf.no/index.cfm?oa=content.display&con=140 (Accessed: June 2013)
  • Conflict over land rights and access to resources (including the attractions themselves): Due to the new selective placement of “value” on cultural heritage sites and potential economic value that may result, conflict may occur over ownership of the cultural heritage site and in some cases may even result in the displacement of people considered non-traditional land owners off the heritage site. The protection of the heritage site may then result in restriction in access to the site and its use.Damage to attractions and facilities: Cultural heritage sites that are not well-planned or managed can result in physical impacts such as vandalism or structural damage that in some cases may result in cultural values being lost forever.Loss of authenticity and historical accuracy in interpretation: Poorly developed, inaccurate, superficial or biased marketing and promotion of cultural heritage by heritage site operators or private sector businesses within the destination to make the heritage sites “more attractive” to tourists not only results in visitors obtaining an inaccurate understanding of cultural significance and meaning but can also result in a gradual shift in understanding of the significance of the cultural heritage by local residents themselves.Selectivity in which heritage attractions are developed: Protection and promotion of cultural heritage requires subjective decision making about what is of “worth” or “value” and what is not.
  • Group discussion. Paint a picture of mass tourism in cultural heritage sites (e.g. big changes in traditional life – Lots of people with a small amount of revenue in community),and low impact tourism in cultural heritage sites (e.g. lower levels of visitation but activities have lower impact on the environment etc).Which road do you think Vietnam’s cultural heritage sites ARE travelling down right now? Is it a mixture of BOTH depending on the site? Which road do we WANT cultural heritage sites in Vietnam to traveldown? Why? Ask participants to give examples to support their opinions. Examine the benefits and challenges of each position. E.g. Mass tourism can bring more people to communities = more expenditure = more revenue = more resources to protect culture. But, mass tourism also means more resources are needed for infrastructure and management of visitor impacts. Also communities will be more affected by mass tourism. Mass tourism can also have a lot of leakage so not all the money stays in the community. Does your cultural heritage sites have a target for visitors? How was the target determined? Did it consider sustainable management issues? How many visitors do you think would be sustainable? Why?
  • Responsible Tourism can offer cultural heritage site managers a pathway to greater sustainability. Grounded in the principles of sustainable tourism, Responsible Tourism:Uses natural resources optimally whilst still conserving the natural heritage and biodiversityRespects and conserves socio-cultural authenticity including built and living cultural heritage and traditional valuesEnsures viable, long term economic benefits to all stakeholders including fair distribution of benefitsAdapted from: UNEP & WTO 2005, Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers, UNEP, Paris, France
  • At the core of RT remains the principles of sustainable tourism. We still have the same economic, social, & environmental objectives. Around the core is an added dimension of responsibility. This is what turns sustainable tourism into responsible tourism. These added components create responsibility. Stakeholders are required to be accountable for their actions (and omissions). Stakeholders are required to take capacity to act. And finally, stakeholders are aske to take action for good (maximise positive social, economic, environmental impacts, and minimise negative social, economic & environmental impacts). This RT approach applies to EVERYONE – to all stakeholders in the tourism system, from the private sector to the public sector, host communities and tourists. It also applies to all levels within each stakeholder group – from managers through to service staff. From domestic tourists through to international tourists and business travellers. From planners and developers through to policy makers.To achieve Responsible Tourism protected area managers must adopt sustainable planning and management practices in marketing and communications, general management, human resources, community management, and supply chain management to ensure the longevity and health of the natural resources in the long term for the benefit of visitors, local residents, and businesses operating within or to the protected area.
  • Sustainability is defined as the ability of resources (including natural, cultural, financial and human) to provide ecological, economic, and social benefits for present and future generations, or simply, development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.Responsible Tourism, on the other hand, is an approach to tourism development and delivery that balances the needs of the guest, host supplier, host community and natural environment. The key characteristics of Responsible Tourism are:Minimises negative economic, environmental and social impactsGenerate greater economic benefits for local people and enhance the wellbeing of host communities, and improve working conditions and industry accessInvolve local people in decisions that affect their lives and life changesMake positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritageProvides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issuesProvides access for physically challenged peopleUnited Nations 1987, Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, United Nations
  • In order to achieve sustainability however, cultural heritage site managers must adopt approaches in the identification, protection, management, interpretation and promotion of heritage values that will enhance social, economic and environmental benefits and minimise associated negative impacts. Responsible Tourism and cultural heritage management can therefore be summarised as falling into the following key areas:Sustainable cultural heritage policy and planningResponsible cultural heritage product development Building partnerships for cultural heritageResponsible interpretation and communication of cultural heritage valuesCultural heritage conservation and tourism impact managementSustainable financing for cultural heritage management
  • Heritage is our common resource of knowledge, places and things that are passed to us from previous generations. Despite its many benefits, poorly planned and managed tourism can also threaten the cultural and natural heritage that visitors have come to see
  • While marketing is a significant element of economic sustainability for craft products, the marketing of cultural products such as handicrafts needs to be done sensitively in order to both protect original socio-cultural heritage meaning and significance, as well as to act as a tool to promote cross-cultural understanding and respect. If handicrafts are marketed like any other consumer product then over time they become commoditised with the original socio-cultural purpose, meaning and significance lost, thus contributing to the erosion of the richness of the local community’s cultural heritage. Craft villages that are also aiming to become established tourist destinations also need to ensure issues of cultural sensitivity are communicated to visitors to prevent cultural conflict and the erosion of cultural integrity.
  • Reduces impacts on the local environment and improves quality of life for local residentsBetter ensures cultural heritage offers are consistent with new market trends and opportunities and plans for market threats and obstaclesBetter ensures the type of tourism developed brings income to local residents as well as benefiting conservationBetter ensures cultural heritage sites achieve objectives of legislation, stakeholder expectations, corporate goals and conservation management objectives of quality assurance, consistency, and prevention of incremental degradationProvide the general public and other stakeholders with greater involvement and power to inform cultural heritage site planning (and management) resulting in the development of a shared understanding and vision, and greater stakeholder harmony, respect, co-operation and support
  • Cultural heritage can support sustainable development encouraging investment and growthThis cannot be achieved by traditional, uncoordinated planningAn integrated approach and management system is required to manage successfully the different demands of heritage sites Using a cultural heritage integrated development management planning approach can help link cultural heritage protection with socio-economic and environmental development
  • The key components required for responsible planning in heritage planning and management include: SUSTAINABLECOMPREHENSIVECROSS-SECTORALPARTICIPATORY AND INCLUSIVEPROCESS ORIENTEDVIABLE
  • Integrated management planning is a process of planning that helps ensure broad stakeholder involvement and input in the building of capacity in heritage management1. PREPARATIONAnalysis of current situationKind of cultural heritage in the heritage area and state of preservationSignificance and value of the heritage area and its tangible cultural heritage Demands of the ‘users’ towards the heritage area and the cultural heritageDangers and threats to the heritage area and the tangible cultural heritageExisting instruments for safeguarding the heritage valuesExisting policies, strategies, concepts, plans, actions etcDevelop plan objectives, content and structureDefine work plan for elaboration / adaptation2. ELABORATIONDefine the overall vision and general objectives for the heritage areaDefine the field of action, its objectives and strategiesDefine for each field of action objectives, topics and issuesDefine the actions in support of the objectives3. REVIEWPreparation of monitoring: defining objectives and identifying monitoring team membersDeveloping monitoring indicator scheme: requirements and objectives, indicators to measure objectives, targets, working and communication structure, implementation and review of monitoring
  • Principle 1 Since domestic and international tourism is among the foremost vehicles for cultural exchange, conservation should provide responsible and well managed opportunities for members of the host community and visitors to experience and understand that community's heritage and culture at first hand.1.1 The natural and cultural heritage is a material and spiritual resource, providing a narrative of historical development. It has an important role in modern life and should be made physically, intellectually and/or emotively accessible to the general public. Programmes for the protection and conservation of the physical attributes, intangible aspects, contemporary cultural expressions and broad context, should facilitate an understanding and appreciation of the heritage significance by the host community and the visitor, in an equitable and affordable manner.1.2 Individual aspects of natural and cultural heritage have differing levels of significance, some with universal values, others of national, regional or local importance. Interpretation programmes should present that significance in a relevant and accessible manner to the host community and the visitor, with appropriate, stimulating and contemporary forms of education, media, technology and personal explanation of historical, environmental and cultural information.1.3 Interpretation and presentation programmes should facilitate and encourage the high level of public awareness and support necessary for the long term survival of the natural and cultural heritage.1.4 Interpretation programmes should present the significance of heritage places, traditions and cultural practices within the past experience and present diversities of the area and the host community, including that of minority cultural or linguistic groups. The visitor should always be informed of the differing cultural values that may be ascribed to a particular heritage resource. Principle 2 The relationship between Heritage Places and Tourism is dynamic and may involve conflicting values. It should be managed in a sustainable way for present and future generations.2.1 Places of heritage significance have an intrinsic value for all people as an important basis for cultural diversity and social development. The long term protection and conservation of living cultures, heritage places, collections, their physical and ecological integrity and their environmental context, should be an essential component of social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and tourism development policies.2.2 The interaction between heritage resources or values and tourism is dynamic and ever changing, generating both opportunities and challenges, as well as potential conflicts. Tourism projects, activities and developments should achieve positive outcomes and minimise adverse impacts on the heritage and lifestyles of the host community, while responding to the needs and aspirations of the visitor.2.3 Conservation, interpretation and tourism development programmes should be based on a comprehensive understanding of the specific, but often complex or conflicting aspects of heritage significance of the particular place. Continuing research and consultation are important to furthering the evolving understanding and appreciation of that significance.2.4 The retention of the authenticity of heritage places and collections is important. It is an essential element of their cultural significance, as expressed in the physical material, collected memory and intangible traditions that remain from the past. Programmes should present and interpret the authenticity of places and cultural experiences to enhance the appreciation and understanding of that cultural heritage.2.5 Tourism development and infrastructure projects should take account of the aesthetic, social and cultural dimensions, natural and cultural landscapes, biodiversity characteristics and the broader visual context of heritage places. Preference should be given to using local materials and take account of local architectural styles or vernacular traditions.2.6 Before heritage places are promoted or developed for increased tourism, management plans should assess the natural and cultural values of the resource. They should then establish appropriate limits of acceptable change, particularly in relation to the impact of visitor numbers on the physical characteristics, integrity, ecology and biodiversity of the place, local access and transportation systems and the social, economic and cultural well being of the host community. If the likely level of change is unacceptable the development proposal should be modified.2.7 There should be on-going programmes of evaluation to assess the progressive impacts of tourism activities and development on the particular place or community.Principle 3 Conservation and Tourism Planning for Heritage Places should ensure that the Visitor Experience will be worthwhile, satisfying and enjoyable.3.1 Conservation and tourism programmes should present high quality information to optimise the visitor's understanding of the significant heritage characteristics and of the need for their protection, enabling the visitor to enjoy the place in an appropriate manner.3.2 Visitors should be able to experience the heritage place at their own pace, if they so choose. Specific circulation routes may be necessary to minimise impacts on the integrity and physical fabric of a place, its natural and cultural characteristics.3.3 Respect for the sanctity of spiritual places, practices and traditions is an important consideration for site managers, visitors, policy makers, planners and tourism operators. Visitors should be encouraged to behave as welcomed guests, respecting the values and lifestyles of the host community, rejecting possible theft or illicit trade in cultural property and conducting themselves in a responsible manner which would generate a renewed welcome, should they return.3.4 Planning for tourism activities should provide appropriate facilities for the comfort, safety and well-being of the visitor, that enhance the enjoyment of the visit but do not adversely impact on the significant features or ecological characteristics.Principle 4 Host communities and indigenous peoples should be involved in planning for conservation and tourism.4.1 The rights and interests of the host community, at regional and local levels, property owners and relevant indigenous peoples who may exercise traditional rights or responsibilities over their own land and its significant sites, should be respected. They should be involved in establishing goals, strategies, policies and protocols for the identification, conservation, management, presentation and interpretation of their heritage resources, cultural practices and contemporary cultural expressions, in the tourism context.4.2 While the heritage of any specific place or region may have a universal dimension, the needs and wishes of some communities or indigenous peoples to restrict or manage physical, spiritual or intellectual access to certain cultural practices, knowledge, beliefs, activities, artefacts or sites should be respected.Principle 5 Tourism and conservation activities should benefit the host community.5.1 Policy makers should promote measures for the equitable distribution of the benefits of tourism to be shared across countries or regions, improving the levels of socio-economic development and contributing where necessary to poverty alleviation.5.2 Conservation management and tourism activities should provide equitable economic, social and cultural benefits to the men and women of the host or local community, at all levels, through education, training and the creation of full-time employment opportunities.5.3 A significant proportion of the revenue specifically derived from tourism programmes to heritage places should be allotted to the protection, conservation and presentation of those places, including their natural and cultural contexts. Where possible, visitors should be advised of this revenue allocation.5.4 Tourism programmes should encourage the training and employment of guides and site interpreters from the host community to enhance the skills of local people in the presentation and interpretation of their cultural values.5.5 Heritage interpretation and education programmes among the people of the host community should encourage the involvement of local site interpreters. The programmes should promote a knowledge and respect for their heritage, encouraging the local people to take a direct interest in its care and conservation.5.6 Conservation management and tourism programmes should include education and training opportunities for policy makers, planners, researchers, designers, architects, interpreters, conservators and tourism operators. Participants should be encouraged to understand and help resolve the at times conflicting issues, opportunities and problems encountered by their colleagues.Principle 6 Tourism promotion programmes should protect and enhance Natural and Cultural Heritage characteristics.6.1 Tourism promotion programmes should create realistic expectations and responsibly inform potential visitors of the specific heritage characteristics of a place or host community, thereby encouraging them to behave appropriately.6.2 Places and collections of heritage significance should be promoted and managed in ways which protect their authenticity and enhance the visitor experience by minimising fluctuations in arrivals and avoiding excessive numbers of visitors at any one time.6.3 Tourism promotion programmes should provide a wider distribution of benefits and relieve the pressures on more popular places by encouraging visitors to experience the wider cultural and natural heritage characteristics of the region or locality.6.4 The promotion, distribution and sale of local crafts and other products should provide a reasonable social and economic return to the host community, while ensuring that their cultural integrity is not degraded.
  • Most methodologies in heritage planning and management adopt an approach that includes the key steps on the following page.An alternative approach to heritage planning recommended by the World Heritage Centre is the Public Use Planning (PUP) Methodology. The PUP methodology adopts a consultative process with active participation of relevant stakeholders including relevant authorities, tourism enterprises, communities and tourists. Due to the emphasis on stakeholder participation PUP requires facilitation by experts with strong knowledge and skills in managing participatory techniques.
  • 1.1 Initial stakeholder presentations and interviews: Gain interest and concerns of relevant stakeholders on tourism planning issues in heritage1.2 Organisation self-analysis: Analyse current situation of heritage resources, management and tourism development1.3 Planning framework: Review current policy framework for heritage planning and development1.4 Terms of reference: Define goals and specific objectives and scopes of site tourism planning management. Identify people in the planning process and tasks.1.5 Prepare logistics for upcoming planning activities
  • Phase 2. Planning for heritage 2.1 Develop interpretative framework: Identify significance and interpretative messages of the heritage2.2 Directory of touristic attractions: Identify selected resources / touristic attractions that best illustrate heritage values and have high potential to develop tourism products2.3 Zoning, sector and visitor profile: Identify management strategies through zoning and tourism sectors. Identify visitor segments that are suitable for heritage tourism resources.2.4 Tourism products: Identify what tourism products and services can be offer by the site and requirements for development and management. Explore involvement of private sector and local communities in tourism product development and delivery.2.5 Monitoring: Use LAC approach to develop a plan for monitoring tourism impacts2.6 Regulation: Identify regulations for tourism activities of visitors and businesses2.7 Calendar of activities: Develop a 3 to 5 year action plan with specific actions, methods of implementation, outputs and stakeholder responsibilities for implementing the tourism management plan2.8 Financial plan: Develop a financial plan including investment and cost recovery calculations.
  • Need for an integrated approach to CT sites management where better integration and coordination of actions by various actors is emphasised
  • Saves time and money. If stakeholders are not involved then conflicts between communities and conservation authorities can result in the need for law enforcement which is more costly than if co-operation was established. Reduce delays or blockages in heritage project development – for example a community may oppose the development of a community cultural centre due to a lack of consultation about the needs of the community for the site. Clarify religious and cultural values and help identify problem areas that may be overlooked by experts who cannot always judge the perceptions, preferences or priorities of host communities when evaluating local conditionsProvides input regarding desired conditions at a site by helping heritage site authorities to establish visitor conditions and set quantifiable standards for problem management and impact limitation (e.g. the community participates in decision-making on how many and what type of tourists they would like to receive, and / or areas that would be off-limits).Provides human and financial resources to assist develop ancillary tourism products and services to support the cultural heritage attraction such as destination accommodation, restaurants and transportation and then to market the destination.
  • 1. INVOLVE EARLY: Planning must involve all the different stakeholder groups who will be affected in some way by the operation of the heritage site. Involvement should be incorporated into all stages, but especially within the planning stage to ensure operation of the heritage site prioritises benefits to the local community before other stakeholders first.2. MULTI-STAKEHOLDERCOMMITTEE CO-OPERATION: A heritage site steering committee should be established that can function at the national and regional level and is comprised of representatives of government agencies, the private sector and community organisations. A key task of the steering committee should be to encourage public involvement in heritage site planning and management. This may be achieved through public hearings, seminars, or by requesting guidance or input inthe development or review of the tourism management plan. Advisory council are usually comprised of representatives from: Heritage administration organisation, Local residents, Local and / or provincial tourism authority, Tourism business sector, Conservation organisations3. ONGOING INPUT: Provide continual education, communication, and consultation: Local residents and businesses should be encouraged to learn about the importance and value of their heritage through an awareness raising programme. The programme should also provide the local community with an understanding about the nature of tourism including its pros and cons, and explain how and why they should aim to be good hosts.
  • Cultural heritages are impacted upon by external human decisions and activities and ecological processes outside their boardersCH management plans that are most likely to succeed consider resource use and impacts outside of the CH site.Regional integration becomes particularly important when others are responsible for administering the area beyond the CH boundary.The long term success of protected areas must be seen in the light of the search for more sustainable patterns of development in general. REMEMBER: Just as regional stakeholders should participate in CH planning, CH planners should also participate in regional planning.
  • At the heart of cultural heritage tourism is learning: learning about other people, about different ways of doing things, and ultimately, learning about ourselves. Accuracy and authenticity in the interpretation and communication of cultural heritage in the explanation of the nature, origin, and purpose of historical, natural, or cultural resources, objects, sites and phenomena is therefore critical in order to ensure the audience obtains a correct understanding of the meaning and importance of the cultural heritage. However, in Vietnam many heritage sites and museums often struggle to provide adequate interpretation leaving visitors unaware of the significance of the cultural heritage, reducing overall visitor satisfaction and ultimately resulting in negative referrals and limited repeat visitation. This not only affects the economic sustainability of the heritage site but also reduces cultural learning and understanding. Moreover, interpretation that does not effectively communicate or represent the significant qualities of the local host community can add to the commodification and objectification of the heritage destination and its people. Adopting a responsible approach to the interpretation and communication of cultural heritage values can better ensure visitors understand cultural heritage values and their importance to the local people, and thereby foster more positive cultural exchange, establish more meaningful connections, and generate greater respect for the local people including support to the local economy.
  • U15S125COMMUNICATION:To increase visitors’ awareness about a resource or attraction (e.g., local legends, history, unique landmarks and sites). This gives visitors an idea of what life in the community is actually like.To alter the behaviour patterns of visitors and residents. Explain why certain things should or should not be done, rather than just telling people not to do it. For example, a sign saying “Stay off the trail” only makes people more curious about what is on the trail, versus a sign saying “Overuse of this trail has caused erosion – Help nature rebuild it by choosing another route”.To explain community or agency goals and objectives to visitors and residents. This not only increases awareness of their purpose, but also fosters community support of them.To orient visitors to the area.Providing a list of different attractions and resources and directions on how to get there, helps visitors identify which they are interested in seeing and simplifies travel routes during their visits.INTERPRETATION:Heritage interpretation refers to the communication of a site’s features, values, meaning and significance to others with the aim of changing attitudes and behaviours by motivating and inspiring the audience and making the information meaningful and exciting. Interpretation also plays a key role in raising public awareness about the importance of heritage and its protection and can be more effective than providing purely factual information in making visitors more sensitive, aware and understanding of the value in protecting natural and cultural heritage.Interpretation can be provided as personal interpretation through guided tours, interpretative talks or shows, and demonstrations, or as impersonal interpretation through displays, signs, guidebooks, brochures, films or exhibitions.Guided tours are typically have the greatest influence on visitors’ experience, understanding and enjoyment of heritage as the communication is direct and allows for a high degree of interaction.Interpretation and public education programs promote the development of an socio-cultural consciousness in the public and a willingness to take personal and collective action to protect and maintain the culture. Through interpretive programs, visitors can develop a better understanding and appreciation of the local culture and the issues affecting it and the surrounding region. Through public education programs, and in co-operation with others, a stronger socio-cultural ethic can be built, and support for conservation can be broadened
  • Good interpretation based upon a multi-dimensional understanding of values and significance to different stakeholders and the goal of being authentic and true to original context and meaning can:Better facilitate the general public’s understanding, awareness and appreciation of heritage sitesCreate a more positive visitor experience resulting in increased satisfaction, more positive referrals, and greater repeat visitationImprove learning by promoting interpretation through a range of approaches and media that meet the learning styles of different audiencesMore effectively present the values of the local community changing attitudes and behaviours and motivating and inspiring than through purely factual informationIncrease visitors’ respect for the local people and promote increased support for the local economy as a result of the increased purchase of local goods and servicesJamieson, Walter (ed.) 2001, Community Tourism Destination Management: Principles and Practices, Canadian Universities Consortium Urban Environmental Management Project
  • U15S88Through the use of signs, brochures, posters and flyers, inform visitors about cultural heritage significance, direct behaviour towards acceptable practices, and encourage behaviour that minimises negative impacts and maximises positive impactsAlso visitor information centres / interpretation centres are also very effective places to inform visitors and can include displays, presentations, demonstrations, video etc to communicate values of the PA, the impacts of people on the environment, and the need for conservation to preserve important species and ecological processes
  • Access and understanding: Ensureinterpretation facilitates physical and intellectual access by the public, considers target market interests, needs and wants, and aims to increase respect, understanding and interest in the meaning and value of the heritage.Information sources: Ensure interpretation is based on scientific and scholarly evidence as well as living traditions, and include oral and written information, material remains, and meanings of cultural heritage assets.Context and setting: Ensure interpretation is related to the wider social, cultural, historical, and natural contexts and settings, is oriented to dates or phases / periods, considers all groups that have contributed to the historical and cultural significance of the site, includes intangible elements (e.g. spiritual traditions, stories, music, dance, theatre), and interprets the surrounding geographical setting.Authenticity: Ensure traditional social functions, cultural practices and the dignity of the local community are respected, be true to the features of the natural environment, and avoid commodification and commercialisation of the heritage.Sustainability: Implement effective financial planning and/or encourage other economic activities to help safeguard conservation efforts, enhance the quality of life of the host community, and ensure long-term maintenance and updating of the interpretive infrastructure.Inclusiveness: Foster the productive involvement of all stakeholders and associated communities in the development and implementation of interpretive programmes and confirm legal ownership and right to use any images, texts, and other interpretive materials.Research, training and evaluation: Implementtechnical and professional standards in heritage interpretation, including technologies, research, and training, and encourage ongoing content revision.
  • 1. Educational component – What information do you want people to learn?2. Emotional component – How do you want them to feel after experiencing it?3. Behavioural component – What actions do you want to suggest they take?For example, an interpretive sign to keep visitors out of a fragile cultural heritage site area would explain impacts of visitor use on the area (educational), how this harms the site properties (emotional), and how visitors can prevent this impact by staying on boardwalks (behavioural).
  • Instruction1. Participants are to split into 3 groups and agree on a theme that they wish to interpret. The theme should be something all the group can relate to / has knowledge about. The sign should be well structured into topics and cover the 3 components of interpretation.2. Nominate a leader from each group to present the results of the group’s discussion to the class.3. Discuss the findings and provide additional analysis together
  • Authenticity in tourism refers to the motivation of tourists to travel in order to experience something unique or original. ‘Authenticity’ can relate to the relative integrity (the level of genuinenessor “realness”) of a place (e.g. an historical building such as a temple or pagoda), an object (e.g. a culturalperformance) or an activity (e.g. going fishing with the local fishermen)in relation to its original creation.Authenticity is however a perception held in the eyes of the consumer and in reality culture, traditions and society is a constantly evolving process. Phenomena simply are the way they are – with or without perceived authenticity, e.g. a touristmay think that a village that has electricity, satellite TVs, and modern 2 level town houses is not authentic – however for the local people this is their reality and therefore authentic.Authenticity is however, still highly connected to the marketing of tourism experiences by tour operators, travel agents, hotels, attractions and restaurants all of whom often want to promote their products as authentic (e.g. authentic Vietnamese food, authentic local homestay experience, authentic traditional performance etc).In tourism marketing authenticity also relates to ensuring the marketing of the experience is truthful with the reality. In the quest to package the most exciting and profound experiences the reality can become exaggerated and ultimately result in disappointment if the tourists’ expectations that have been created by the promotion are not met, e.g. selling a traditional homestay experience but the homestay has been developed to meet customer demands for modern comforts such as separate double bedrooms, western showers etc. While this might make many tourists happy, others may see it as not authentic anymore and be disappointed with the company for claiming it would offer an “authentic” experience.Marketers should not over exaggerate or communicate messages that do not mostly match with the reality. This will result in disappointment in the eyes of the consumer and affect the organisation brand and also that of the destination as a whole.Services nature of tourism – tourism product is an amalgam of many products (transport, accommodation, F&B etc). Because tourism is often related to the provision of a service it is open to issues of standardisation and control which can the be reflected through inaccurate marketing messages.
  • Commodification of culture is about the manufacturing and selling of culture to create viable, mesmerising products that can be sold to consumers for profit instead of for the original purpose of the form of cultural expression. For example, turning a wedding dance into a dinner performance for tourists, or selling tours to visit traditional festivals and ceremonies (e.g. love markets) that were previously only attended by those who were in the process of courting to find a husband or wife.
  • Redeveloping places to make them more attractive for tourist consumption - Seemingly ‘undesirable’ elements of places are removed and the fabric of the urban environment is ‘enhanced’E.g. a ‘cultural village’ that is completely newly constructed in the image of a traditional village from the past.Creating staged and reshaped traditional performances for tourists - Reshaping a traditional cultural performance to fit with the interests of the market.E.g. shortening a performance to fit the time constraints of a tour, removing dance elements perceived as boring or confronting, performing a sacred funeral dance or wedding performance to a tour group etc. Merging new cultural elements into the performance such as different clothing, adornments, face paint, music etc.Adaptive reuse of historical buildings without interpretation - Restoring historic buildings for uses which they were not intended may help to preserve the built heritage but in the absence of any interpretive aids it can obscure any meaningful historical understanding of those buildings.E.g. an historic place of worship is converted into a bar and nightclub, or an historic home of a significant person in time is turned into a restaurantSale and / or reproduction of artefacts of cultural or spiritual significance as souvenirs – Selling historical objects of cultural significance as souvenirs to tourists results in the loss of historical heritage and gradual erosion of historical links with the past (“cultural amnesia”). Reproduction of culturally or spiritually significant objects as souvenirs eliminiates original meaning and significance. E.g. in Papau New Guinea traditional red coral shell necklaces had value as an object of traditional but today is being sold to tourists as necklaces – taking the necklaces out of the trade ring forever.
  • risk of damage to the cultural heritage asset, and a greater likelihood of other social and environmental impacts such as physical / structural damage to assets, destruction or disturbance to the natural environment, and social tension between visitors and local residents as a result of such things as overcrowding, loss of privacy, and socially unacceptable behaviour.Poor visitor management can also place the safety and security of visitors at risk and potentially result in injury leading to negative word of mouth promotion and reduced visitation, putting the long-term economic sustainability of the heritage site venture at risk. Careful cultural heritage conservation and effective tourism impact management strategies that can be realistically applied are therefore required to control visitor flow and enhance the visitor experienceand thereby maintain the reputation of the destination and quality of life of the inhabitants. Critical to effective visitor management in cultural heritage is an understanding oflevels of acceptable change and the implementation ofstrategies to prevent or minimise the magnitude of impactDuhil K. 2005, Sustainable World Heritage Site Management: Between interpretation, conservation and visitor management: Case Study of Bamberg, Available [Online]: www.du.se/PageFiles/5052/Duhil%20Karine.pdf (Accessed June 2013)
  • Develop a zoning plan: Allocate geographical areas for specific levels and intensities of activities and of conservation. Zones can also be temporal (an area set aside for different uses at different times of the day / week / season) Implement policies to support land use planning / zoning protocols:For all zones that have been established develop and implement a range of supporting policies for the use of cultural resources, access, facilities, protected area development, maintenance and operations
  • Physical attributes: Naturalness (degree of human evidence), remoteness (how far is an area from access ways), and size (how big)Social attributes: Number of encounters with people; the fewer the encounters, the more wild the experienceManagement attributes: Restrictions on visitation in different parts because they may contain fragile resources or may be dangerousThe US Forest Service’s Recreational Opportunity Spectrum providestwo key groups – Front Country and Back Country
  • Carrying capacity measures the level at which visitors can be accommodated without threatening the long term viability of specific cultural heritage site. Carrying capacity therefore aims to determine thresholds of change and set limits to the numbers of visitors.
  • Setting a specific carrying capacity figure may give the false impression that a protected area is safeguarded when it is not. The type and level of damage caused by site use can differ according to variations in visitor behaviour or the resistance and resilience of an ecosystem or community
  • Carrying capacity as a visitor impact management tool is criticised because it does not account for the complexities of motives and range in human behaviour. Thus, as a tool carrying capacity must also consider:That aesthetic qualities, maintenance of social systems and ability to support active uses each have their own response to different levels of useThat the rate of impact from human activity may be gradual and affect different parts of the system at different rates. Some environmental functions may be highly sensitive to human impact while others degrade gradually in response to different levels of useThat the environment serves multiple purposes and its sensitivity to different levels of use depends on the values of users
  • New planning methodologies assume that ALL activities cause impacts and that desired conditions should serve as the baseline for planning. Managers need to know not only how many people are in an area, but also how these users are affecting the area’s natural and cultural resources. The new models set limits to impacts (limits of acceptable change) rather than visitation (carrying capacity). It is a matter of tracking ecological and social indicators through field studies and user surveys.Limits of acceptable change (LAC) focuses on the resources that need protection and not the people that visit them (as is the case with the carrying capacity tool), and recognizes the need for a subjective determination of states of change of a natural or cultural heritage resource and the identification of limits within which resource interaction or use is acceptable. When the resource’s condition is near to or has reached its limit, interventions are implemented to prevent or mitigate damage.
  • LAC standards are established on the basis of stakeholder and management needs, and follow legal and Convention guidelinesFor instance, stakeholder concerns may centre on a desire to limit certain impacts by maintaining a clean, safe, uncrowded environment in a particular area of a natural site. In this case, reliable indicators may include the number of people on a site’s interpretive trail at any one time, dangerous areas on the trail or the amount of litter.Management objectives should lead to measurable impact standards reflecting the desired conditions. For example, one site indicator may be the number of unstable areas found on a tourist trail. In this case, the site manager should define what is meant by an unstable area and quantify the unstable areas along the trail. With this information, the manager, in consultation with an advisory group, can set a standard for keeping the area safe for visitors.If overcrowding is a concern, visitors can be regularly asked to report the number of fellow visitors seen on the trail, producing data which can serve as an indicator.Other indicators may be social or economic, measuring for example the revenue generated by a site and the response of the local community to visitors.indicators should reflect stakeholder concerns, policy or vision statements, management objectives and the needs of stakeholders who are utilizing the information. These elements, combined with field experience, should inform meetings with the advisory group aimed at selecting indicators to track changes in the ecological, physical and social conditions.
  • Relevance of the indicator to the selected issue. Does the indicator respond to the specific issue and provide information that will aid in its management?Feasibility of obtaining and analysing the needed information.How can the information be obtained? Is it already available or will it require special collection or extraction? What are the staff and cost implications of data collecting and processing?Credibility of the information and reliability for users of the data.Is the information from a reputable and scientifically sound source? Is it considered objective? Will it be believed by users?Clarity and understandability to users.If users receive the information, will they be able to understand it / act on it?Comparability over time and across jurisdictions or regions.Can the indicator be used reliably to show changes over time, relative to standards or benchmarks
  • Research paper of Stradas, W. 2002, The ecotourism training manual for protected area managers, German Foundation for International Development (DSE) & Centre for Food, Rural Development & the Environment (ZEL), Zschortau, Germany
  • Hard measures: Establish legally binding regulations for visitor activitiesSoft measures: Provide visitor information and fee systems
  • Can split participants into groups according to sites who then develop the strategies for both (a) and (b) or alternatively, pick 1 site and split participants into 2 groups (a & b).
  • Restrict types of activitiesRegulate frequency of resource useRequire environmental, social and economic impact appraisalsProhibit off-trail travelDevelop conditions for resource usePatrol park rangersRequire guidesEnvironmental information and educationRequire qualifications and standards for development
  • Using a visitor code of conduct in Myanmar
  • Using a visitor code of conduct in Myanmar
  • Sustainability: The roles and obligations established should be centred on raising awareness and knowledge of the consequences of bad and good behaviour on the people and environment, and gaining commitment from both parties to implement more sustainable practices.Equity: The code of conduct should fairly reflect the interests of all stakeholders including visitors, businesses, environmental and social groups / organisations, the government and site managers.Efficiency: The code of conduct should aim to be realistic and cost effective in implementation such that both business operators and destinations can implement the defined roles and responsibilities at an acceptable level of cost.Effectiveness: The code of conduct should result in outcomes that will specifically address the defined sustainability issues such that visitor behaviour is effectively regulated and results in reduced visitor impact on the destination. Obligations of the destination stakeholders should also effectively support the achievement of sustainability objectives.Relevance: The objectives of the code of conduct clearly support the sustainability objectives of local destination management plans and strategies.
  • Instruction1. Participants are to split into 3 groups and develop a visitor code of conduct (do’s and don’ts) to be more environmentally, socially, and economically responsible.2. Nominate a leader from each group to present the results of the group’s discussion to the class.3. Discuss the findings and provide additional analysis together
  • Moreover, recreation is inherently risky within it of personal injury and for cultural heritage managers, potential claims and payouts if cases are legally pursued and negligence on the part of the cultural heritage is found.
  • If the development of cultural heritage assets does not link directly with the values, needs and preferences of the target market then there is only limited chance the cultural heritage venture will succeed as a tourism attraction. On the flip side, if cultural heritage products are developed that meet the market but do not benefit the local community then undesirable impacts may result thereby also placing the long term sustainability of the heritage site at risk. Responsible and authentic cultural heritage products therefore need to be developed based upon available resources linked to market needs and for the satisfaction and benefit the local community. Such an approach also fulfils the demands of consumers who increasingly desire cultural experiences that are also environmentally and socially responsible. UNESCO 2004, Impact: The Effects of Tourism on Culture and the Environment in Asia and the Pacific: Tourism and Heritage Site Management in LuangPrabang, Lao PDR, Office of the Regional Advisor for Culture in Asia and the Pacific, UNESCO Bangkok & School of Travel Industry Management University of Hawai‘i, Bangkok, ThailandSNV Netherlands Development Organisation 2009, Market for Responsible Tourism Products, SNV, The Hague, Netherlands
  • Developing cultural heritage products that are based upon the principles of responsible tourism:Better meets market demands making cultural heritage ventures more competitive and more likely to succeed in the long termOnly uses cultural heritage resources which provide the community with significant economic benefits and sustainable livelihoodsMinimises negative economic, environmental and social impactsInvolves all stakeholders including the local people in decision-makingProvides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issuesESRT 2012, Guidelines for Responsible Tourism Product Development [Unpublished], ESRT, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • U2S5A tourism product from the eyes of a tourist refers to the mix of experiences that are consumed whilst on holiday, which may include such components as accommodation and restaurants through to natural and cultural attractions and festivals and events.
  • U2S6According to the UNEP, any tourism product is made up of three factors:Experiential: Festivals, activities, community, event, dining and entertainment, shopping, safety, serviceEmotional: Human, cultural and historical resources, hospitalityPhysical: Infrastructure, natural resources, accommodation, restaurantsUN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) & European Travel Commission (ETC) 2011, Handbook on Tourism Product Development, UNWTO & ETC, Madrid, Spain
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  • U2S18Development of tourism related products and experiences requires:Understanding of existing supply and current and future demand for products in a particular regionDedicated market research on visitor demand can assist in understanding both visitor need and satisfaction, and to identify product development gaps and opportunities, as demonstrated by Victoria’s Raw Travel with the extensive research and analysis undertaken prior to developing their business.Visitors are increasingly demanding tourism experiences rather than simply tourism attractions or products. Identifying the types of experiences that a visitor market seeks can assist in identifying the type of development required.A product / experience development opportunity should also be based on whether the proposed product will create a competitive advantage or add value to the existing tourism assets of a destination.A 4-Way Test can be used to help assess the value and sustainability of a tourism project or proposal. The test assesses the tourism development opportunity based on factors such as competitive advantage, responsibility and stakeholders, resource commitment necessary and action required.
  • U2S20Conducting a market analysis will help understand the characteristics and needs of the market. The type of information that is needed to understand the nature of markets include:Market growth: The overall numbers of visitors from source markets, the overall size of the source market, and the market trends and interests.Motivations and needs: Understanding the kinds of experience that visitors are looking for.Travel patterns: Understanding the main travel means, the flexibility and likely length of stay of main source marketsSpend: Whether visitors are high or low spenders, what they spend their money on, and how much of this goes to supporting local developmentConducting a market analysis from a Responsible Tourism product development perspective requires identifying markets / segments with greatest interest in, and potential for, the destination, and the characteristics and profiles of market segments with the greatest potential to contribute to the destination’s sustainable development objectives.
  • U2S22Once information has been collected it needs to be strategically assessed in order to identify market opportunities based on the travel experiences desired by key market segments. These desired experiences are reflected in the characteristics, motivations and expectations underpinning their travel choices and may consist of the following elements:Characteristics: Forms and means of travel (e.g. organised group / family / individual, typical length of stay, preferred itineraries and other destinations they intend to visit).Motivations: What motivations underpin a particular market segment’s travel choices can be described by the type of experience they seek, be it relaxation, adventure, learning, socializing, etc. While individual travellers often display a mix of motivations, the overall motivations for most market segments are usually easy to identify.Expectations: What the market segment expects in terms of level of quality of facilities and services, amenities etc. is also important for understanding the most suitable types of products.A review of the market assessment results provides initial indications as to the types of experiences that different market segments are searching for and become the products the destination should develop
  • U2S23Get participants to split up into market segments and identify and describe the type of traveller they are (long-haul, short haul), their common characteristics (length of stay, form of travel etc) motivations for travelling to Vietnam, and expectations of quality and range of goods and services and experiences in Vietnam.
  • U2S24Get participants to split up into market segments and identify and describe the type of traveller they are (long-haul, short haul), their common characteristics (length of stay, form of travel etc) motivations for travelling to Vietnam, and expectations of quality and range of goods and services and experiences in Vietnam.
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  • U2S33By looking at the development implications of specific product types it is possible to determine not only which products match the market demands and development potentials of a region, but also anticipate the range of local livelihood and sustainability impacts relevant to achieving responsible tourism objectives.
  • U2S47Once the target markets and their preferred product types are identified it is important to identify what is needed to improve existing products, and develop new products, to maximise their competitiveness and generation of local benefits. This involves a process of responsible tourism product assessment. This Stage can be completed following 2 Steps: Product meets needs and wants of key stakeholders including consumers, the business sector, and other main stakeholdersAvailability, capacity and needs of human resources required to be involved in the product development process also needs to be considered.
  • U2S48CORE FEATURESAccessibility - How easy is it for tourists to get to the site Attractions - Quality of main attractions that routs are coming for Activities - What other activities can the tourists do at the site Main Services - What are the required tourism services available (i.e. accommodation, food service,….) Supporting Services - What additional services are there that make it more convenient for tourists (i.e. post office, beauty parlor, small convenience shop, …) DEFINING FEATURESAuthentic - How genuine and representative of the region is the prod-uctDistinct - How unique and special is the product Variety - Is there a good mix of attractions, activities, services? Seasonal Factors - Weather, too crowded during the busy season,… Product Function - Flagship, Hub, or Supporting Product and how does it fit the overall regional product of Clusters and Circuits. Lifecycle Stage - The product’s point of development, i.e. Emerging, Established or in Decline CONSIDERS MARKETKey target markets - Easily identifiable key targets to target. Market size - Sufficient to generate benefits and remain viable. Market trends and influence - Are target markets likely to expand or influence other mar-kets. COMMERCIALLY VIABLEMarket-based planning - Tourism products are developed and managed strategical-ly based on specific markets and trends.. Private sector engagement - The private is involved, including healthy local enterprises. Supportive regulatory context - Regulations on business development and operations are favorable. Necessary supporting re-sources - Available local human resources, and necessary infra-structure. SUSTAINABLEEconomic - Tourism economy provides equitable and attractive earn-ing opportunities. Environmental - Natural environment is protected and enhanced. Socio-cultural - Local customs and cultures are respected and support-ed. Institutionalization - Support of government policies, plans and programs. Sector functioning - Sector stakeholders able to function in appropriate roles to ensure effective and ongoing operations. LOCAL BENEFITSEquitable sharing of benefits - Tourism is seen as a fair and welcomed addition to local livelihood improvement. Local involve-ment/ownership - Hosting communities have open, and effective mecha-nisms for engagement, including management roles, in the tourism sector. Poverty reduction - To what degree are more disadvantaged groups (poor, women, disabled, minorities) receiving benefitsHUMAN RESOURCESPublic Sector - Management and staff responsible for tourism or relevant sectorsBusinesses Sector - Business either directly involved or supporting tourism in a locationLocal communities - People residing in tourism locations who stand to benefit from the tourism sector
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  • U2S64Completing the market assessment and product assessment and sustainability analysis will produce the following findings:- Key Market segments to target- Product types to supportNow from the sustainability assessment we are able to identify a third element / finding:- General needs and / or opportunities for developing responsible productsSome examples of development responses might be:1. Improve viability of key products:Encourage partnerships with the private sector2. Enhance local benefits: Support the establishment of community-level management organisations3. Improve accessibility: Request and lobby for government funding for rapid road improvement4. …etc…The list of potential development responses then need to be validated and further elaborated upon by other stakeholders to better ensure viability. This should be undertakenthrough a process of stakeholder coordination (the next topic).
  • U2S65Participants are divided to 4 groupsEach group has15 minutes to identify a tourism product in Vietnam and then to apply the assessment criteria. Alternatively, the trainer can suggest some products that are suitable for the groups to analyse.E.g. potential product could be eco-tours to a selected national park if it does not already exist. The group then has to develop and apply assessment criteria to evaluate the potential product's viability and sustainability.Each group finally has 5 minutes to present your results.
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  • U2S82Define the vision: Reflects the aims for tourism development capturing the overall purpose, e.g. “To develop competitive and sustainable tourism products that contribute to the improvement of local livelihoods”. Set goals and objectives: A clear, agreed upon and recorded set of goals and objectives that stakeholders can work towards. Identifying goals in a shared process will give ownership to participants.  Typical goals of a Responsible Tourism product development strategy include: increasing the amount of spending by tourists in the destination, improving the performance and profitability of local tourism businesses, increasing investment in tourism, and reducing the impact of tourism on the local environment and resources.  Identify and prioritise intervention initiatives: When evaluating possible Responsible Tourism product development initiatives the commercial viability and realistic development potential of the products, and the degree to which local benefits will be created are of primary importance. 
  • U2S83Once the mandate and commitment of stakeholders has been secured the next step in the product development process involves determining the main vision, goals and objectives to be achieved through the collaboration. These will be directly used to guide the product development action plan later on. Vision Statement: The aims for tourism development in the destination should be reflected in a Vision Statement that captures the overall purpose for developing tourism. An example of a Responsible Tourism Vision Statement or a destination could be something such as:“To develop competitive and sustainable tourism products that contribute to the improvement of local livelihoods”Development Goals: Having a clear, agreed set of goals and objectives that the stakeholders can work towards is essential. These need to be agreed upon and recorded so that they can be referred to during the life of the partnership to help to guide direction and resolve differences that may arise. Careful clarification of issues at this stage will save time and reduce conflict later. Identifying goals in a shared process will give ownership to participants.Agreeing common goals will be more difficult when there are significant differences between the goals of individual participants. When this occurs work should commence with establishing common goals can be pursued by small working groups where suggestions can be put forward to be reviewed, discussed, and agreed on by the wider group. If necessary an external facilitator can be engaged.Typical goals of a Responsible Tourism Product Development Strategy include:- Increasing the amount of spending by tourists in the destination.- Improving the performance and profitability of local tourism businesses.- Increasing investment in tourism.- Reducing the impact of tourism on the local environment and resourcesTo reach the goals objectives must be developed. Good objectives are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely(SMART), e.g. To increase employment in tourism in the destination by 10% by 2015
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  • U2S85The initial list of possible actions must be reviewedand discussed to bring it into a shorter, manageable, prioritised list of interventions. The main considerations when evaluating and prioritising responsible tourism product development initiatives are the level to which they:1. The commercial viability and realistic development potential of the products2. The degree to which local benefits will be created3. The degree to which higher (sector) level goals are reached: Some interventions might be concerned with broader issues of destination management but can also support improved local livelihoods. Examples could include: Strengthening Infrastructure and Communications. As well as benefiting tourism, this can directly help poor communities and open opportunities in all sectors. Improving Promotion in Key Markets. This can be crucial in achieving necessary visitor flows and spending. Improving Visitor Information and the interpretation of cultural heritage. As well as improving the overall quality of experience, this can play a major role in influencing visitor behaviour and the level of spending directed to the poorImproving Safety and Security. This can be an major barrier for tourism in some destinations and addressing it would also benefit poor communities.Such broad interventions should seek to generate higher levels of income and wellbeing for the local people.There are several general strategies that can be used to further exploit tourism for local development purposes. Typically these include:- Increasing the Number and Frequency of Visits: Markets accounting for large numbers of visitors may have a greater net effect on poverty in the destination than smaller markets.- Increasing Length of Stay: The longer tourists stay in a destination the more they will need to spend money on goods, services, activities and attractions.Increasing Spending: The amount of spending in the destination will affect the impact on the local economy. Increasing opportunities for visitors to spend money locally will make significant contributions to local development.Some generalstrategies to consider that willfurther exploit tourism for the purpose of local development include:Increase number and frequency of visitsIncrease length of stayIncrease spend
  • U2S86In responsible tourism it is sometimes necessary to recognise the opportunities for targeting development impacts at a more localised level. In doing so specific considerations should include:- The number of people in poverty who will be reached by the action;- The likely increase in income per person reached;- Any non-financial benefits that could reach the poor;- The ability of the action to reach the particular target segment of those in poverty;- The extent to which measurement of the action’s impact is possible;- The speed and visibility of impact – important for building interest and confidence;- The sustainability of results – how long will they last and will they need continuing support?- The extent to which the action will enhance knowledge and can be replicated.
  • U2S87Considerations of Practicality would include:- The cost of the initiative;- The possible funding and other resources available;- The relevance to agreed policies and commitments;- The availability of people with sufficient capacity to carry it out;The chance of success and the risk implicationsIt is important to anticipate and address potential barriers to implementation. This will involve understanding perceptions, practical problems and other factors which could hold back development, of both local benefits and tourism businesses.
  • U2S88The starting point for creating specific interventions should be a review of the Development Goals, the outputs of the Product-Market Matching Analysis and the Product Assessment activities.Approaches to consider when designing interventions can include:- Working with products that are generating high volumes of spending to try to raise the pro-portion of that spending which reaches the poor.- Working with products which may already be delivering a high proportion of spending to the poor, to increase their viability, net size and the volume of spending on them.- Fostering, support and encourage growth and ever greater participation of the poor in products which are already receiving a significant volume of spending with a high proportion of this being already channelled to the poor.One of the benefits of the stakeholder collaboration process is the pooling of a broad range resources represented by the various stakeholder’s knowledge, skills and resources. Utilising all these resources effectively will lead to innovative, practical initiatives that will have a high likelihood of effective implementation and tangible results.
  • U2S89The above provides a comprehensive guide to a systematic process of drawing up a tourism strategy and action plan for the destination which includes creating local benefits and sustainable development as primary aims.Considerations at this point should include:- What can be done with the resources available?- What are the interests and commitment of the different stakeholders?
  • U2S90The process of developing a Responsible Tourism Product Development Strategy should emphasize stakeholder involvement for the purposes of identifying strategic and pragmatic actions that stakeholders can take responsibility for and work collectively towards fulfilling shared goals and objectives.The strategy must also be based on the principles of sustainable tourism, supporting tourism development that is: Economically Viable and Competitive: delivering local prosperity and employment which can be maintained over time. Socially Equitable and Culturally Sensitive: benefiting the poor and disadvantaged groups and enhancing cultural richness and quality of life. Environmentally Responsible: minimising global and local pollution and conserving natural resources and biodiversity.
  • U2S91The purposes of the Action Plan is to clearly set out what activities are being implemented and the steps required, the timing of activities and who the responsible parties are. Members of the DMO need to discuss together and come to common agreements on how the implementation of the strategy needs to be carried out.The Action Plan part of the overall Responsible Tourism Product Development Strategy, but should also be used as a separate working document that can be regularly reviewed and updated. It may be written as a one, two or three year plan, depending on what is most appropriate for the destination.It should specify actions to be taken by different stakeholders, individually or jointly, and which may be coordinated by the DM group. The Action Plan can be designed as a simple table, such as on the following slideIt is important that roles and responsibilities are very clear and agreed upon and then reflected in the action plan so that all stakeholders have a common point of reference and no confusion or miscommunications occur. It also allows each partner to focus on its core function without being distracted.In allocating responsibilities, consideration should be given to the skills, interests and resources of the different partners, e.g. private sector partners may play a strong role locally where a project fits their objectives.Partner commitment to delivery against agreed actions should also be secured. Contributions should be specific to be able to monitor inputs. A measurable target should be established for each action where possible, based on outputs, expected outcomes and impacts.Signing Agreements Before proceeding to implementation, it is sometimes necessary to create a formal agreement which captures the main decisions that have been reached and commits partners to a future activities and actions.
  • U2S92Use as a tool – the plan can be used as a portfolio of projects for which specific funding proposals can be writtenJoint partnership fund or separate – common fund can work or each element of the partnership can be responsible for funding its own aspects of the projectAllow time – Obtaining resources can take time so plan for the delays to avoid disappointment and frustrationsIdentify funding mechanisms – Be creative, e.g. If the DMO cannot legally receive and hold money from a donor then partner with an NGO who can act on behalf of the DMOFlexible – Resource requirements may change as projects progress (e.g. cost estimates too low, additional activities might be required etc)Future – Consider ongoing funding needs after project is completed and examine options and opportunities for continued funding constantly
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  • Tookslides 102 – 121 in the Unit 15: the RT good practice for protected area in Vietnam.
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  • U15S107Detailed discussion is provided in the next slides
  • U15S108
  • U15S1091. Adopt CH medium-term rolling financial plansA rolling three-year financial planning process should be adopted for all cultural heritages, consistent with government financial planning procedures. This would build on the initial investment plan, and include the specification of annual funding requirements over the plan’s period. Both business and conservation planning concerns would be reflected in the development of the cultural heritage financial plan. As a rolling plan, it would be updated on an annual basis. In this way cultural heritage management boards would always have a certain budget approved for at least a three year period.2. Extend and improve existing user charges and fees for cultural heritage goods and servicesExtending the currently allowable fees and charges that can be raised by cultural heritages (which are currently restricted to tourism services) can help to increase funding. In particular, opportunities exist to institute charges and fees for a much greater range of cultural heritage goods and services. At the same time, rationalising and updating existing charge and fee levels to improve the extent to which they reflect the real benefit and value of CH goods and services can assist in increasing revenue and income streams.3. Provide fiscal and budget incentives for cultural heritage managers to raise and retain fundsAllowing some level of decentralisation and financial autonomy for CH management boards to set, collect, retain and allocate at least a portion of their revenues would provide incentives for them to mobilise funding and could be used to increase their accountability and responsibility in financial management. 4. InvestmentAlso, various fiscal instruments that are currently used in other sectors of the economy to provide incentives for investment and cost-effectiveness (such as tax exemption, preferential loans and credit) could successfully be applied to PAs in order to stimulate investment and better financial management.Source: Adapted from PARC Project 2006, Policy Brief: Building Viet Nam’s National Protected Areas System – policy and institutional innovations required for progress, Creating Protected Areas for Resource Conservation using Landscape Ecology (PARC) Project, Government of Viet Nam, (FPD) / UNOPS, UNDP, IUCN, Ha Noi, Vietnam
  • o Introduce user fees: Implement user fees and ensure the fee amount reflects management costs including conservation impacts (costs of conservation management as well as direct costs of visitor management and infrastructure). Fees may include entrance fee, recreation fees, user fees (e.g. parking, camping), and concession fees (private sector operators) amongst others.o Implement licencing and permits: Implement a system of commercial licences or permits for smaller tourism operators (e.g. tour operators, guides, and other users), and negotiate partnership agreements for larger operators. Any such agreements must enforce that the overriding authority is the protected area management authority whose main objective is ecosystem conservation, and that the authority has the power to determine whether commercial tourism is permitted and under what conditions. o Provide additional services: Offer additional services such as lodging (e.g. campsites, homestays, guesthouses), food (e.g. groceries or cafes / restaurants), equipment for sale or rent (e.g. canoes, bicycles, helmets etc), and merchandise (e.g. souvenirs, clothing, maps, publications, handicrafts etc). Protected area managers should be well trained in the provision of such services in order to better ensure profitability or alternatively may outsource to private operators and make money by charging the operator a “concession” fee.o Encourage donations: Offer opportunities for voluntary donations including cash, ‘in-kind’ gifts, and labour. Obtain support for conservation and protected area activities from outside donors (e.g. World Bank, Asian Development Bank) in connection with fulfilling commitments made under biodiversity-related conventions. o Implement market-oriented pricing: Ensure pricing is based upon visitor demand and is not excessively high or inequitable across all revenue raising tools.• The World Commission on Protected Areas recommends the following guidelines on reducing public resistance to fees: Use fee revenues for quality improvements to trails, toilets, maps, and other facilities; Make small fee increases rather than making them in large jumps; Use moneys for operational costs rather than as a control mechanism for visitor entry; Retain and use money for specific, known, park purposes, rather than for general revenues; Use extra money for conservation of the area visited, and; Provide abundant information to the public about the income earned and the actions funded through it.
  • U15S111Tiered pricing can maximise revenue by changing according to high / low season, local / international, student / adult / pensioner, group / family / single, single entry / multiple entrycosts of collection and management must be weighed up against benefits (e.g. salaries, installation of booths, admin costs, data processing / reporting, training, security, communications etc)
  • U15S113Option can depend on legal framework of countryWith limited government funding, co-operating with private sector is critical to supplement fundingExamples: tour guiding,accommodation, restaurants, transportation,…Must balance resource protection and visitor needsCan enforce conditions such as local employment, conduct M&E and report on itBenefit in that the business brings the knowledge, experience, equipment etc (not required of CH)Should be strictly limited and controlledBenefit to business is access, attractive location, limited competitionShould favour local businessesCHALLENGESIf business itself is not successful then it will not last long / less revenueBusiness not respecting contractual obligations (e.g. building requirements)Not properly controlling visitor behaviourProfit made by business = income lost by CH
  • Ensuring that local communities benefit from cultural heritage tourism: To make tourism in cultural heritages more sustainable and more beneficial for local development, people in the surrounding communities need to benefit directly from it. This can be achieved through employment in tourism, home stays, selling handicrafts, providing tourist services, etc. If local communities see only the cost and not the benefits, they are unlikely to support the cultural heritage or tourism.
  • U15S120By understanding how communities perceive the role of tourism in CHs we can try to satisfy some of their desires which will help gain their support in being good and helpful citizens within and around the CH thereby helping to protect and promote the cultural resources for the long term benefit of all
  • Employing local community members as heritage site staff and providing decent working conditions including minimum or above-minimum wageEngaging the local community in the cultural heritage site supply chain by procuring local goods and services (e.g. retailing local handicrafts, using the local labour force in construction and maintenance work, etc) Providing advice and support on how to improve the quality of local goods and services related to the supply chain that will better meet the needs of touristsHelping the local community to institutionalise its tourism service providers (e.g. tour guides, transport operators, lodging) into groups or formal associationsEstablishing clear mechanisms for the use of fees paid by the tourists to locally managed heritage site destinations that includes direct payments to the communities for food and lodging and funding for continual heritage site maintenance. Establishing a formal community-managed development fund can help maintain accountability and transparency in the management of funds.Implementing financial management training for locally managed cultural heritage sites that introduces simple strategies for the use of income to improve food and livelihood security that is also linked to reducing pressure on the use of natural resources.Bundling the price of a locally made handicraft product into cultural heritage tour fees and presenting the tourists with a textile, basket, clothing, umbrella, wood carving or jewellery as a souvenir of their tour.
  • HOI AN, QUANG NAM – TRAINER TO PROVIDE AS A HANDOUT: In Hoi An, Quang Nam, revenue from a US$6.00 visitor entry fee#to the heritage area is banked in a fund which is distributed to residents within the historic conservation district to help them undertake repairs to their houses. Incentive grants are allocated to property owners for conservation works often with 50 per cent of costs of conservation works being funded. Substantial projects are being undertaken using this financial incentives program and the traditional crafts of brick manufacture, timber joinery work, use of traditional lime paints, and terra cotta tiled roofing are still very much part of the community economic structure. Revenue from the tickets is also used to hire a conservation architect attached to the municipal government office who provides free architectural services for residents who are repairing their historic properties within the conservation district.The visitor entry ticket has five stubs allowing visitors to enter five heritage houses/museums from among several choices. They are offered tea by the occupants/ curators who then explain the history, significance and outstanding features of the house. Ticket stubs allow owners to collect an amount from the municipal government for the maintenance and upkeep of the house. Should a tourist want to visit more heritage structures, he/she can purchase another ticket. Aside from the financial assistance given to the home owners of structures visited, proceeds from the ticket sales are also used for site management and for purchasing heritage properties which are in need of restoration. It is significant to note that the inhabitants of purchased/restored houses are permitted to remain as custodians of the houses and to act as hosts to visitors. # Fee rate in April 2013UNESCO &Nordic World Heritage Office [undated], Manual for Tourism Management in Heritage Cities and Towns in Asia for Local Government and Community Stakeholders, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Unit 9: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Cultural Heritage Sites In Vietnam

    1. 1. UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HoiAnOldQuarter.jpg
    2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of the unit participants will be able to: • Understand the positive and negative impacts of tourism on cultural heritage and the benefits of responsible tourism • Explain the importance of cultural heritage policy and planning • Explain how to involve stakeholders in heritage planning and management • Identify ways to interpret and communicate cultural heritage responsibly • Explain good practices in the implementation of strategies to minimise tourism impacts on cultural heritage sites • Explain key principles in the development of responsible cultural heritage products • Identify good practices in financing cultural heritage management Topics 1. Overview of cultural heritage and tourism in Vietnam 2. Cultural heritage site planning for sustainability 3. Responsible interpretation & communication of cultural heritage values 4. Cultural heritage conservation & tourism impact management 5. Responsible cultural heritage product development 6. Sustainable financing for cultural heritage management
    3. 3. TOPIC 1. OVERVIEW OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND TOURISM IN VIETNAM UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/triller/5057891609/
    4. 4. Defining cultural heritage Heritage - something inherited from the past and passed on to future generations Cultural heritage - often refers to masterpieces of artistic and historic value passed on over time Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chua_Mot_Cot.jpg
    5. 5. How UNESCO classifies cultural heritage TANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE Physical manifestations or symbols of cultural expressions or traditions INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE Non-physical manifestations of cultural expressions and traditions of society Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%C4%90%E1%BB%93ng_K%E1%BB%B5_06.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:National_Museum_Vietnamese_History_47_(cropped).jpg
    6. 6. The importance of cultural heritage 3% MIXED PROPERTIES
    7. 7. Vietnam’s World Heritage Sites The Centre of Thang Long Citadel CULTURAL HERITAGE NATURAL HERITAGE Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%E1%BB%99i_An http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%E1%BB%B9_S%C6%A1n http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_picture_candidates/A_Busy_Ha_Long_Bay http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phongnha17.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grave_khai_dinh.jpg
    8. 8. Number of heritage sites in Vietnam according to type Historic and cultural sites 51.20% Architectural heritage sites 44.20% Archeological sites 1.30% Significant landscapes 3.30%
    9. 9. Vietnam’s heritage sites according to level of protection 7,500 Nearly PROVINCIAL LEVEL HERITAGE SITES Over 3,000NATIONAL LEVEL HERITAGE SITES
    10. 10. The connection between cultural heritage and tourism UNWTO: of global tourism has a cultural motivation 37% “…There has been considerable growth of a deeper level of engagement with local culture over the past decade…” EUROPEAN TRAVEL COMMISSION: of travellers are strongly influenced by history and culture in their choice of holiday destination (and only 15% are not) NATIONAL TRUST FOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION: 57%
    11. 11. What is cultural tourism? A form of tourism connected with the movement of people to satisfy cultural motivations Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/shankbone/3269789156/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thang_Long_Water_Puppet_Theatre2.JPG http://www.flickr.com/photos/lawtonjm/4309006912/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Th%E1%BA%BF_Mi%E1%BA%BFu_(Hu%E1%BA%BF).jpg
    12. 12. Cultural tourism is just one of many forms of tourism Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elephant_safari.jpg;http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficheiro:Rafting_em_Brotas.jpg; https://www.flickr.com/photos/lukema/8385805896/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/sblackley/2987232840/; http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-1254734424; https://www.flickr.com/photos/lukema/8385805896/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/vinothchandar/6099012489/ Religious tourism Business travel Cultural tourism Mass tourism Adventure tourism Ecotourism
    13. 13. Benefits of cultural heritage tourism Provides a cultural experience and enables cultural exchange Contributes to the preservation of built heritageContributes to the revitalisation of traditional handicrafts and intangible cultural heritage Provides new employment opportunities and contributes to local economic development Enhances the amenity of a region Builds community pride Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    14. 14. Tourism in Vietnam is growing fast – can cultural heritage managers keep up? 2,000,000 7,500,000 12,000,00012,000,000 35,000,000 48,000,000 Y2000 Y2020Y2013 Domestic tourists International tourists YESTERDAY TOMORROW? TODAY
    15. 15. Are Vietnam’s heritage destinations about to reach a critical threshold? Exploration Involvement Development Consolidation Stagnation (Rejuvenate) (Stable) (Decline) Development threshold TIME NUMBEROFVISITORS MY SON SANCTUARY HUE HOI AN HA LONG BAY Conceptual diagram of stage of development for key heritage sites in Vietnam
    16. 16. The challenges of cultural heritage tourism 1/2 DISPLACEMEN Tof local residents Undermining of traditions Cultural identity lossCultural commodification Culture-based SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIVIDE Picture sources: www.pixabay.com http://www.spectrumcare.org.nz/media/TP/362/TalkingPoint-Issue362.htm http://www.clipartlab.com/clipart_preview/cl3-agriculture.php http://soundtrackforthepeople.wordpress.com/tag/marketing/
    17. 17. The challenges of cultural heritage tourism 2/2 Loss of authenticity CONFLICT over land rights Selective development to attractions and facilities Damage Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/4331192254/ www.pixabay.com http://www.clipartheaven.com/show/clipart/international/people_-_cartoons/asian_farmer-gif.html http://www.clker.com/clipart-14267.html
    18. 18. Responsible tourism: Building a sustainable future for cultural heritage sites Uses natural resources optimally whilst still conserving the natural heritage and biodiversity Respects and conserves socio- cultural authenticity including built and living cultural heritage and traditional values Ensures viable, long term economic benefits to all stakeholders including fair distribution of benefits
    19. 19. The responsible tourism approach ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 1. BE ACCOUNTABLE 3. TAKE ACTION 2. HAVE CAPACITY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM We must accept that every decision and action we make in our daily lives has an impact. We must take responsibility for our actions and acquire the knowledge, skills and resources to make change. Being responsible is not just an intent. It requires action. And that action must be for good - based upon the law, our ethics and morals.
    20. 20. More enjoyable experiences for tourists The benefits of responsible tourism in cultural heritage site management Picture source: http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/tour-guide.html http://www.restoration-people.com/restoration-people-news/ Pixabay, www.pixabay.com Empowers locals residents in development process Economic and employment for the community Contributes to conservation of cultural (and natural) heritage
    21. 21. Key components for applying responsible tourism in cultural heritage site management Cultural heritage site planning for sustainability TOPIC 2 Responsible cultural heritage product development TOPIC 5 Responsible interpretation and communication of cultural heritage values TOPIC 3 Cultural heritage conservation and tourism impact management TOPIC 4 Sustainable financing for cultural heritage management TOPIC 6 Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    22. 22. TOPIC 2. CULTURAL HERITAGE SITE PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ngomon2.jpg
    23. 23. What is the issue? • Plans to protect cultural heritage are often not developed or alternatively not clear • Cultural heritage plans are frequently not co-ordinated and integrated with other sectors • Plans for economic growth are often prioritised before plans for heritage protection Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/marfis75/404887342/
    24. 24. The role and importance of cultural heritage site management plans • Guides day-to-day operation and on-going physical and interpretive features • Balances maintaining / enhancing heritage integrity with generating sufficient visitor volume to meet income requirements • Objectives: – Maintain the site’s sense of place and integrity – Preserve the site’s culturally significant dimensions – Identify issues of management concern – Promote the role of all stakeholders to devise a management strategy to allow the site to effectively meet a variety of challenges Key considerations in responsible cultural heritage site management plans • Product authenticity and quality • Financial viability • Stakeholder participation • Management of negative impacts
    25. 25. Benefits of cultural heritage plans that follow responsible tourism principles Reduces impacts on the local environment and improves quality of life for local residents Better ensures cultural heritage offers meet market trends and opportunities Better ensures the type of tourism developed brings income to local residents and benefits conservation Better ensures cultural heritage sites achieve legal, social, business standards and goals Provides all stakeholders with greater involvement and power to inform cultural heritage site development
    26. 26. CULTURAL HERITAGE SITE PLANNING 1. Be guided by a comprehensive cultural heritage site management plan 2. Embrace participation and build partnerships 3. Adopt a cross- sectoral and regional approach Principles of good practice in responsible cultural heritage site planning
    27. 27. Principle 1. Be guided by a comprehensive cultural heritage site management plan • Well-planned cultural heritage sites can encourage investment and growth • Such development cannot be achieved by traditional, uncoordinated planning • Cultural heritage integrated planning helps manage different demands by linking cultural heritage protection with socio-economic and environmental development Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/33151788@N04/4556006631/
    28. 28. Good practices in developing cultural heritage plans Sustainable Culturally, socially, ecologically and economically Comprehensive Addresses all relevant issues for heritage tourism development and management Cross-sectoral Integrates tourism with related sectors such as infrastructure, education, labour, and natural resources Participatory and inclusive Involves all relevant stakeholders with specific consideration of local communities and the poor. Fair sharing of economic benefits. Process oriented Continuous, flexible and includes feedback loops. Viable Realistic, financially viable and implementation oriented
    29. 29. Key steps in adopting a cultural heritage integrated management plan PREPARATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE PLAN ELABORATION – ADAPTATION REVIEW – MONITORING • Situation analysis • Development of plan objectives, content and structure • Defining work plan • Vision and objectives • Fields of action, objectives, strategies, and issues • Preparation of monitoring • Developing monitoring indicator scheme CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
    30. 30. Key inclusions in a cultural heritage site integrated management plan Introduction Describes the objectives and the purpose of the cultural heritage integrated management plan Identifying issues Describes the status-quo of the cultural site: area overview, statement of significance and individual values / authenticity / integrity, dangers and threats, instruments for safeguarding, relevant stakeholders for conservation and development, and organisational / operational structures and procedures Appraisal Describes the vision, thematic objectives, approaches, actions, etc. for the cultural site: overall vision and general objectives for the area, field of actions, objectives, strategies, and organisational and operational structures and procedures Implementation & monitoring Provides an action plan/ implementation plan, and steps for continuous monitoring and review
    31. 31. Integrate sustainability issues into planning: Socio-cultural 1/3 SOCIO-CULTURALISSUES Preserving the visual integrity of a place Identifying, evaluating, assessing and documenting cultural heritage values Conserving, restoring and maintaining authentic cultural heritage and preserving traditional uses Preserving intangible values Regulating new developments in the heritage site area and careful adaptation of buildings to new uses Traffic control Mobility / accessibility in cultural area for all generations / social groups Security of buildings Public space improvement Cultural identity of community Authentic heritage interpretation (including communications & marketing) OBJECTIVE Preserving and authentically promoting tangible and intangible cultural heritage values of a place the benefit of all.
    32. 32. Integrate sustainability issues into planning: Environmental 2/3 ENVIRONMENTALISSUES Preventive and reactive measures for natural hazards and climate change Adaptation of cultural heritage to environmental needs Improving recreational and green areas in the old town Special climatic conditions Weathering of historic urban fabric Drainage Microclimate OBJECTIVE Adaptation of the tangible cultural heritage to environ- mental requirements and minimising the negative impacts.
    33. 33. Integrate sustainability issues into planning: Economic 3/3 ECONOMICISSUES Employment in cultural centres / for inhabitants Vitality and viability (mix of economic activities; mix of shops) Accessibility Overall local needs Commercial signs in public space Balancing tourism offers with inhabitants’ needs OBJECTIVE Attracting and retaining a mix of economic uses that meets the needs of the local community and visitors and respects the character of the historic centre.
    34. 34. Ground planning in best practice: The ICOMOS Charter 1 Conservation should provide for members of the host community and visitors to responsibly experience and understand that community's heritage and culture first hand. 4 Host communities and indigenous peoples should be involved in planning for conservation and tourism. 2 The relationship between Heritage Places and Tourism is dynamic and may involve conflicting values. It should be managed in a sustainable way for present and future generations. 5 Tourism and conservation activities should benefit the host community. 3 Conservation and Tourism Planning for Heritage Places should ensure that the Visitor Experience will be worthwhile, satisfying and enjoyable. 6 Tourism promotion programmes should protect and enhance Natural and Cultural Heritage characteristics
    35. 35. Using the PUP methodology in cultural heritage site planning • A consultative process with active participation of relevant stakeholders • Facilitation by experts with strong knowledge and skills in managing participatory techniques Phase 1. Planning preparation Phase 2. Planning for heritage Phase 3. Write up tourism management plan
    36. 36. Phase 1. Planning preparation • Initial stakeholder presentations and interviews1 • Organisation self-analysis2 • Planning framework3 • Terms of reference4 • Prepare logistics for upcoming planning activities5
    37. 37. Phase 2. Planning for heritage • Develop interpretative framework 1 • Directory of touristic attractions2 • Zoning, sector and visitor profile3 • Tourism products4 • Monitoring5 • Regulation6 • Calendar of activities7 • Financial plan8
    38. 38. Phase 3. Write up cultural heritage management plan • Draft the management plan1 • Present to key stakeholders for feedback2 • Finalise the management plan3
    39. 39. Principle 2. Embrace participation and partnerships in cultural heritage site planning • Cultural heritage site planning typically involves stakeholders from the local to international level • However all stakeholders often have different goals • Fair and broad participation in cultural heritage site planning helps ensure all goals are achieved and that fewer negative impacts are felt
    40. 40. Stakeholder areas of interest in cultural heritage site planning Community • Economic development • Recreational facilities • Preservation of social values Tourism industry • Tourism infrastructure • Visitor facilities • Heritage interpretation • Profit Site managers • Protection of heritage sites and their presentation • Facilities management • Visitor management
    41. 41. Build on stakeholder strengths GOVERNMENT: Provision of destination infrastructure, visitor safety and security, favourable policies and plans to promote socio-economic development, revenue capture and management, destination marketing PRIVATE SECTOR: Marketing of heritage site and destination, provision of goods and services to support tourism in heritage destination, advice, guidance and support in product development and capacity building LOCAL RESIDENTS: Influence decisions on management and use of heritage site, employment / human resources on site, operation of tourism or cultural enterprises, input into cultural heritage research, planning and development., cultural ambassadors and volunteers. Development agencies: Technical assistance for physical development, financing of restoration / research, cultural heritage capacity building STAKEHOLDER AREAS OF INPUT FOR CONSIDERATION IN PLANNING
    42. 42. Benefits of broad stakeholder participation and partnerships • Saves time and money • Reduces delays or blockages in heritage development • Clarifies religious and cultural values and helps identify problem areas • Provides input regarding desired conditions and standards • Fosters provision of human and financial resources to assist development of cultural heritage sites
    43. 43. Tips for gaining stakeholder participation in cultural heritage site planning Involve key stakeholders early on in the process (esp. in cultural mapping and identification of tourism development options) Encourage broad co- operation through a multi-stakeholder steering committee that is actively involved in setting planning goals, objectives, strategies and activities Foster ongoing stakeholder input in planning and development through regular public meetings, workshops and forums
    44. 44. Specific areas for community involvement in cultural heritage site planning • Defining what the community would like to gain from tourism • Identifying the type of tourism that would complement the local way of life • Facilitating the implementation process • Demonstrating how to manage heritage places to optimise positive impacts and avoid negative impacts • Establishing linkages between communities and experts to build capacity, awareness and information exchange programmes
    45. 45. Legislation Agency policies, strategies Regional plans, broad-scale land management plans Management plans for Cultural heritages Subsidiary plans Operational / action plans, work programmes Principle 3. Adopt a cross-sectoral, regional approach in cultural heritage site planning • The plan will not be sustainable unless it fits in with relevant higher level plans and policies • Critical to review legislation / formal agreements designating the area and confirm their meaning • These set the overriding purpose and goals of the management plan Cultural heritage management plans fit here
    46. 46. Adopt a regional approach in heritage planning and management • Cultural heritage sites are impacted upon by external decisions, activities • CH management plans must consider impacts outside its boundaries • Particularly important when other administrations manage outside areas • For success, CH planning see itself as aiming to build more sustainable patterns of development in general Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    47. 47. Three focus areas for regional integration Integrate or link CH management plans with local development processes and the activities of other agencies and organisations working in the area. Identify and address the aspirations and needs of the local communities around the cultural heritage sites (as well as those living in it) in the CH management plan Incorporate regional stakeholders in the planning of cultural heritage site and compatible uses, and in educational, interpretive and community involvement programmes
    48. 48. TOPIC 3. RESPONSIBLE INTERPRETATION & COMMUNICATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE VALUES UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM
    49. 49. What is the issue? • Cultural heritage sites often struggle to provide adequate communication and interpretation of cultural heritage values which can result in: – Reduced awareness of cultural heritage importance and significance and limiting opportunities to enhance cross-cultural understanding – Reduced support for action in cultural heritage conservation – Increased culture commodification and objectification • The end result is reduced visitor satisfaction, negative word of mouth promotion, and limited repeat visitation
    50. 50. The objectives of communication and interpretation in cultural heritage sites COMMUNICATION • To increase awareness about the resources and attractions in the cultural site • To alter behaviour of visitors and residents in the cultural site • To orient visitors to the cultural site • To explain about the community and cultural site authority’s goals and objectives INTERPRETATION • To increase understanding about the role and importance of special species in the cultural site and issues in conservation • To increase understanding about the role and importance of cultural elements and issues in conservation • To increase understanding and respect for local culture and heritage and socio-cultural issues in sympathetic preservation and promotion
    51. 51. The benefits of responsible communication and interpretation of cultural heritage values Creates a more positive visitor experience Facilitates understanding and appreciation of heritage sites Improves learning Increases visitors’ respect and support for the local people Better represents the values of the local community Picture sources: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    52. 52. COMMUNICATION & INTERPRETATION 1. Inform and educate visitors about the importance of the cultural heritage site 2. Communicate messages accurately and authentically Principles of good practice in responsible communication and interpretation
    53. 53. Principle 1. Inform and educate visitors about the importance of the cultural heritage • Providing simple information about the values and importance of the cultural heritage helps promote cross-cultural understanding and respect • Communicating cultural significance can be achieved through signs, displays, brochures, and maps • Visitor information centres / interpretation centres are also very effective
    54. 54. The ICOMOS’ 7 recommendations for effective heritage interpretation 1 ACCESS & UNDERSTANDING. Facilitate access for all. 5 SUSTAINABILITY. Implement effective strategies for economic, environmental and social sustainability. 2 INFORMATION SOURCES. Ensure interpretation is scientifically based. 6 INCLUSIVENESS. Involve all stakeholders in the development of interpretive programmes 3 CONTEXT AND SETTING. Relate interpretation to wider contexts and settings. 7 RESEARCH, TRAINING & EVALUATION. Implement technical and professional standards in interpretation. 4 AUTHENTICITY. Respect traditional social functions.
    55. 55. Interpretation through signs and exhibits • Interpretational signs and exhibits use stories and messages to inform visitors about places, objects or events • Properly planned and designed interpretive programs relay a theme / message to visitors • Common topics can include unique historical events, cultural traditions and practices, roles of men and women, livelihoods, cultural events, religious beliefs etc. • Interpretation should incorporate 3 components: education, emotion, behaviour Educational component Emotional component Behavioural component
    56. 56. Tips in effective interpretation • Write to the target market • Use everyday language • Develop an interesting storyline • Make presentations lively • Use media and messages to engage emotions •Get guides to customise tours to visitor needs •Keep interpretive materials simple and colourful and easy to read •Provide clear directions and instructions on trails
    57. 57. Examples of interpretive exhibits
    58. 58. 3 principles for writing effective detailed interpretive signs 1 Deliver information using themes that are strong and provocative. 3 Structure theme into topics easily identified by sub- headings. 2Create titles that are eye-catching and interesting.
    59. 59. Examples of detailed interpretive signs Eye catching title (theme) Sub-headings (well structured) Good use of images
    60. 60. Good practice tip: Interpretation should engage 1. Visitors enjoy activities requiring some form of participation 2. People remember activities with interactive elements 3. Make the experience more meaningful by enabling visitors to smell, taste, feel, explore, lift, push 4. Provide field guides, photographs of local events or interesting people; or plant and animal specimens Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    61. 61. Examples of engaging interpretive displays
    62. 62. Principle 2: Communicate messages accurately and authentically • Poor communication of cultural heritage values can result in loss of meaning and significance and erosion of the integrity of the cultural heritage • Communicating messages accurately and authentically promotes greater understanding and respect Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mynameisharsha/4344995931/
    63. 63. Being authentic in communicating tourism experiences • Communication of messages in cultural heritage marketing is often based upon selling “authentic experiences” • While authenticity is perceived it should be displayed as accurately as possible to reflect the reality • If messages are exaggerated in order to make them more attractive to consumers they will become disappointed when their expectations are not met Picture source: http://www.dannydancers.com/events.htm
    64. 64. Avoid cultural commodification in communication • Communication about the culture of local communities and cultural heritage sites should be respectful and accurate • Commercialisation and commodification of the local culture should be avoided not only in the products sold but in the language used and messages communicated • Cultural commercialisation and commodification may result in the loss of original meaning • The involvement and determination of local people of how to interpret their culture is critical
    65. 65. 4 examples of cultural commodification in tourism Redeveloping places to make them more attractive for tourist consumption Creating staged and reshaped traditional performances for tourists Adaptive reuse of historical buildings without interpretation Sale and / or reproduction of artefacts of cultural or spiritual significance as souvenirs Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rachelf2sea/6125215016/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kangeelu_Kunita.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeremylim/4263274405/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://blog.mailasail.com/kanaloa/104
    66. 66. TOPIC 4. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM APPROACH TO VISITOR IMPACT MANAGEMENT UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_the_monument_to_Lenin_in_Kiev
    67. 67. What is the issue? • Physical / structural damage to cultural heritage assets • Destruction or disturbance to the natural environment • Social tension between visitors and local residents • Safety and security of visitors at risk • Poor planning and enforcement of rules and regulations on visitor behaviour Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikecogh/12172174654/
    68. 68. VISITOR IMPACT MANAGEMENT 1. Set and enforce zones 3. Influence visitor behaviour 2. Understand carrying capacity and enforce limits of acceptable change Principles of good practice in visitor impact management in cultural heritage sites
    69. 69. Principle 1. Setting and enforcing zones in large and multi-stakeholder use heritage sites • Allocate zones to geographical areas for specific levels and intensities of activities and of conservation • Zones can also be implemented temporally or indicate other important attributes • Formalise zones by developing and implementing policies that detail: – Use of cultural resources – Access – Facilities – Cultural heritage development – Maintenance and operations
    70. 70. Key attributes of sites that influence zoning plans Physical attributes Social attributes Management attributes
    71. 71. Example of historic town zoning plan with important buildings and sites Source: City of Bradford MDC 2006, Saltaire Conservation Area Appraisal, City of Bradford MDC, Bradford, UK Conservation area boundary Important trees Key open spaces Key view or vista World Heritage site boundary Listed buildings Key unlisted building
    72. 72. Principle 2. Understand site carrying capacity and enforce limits of acceptable change • Carrying capacity measures the level at which visitors can be accommodated • Determines thresholds of change followed by setting of limits to the number of visitors • Physical carrying capacity: Availability of space and necessary resources • Ecological carrying capacity: level of ecosystem tolerance to human interference while maintaining sustainable functioning • Social carrying capacity: psychological and socio-cultural limits of people in a space beyond which a decline in the quality of the recreational experience and user satisfaction
    73. 73. Some examples of how carrying capacity can not be best solution for managing impacts One destructive tourist might cause more damage than 50 conscientious visitors Some cultural heritage site areas can handle less use than areas with more resilient physical or social attributes Just a handful of tourists in a community might be responsible for most of the litter Some communities may accept larger groups of tourists while others reject them In some cases a single visitor at an archaeological site might be seen as too many, while for others, hundreds of visitors would not diminish the quality of the experience Visitors to a ruin site may be limited to 100 at a time, while in an isolated area some visitors may be stealing priceless souvenirs The carrying capacity of a cultural village tour may be set at 100, but that will not prevent some visitors from disturbing residents as they approach to take photographs or create disturbing noise Source: Pedersen, A. 2002, Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris, France
    74. 74. Other considerations carrying capacity does not effectively account for • Impacts on aesthetic qualities, social systems and the ability to support active uses • Incremental or differing rates of impact in different parts of a cultural heritage site system • Differing values of users about the importance of cultural heritage sites and systems
    75. 75. Managing impacts through limits of acceptable change • Focuses on the resources that need protection and not the people that visit them • Recognises the need for a subjective determination of states of change • Sets limits of acceptable resource interaction or use which, when close to being reached, trigger management interventions to prevent or mitigate damage
    76. 76. Limits of acceptable change requires setting standards • LAC standards are established on the basis of stakeholder and management needs, and follow legal and Convention guidelines • Management objectives should lead to measurable impact standards reflecting the desired conditions • Sustainability indicators should be set by a multi-stakeholder committee and reflect environmental, social or economic issues
    77. 77. Example of environmental and economic sustainability indicators in tourism ENVIRONMENTAL Number of threatened or extinct species as percentage of all known species Perceived value of forest resources to tourism Number of days tourists spend on nature tourism activities out of total number of days Number of hotels with environmental policy Environmental awareness campaigns conducted Number hotels recycling 25% or more of their waste products Demand/supply ratio for water Number of hotels with 50% or more of total toilets as dual flush % of energy consumption from renewable resources ECONOMIC Average wage rates in tourism jobs rural/ urban Number of local people employed in tourism (men and women) Revenues generated by tourism as % of all revenues generated in the community % of visitors who overnight in local tourist accommodation % of hotels with a majority local staff % of GDP provided by tourism Change in number of visitor arrivals Average tourist length of stay New tourism businesses as a percentage of all new businesses
    78. 78. Example of social and management sustainability indicators in tourism SOCIAL % of tourism operators who provide day care to employees with children % of tourism operators who have commitments regarding equal gender opportunity Women/men as a % of all tourism employment % women/men employees sent on training programmes Satisfaction with volume of tourists visiting the destination MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE Sustainability Management Plan exists All personnel receive periodic sustainability management training % of purchases of services and goods from local providers % of purchases that are fair trade purchases Number of facilities built using local material Code of conduct developed with local community % of women and local minority employees
    79. 79. Tips for shortlisting indicators RELEVANCE COMPARABILITYCREDIBILITY CLARITY FEASIBILITY Of the indicator to the selected issue Of the information and reliability for users of the data And understand- ability to users Of obtaining and analysing the information Over time and across jurisdictions or regions
    80. 80. 80 The key steps in developing and implementing limits of acceptable change Step 1 • Identify area concerns and issues Step 2 • Define and describe management objectives Step 3 • Select indicators of resources and social conditions Step 4 • Inventory present resources and social conditions Step 5 • Specify standards for resources and social indicators Step 6 • Identify alternatives Step 7 • Identify management actions for each alternative Step 8 • Evaluate and select an alternative Step 9 • Implement actions and monitor conditions
    81. 81. Principle 3. Influence visitor behaviour • Based on implementing regulations, incentives, penalties, systems, and information to change visitor behaviour • Types of measures can be categorised according to whether they aim to reduce the volume of visitors or alternatively reduce the behaviour of visitors • These measures can then be further group according to whether they are “hard” measures” or “soft” measures HARD MEASURES SOFT MEASURES MANAGEVISITOR NUMBERS MANAGEINAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOUR Limit group sizes; Impose quotas for certain sites / trails; Close trails or sites according to season or time of day Reduce or disperse visitors through entrance fee systems for sites and times Establish leagally binding regulations for businesses and visitor use of resources; Enforce use of guides; Install staff to monitor and manage visitor behaviour Provide visitor information on rules of entry (do’s and don’ts); Strategic placement (or omission) of key services and facilities VISITOR MANAGEMENT Source: The International Council on Monuments and Sites
    82. 82. Minimising impacts by reducing tourism volume Access Number of visitors Length of stay Tour group size Skills and / or equipment Extent of facilities Timing Barriers Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    83. 83. Minimising impacts by changing tourism behaviour Types of activities Frequency of use Impact appraisals Travel Conditions of use Park rangers Guides Information and education Qualifications and standards
    84. 84. Communicate tourism codes of conduct • Voluntary principles and practices that visitors are requested to follow • Codes of conduct can be developed to both limit negative impacts of tourism activities and also enhance positive impacts • Codes of conduct must be well- communicated in order to be effective Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    85. 85. Example of a visitor code of conduct 1/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
    86. 86. Example of a visitor code of conduct 2/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
    87. 87. Good practice in developing effective tourism codes of conduct Sustainability. Do the criteria consider the environment, economy and people? Equity. Do the criteria reflect the interests of everyone? Efficiency & effectiveness. Are the criteria practical and follow best practice in sustainable management? Relevance. Do the criteria directly connect to the destination’s own sustainability goals?
    88. 88. Managing visitor impacts is also about managing visitor safety Recreation Personal injury Potential claims and pay outs Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    89. 89. Guidelines for the risk management process Is the process working effectively to identify and manage risks? - Develop a list of risks associated with an area or activity; Develop checklists to use when inspecting the area; Inspect the area and talk to visitors; Record all risks identified Have the control measures eliminated or reduced the risks to an acceptable level? Have the control measures introduced any new risks? - Gather information about each risk identified; Think about the likelihood of an event (e.g. frequency of exposure to risk and probability that an accident will occur); Assess probable consequences (number of people at risk and likely severity of an injury); Use exposure, probability and consequence to calculate level or risk Determine control measures - Eliminate risk; Transfer risk; Reduce risk probability; Reduce risk impact; Accept risk Assess effectiveness of control measures - Review proposed measures; Apply control measures; Monitor effectiveness through regular assessments and documentation 1. IDENTIFY THE RISKS Identify all risks associated with an area or activity 2. ASSESS THE RISKS Assess the level of each risk 3. MANAGE THE RISKS Decide on and use the appropriate control measures 4. MONITOR & REVIEW Monitor residual risks and review Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK
    90. 90. TOPIC 5. RESPONSIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: www.pixabay.com
    91. 91. What is the issue? • Successful cultural heritage tourism attractions need to directly link with the values, needs and preferences of the target market • Cultural heritage products must also benefit the local community and other stakeholders to ensure support and sustainability • Developing cultural heritage products responsibly ensures development uses available resources sustainably, identifies links to viable market opportunities, and ensures the satisfaction and benefit of the local community Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/6614178827/
    92. 92. Benefits of responsible cultural heritage product development Better meets market demand making cultural heritage ventures more competitive Uses cultural heritage resources that provide economic benefits to the local community Minimises negative economic, environmental and social impacts Involves all stakeholders including the local people in decision-making Fosters more enjoyable and meaningful experiences for tourists
    93. 93. Defining cultural heritage tourism products NARROW DEFINITION What the tourist “buys” WIDER DEFINITION The combination of what the tourist does at the cultural heritage site and the services used
    94. 94. How the UNEP defines tourism products Experiential factor Emotional factor Physical factor
    95. 95. Characteristics of responsible cultural heritage tourism products • Responsible cultural heritage tourism products are the goods and services that form tourism experiences and are specifically designed to be: – Environmentally, socially, culturally and economically sustainable – Educational – Promote local participation
    96. 96. CULTURAL HERITAGE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 1. Ensure cultural heritage products are commercially viable and linked to markets 2. Ensure sustainability of selected cultural heritage products 3. Ensure cultural heritage product development has defined strategies and actions Principles of good practice in responsible cultural heritage product development
    97. 97. Principle 1: Ensure cultural heritage products are commercially viable and linked to markets • Simply developing a tourism product does not mean that visitors will come • Following a good product development process helps ensure the business, product, or service can compete effectively and make a profit Development of tourism related products and experiences requires: • Understanding existing supply and future demand for products • Market research on visitor needs and satisfaction, product development gaps and opportunities • Understanding the types of experiences that a visitor market seeks • Assuring the value and sustainability of the tourism project
    98. 98. Ensuring viable responsible cultural heritage products by meeting market needs • Market visitation volume • Market size • Market trends and interests Market growth • Reason for travel • Kinds of experiences desired Motivations & needs • Means of travel • Length of stay • Level of flexibility Travel patterns • Level of money spent by visitor types • Value to local development Spend • Greatest interest in the destination • Connect with development objectives Sustainability
    99. 99. Using a market analysis to help understand tourism market features Characteristics Motivations Expectations Potential products Forms & means of travel Reasons for travel choices Expectations of facilities, services, amenities etc
    100. 100. SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTATIONS Holidayers International 1st timers International 2nd timers + crowd avoiders International On holiday Domestic Phuot Domestic Day trippers Domestic
    101. 101. Example of typical tourist market segments and characteristics in Vietnam SEGMENT TYPE CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATIONS EXPECTATIONS Holidayers International short-haul Traveling in organized groups or with family and friends. Shorter trips, few destinations. Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions, shopping. Superior food and accommodation, Mixing businesses with pleasure International short-haul Individual and independent business travellers adding some tourism activities to their trip. Entertainment, visiting main attractions, relaxation. Quality services and products. Ease of travel. 1st timers International long-haul Individual or group travel for 1 week or more, utilizing a variety of travel means and many destinations. Visiting main attractions, cultural and natural features. Good food, adequate accommodation, fair prices, variety. 2nd timers + crowd avoiders International long-haul Individual or small group travel – usually self- organized for 1 week or more, usually spending more time in fewer destinations. Authentic experiences and specific activities (i.e. trekking, caving). Adequate accommodation, good food and services, authenticity and personal experiences. On holiday Domestic Travel as a family, during national holidays and annual holiday periods Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions. Good food, adequate accommodation, shopping opportunities, fair prices. Phuot Domestic Independent or small group travel, often by motorbike. Seeking alternative activities and non-touristic locations. Adequate accommodation and food, cheap prices, authenticity. Day trippers Domestic Independent travel by families and friends in private vehicles for 1 day, usually on weekends or national holidays. Relaxation, entertainment, visiting main attractions. Good food, good services, ease of travel.
    102. 102. What is tourism product-market matching? • Connecting the characteristics, motivations and expectations of market segments with suitable tourism products • To ensure sustainability, products should also be matched with development opportunities and objectives of the host destination Tourism product •Entertainment and relaxation •Culture •Nature •Adventure •Education Tourism market •Characteristics •Motivations •Expectations
    103. 103. Product-market matching conceptual diagram PRODUCT A PRODUCT B PRODUCT C PRODUCT E PRODUCT D PRODUCT F PRODUCT G PRODUCT I PRODUCT H MARKET SEGMENT 1 MARKET SEGMENT 2 MARKET SEGMENT 3 MARKET SEGMENT 4
    104. 104. Which markets would you match to these products in Vietnam?
    105. 105. Why are these markets linked to these products? Matching markets and products in Vietnam
    106. 106. Tourism market segments in Vietnam matched to product types ENTERTAINMENT RELAXATION CULTURE NATURE ADVENTURE LEARNING DOMESTIC Day trippers from Hanoi   Holidayers     Phuot    INTERNATIONAL Holidayers      Mixing business with pleasure    First timers    Second timers + Crowd avoiders     PRODUCT TYPE MARKETSEGMENT
    107. 107. Principle 2. Ensure cultural heritage products are sustainable • Responsible cultural heritage products must meet the needs and wants of consumers, business and government, and other stakeholders • There must also be available human resources with sufficient capacity Is it good for us? others Do I want it? consumers Can I sell it? Business / Government
    108. 108. Stakeholder criteria for cultural heritage products 1. Contains defining features 2. Contains core features 3. Considers market 4. Is commercially viable 5. Is sustainable 6. Provides local benefits 7. Available human resources CONSUMER REQUIREMENTS OTHER STAKEHOLDER REQUIREMENTS BUSINESS & GOVERNMENT REQUIREMENTS ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENT
    109. 109. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets defining feature requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Authentic How genuine and representative of the region is the product Distinct How unique and special is the product Variety Is there a good mix of attractions, activities, services? Seasonal factors Weather, too crowded during the busy season, etc. Product function Flagship, Hub, or Supporting Product, fit with regional product clusters and circuits consumers
    110. 110. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets core feature requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Accessibility How easy is it for tourists to get to the site Attractions Quality of main attractions that routs are coming for Activities What other activities can the tourists do at the site Main services What are the required tourism services available (e.g. accommodation, food service) consumers
    111. 111. Example of assessment criteria to determine if product meets market requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Key target markets Easily identifiable key markets to target Market size Sufficient to generate benefits and remain viable Market trends and influence Are target markets likely to expand or influence other markets business
    112. 112. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets commercial viability requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Market-based planning Tourism products are developed and managed strategically based on specific markets and trends Private sector engagement The private sector is involved, including healthy local enterprises Supportive regulatory context Regulations on business development and operations are favourable Necessary supporting resources Available local human resources, and necessary infrastructure business
    113. 113. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets sustainability requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Economic Tourism economy provides equitable and attractive earning opportunities Environmental Natural environment is protected and enhanced Socio-cultural Local customs and cultures are respected and supported Institutionalisation Support of government policies, plans and programs Sector functioning Sector stakeholders able to function in appropriate roles to ensure effective and ongoing operations others
    114. 114. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets local benefit requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Equitable sharing of benefits Tourism is seen as a fair and welcomed addition to local livelihood improvement Local involvement / ownership Hosting communities have open, and effective mechanisms for engagement, including management roles, in the tourism sector Poverty reduction To what degree are more disadvantaged groups (poor, women, disabled, minorities) receiving benefits others
    115. 115. Assessment criteria to determine if product meets human resource requirements REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Public sector Management and staff responsible for tourism or relevant sectors Businesses sector Business either directly involved or supporting tourism in a location Local communities People residing in tourism locations who stand to benefit from the tourism sector
    116. 116. Assessing product performance against sustainability criteria Scoring the degree a product achieves the various evaluation criteria can help to understand its level of sustainability and viability. An example is below: SCORE DEFINITION RESPONSE 0 = Not applicable This issue is not needed or relevant to the site No action required 1 = Very weak Complete inadequate leading to disastrous results. Intensive and comprehensive focused support. 2 = Weak Not adequate. Needs improvement to contribute to and effective or responsible product. Focused support of key aspects for improvement. Strengthening what is already working. 3 = Adequate Functioning adequately, but could be better in some key aspects. Focused support of key aspects for improvement. Strengthening what is already working if needed. 4 = Strong Functioning adequately, but could be better in some minor aspects. Minor improvement on specific areas if needed. 5 = Best practice A model example that is highly effective, innovative and exemplary. Show case and replicate.
    117. 117. Review findings and identify potential development responses • Based upon the results of the sustainability assessment development responses will become clearer. • Development responses may vary according to strategic aims • Below are some examples of development responses: Improve viability of key products Encourage partnerships with the private sector Enhance local benefits Support the establishment of community-level management organisations Improve accessibility Request and lobby for government funding for rapid road improvement
    118. 118. ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 1: What the Consumer Want (“Do I want this product?”) I. Core Product Features Accessibility How easy is it for tourists to get to the site 2. Attractions Quality of main attractions that routs are coming for 3. Activities What other activities can the tourists do at the site 4. Main Services What are the required tourism services available 5. Supporting Services What additional services are there to make it more convenient for tourists? Summary Comments: Total II. Defining Product Features: (Characteristics) 1. Authentic How genuine and representative of the region is the product 2. Distinct How unique and special is the product 3. Variety Is there a good mix of attractions, activities, services? 4. Seasonal Factors Weather, too crowded during the busy season, etc. 5.Product Function Flagship, Hub, or Supporting Product, fit with product clusters and circuits 6.Lifecycle Stage The product’s point of development (e.g. emerging, established etc) Summary Comments: Total Product assessment score card 1/2 ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 2: What Businesses Want (“Can I sell this product?”) III. Market Considerations: 1. Key target markets Easily identifiable key targets to target. 2. Market size Sufficient to generate benefits and remain viable. 3. Market trends and influence Are target markets likely to expand or influence other markets. Summary Comments: Total IV. Commercial Viability: 1. Market-based planning Tourism products developed and managed based on markets and trends 2. Private sector engagement The private is involved, including healthy local enterprises. 3. Supportive regulatory context Regulations on business development and operations are favourable. 4. Supporting resources Available local human resources, and necessary infrastructure. Summary Comments: Total
    119. 119. Product assessment score card 2/2 ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 3: What the Other Stakeholders Want (“Is it good for us?”) V. Sustainability: 1. Economic Tourism economy provides equitable and attractive earning opportunities. 2. Environmental Natural environment is protected and enhanced. 3. Socio-cultural Local customs and cultures are respected and support-ed. 4. Institutionalization Support of government policies, plans and programs. 5. Sector functioning Sector stakeholders can function in appropriate roles for good operations. Summary Comments: Total VI. Local Benefits: 1. Equitable sharing of benefits Tourism seen as a fair and welcomed addition to local livelihoods 2. Local involvement/ ownership Community has good mechanisms for tourism engagement & management 3. Poverty reduction Disadvantaged groups (poor, women, disabled, minorities) receive benefits Summary Comments: Total ASPECT COMMENT RATING Perspective 4: Human Resources: Availability, Capacity and Needs VII. Human Resource Development: (Current capacity and needs) 1. Public Sector Management and staff responsible for tourism or relevant sectors 2. Businesses Sector Business either directly involved or supporting tourism in a location 3. Local communities Local communities stand to benefit from the tourism sector Summary Comments: Total OVERALL SCORE: TOTAL
    120. 120. Principle 3. Ensure cultural heritage product development has defined strategies and actions A. Define the responsible cultural heritage product development vision, goals and objectives B. Identify and prioritise responsible cultural heritage product development ideas C. Design responsible cultural heritage product development interventions D. Develop responsible cultural heritage product development action plan Strategy activities Action plan activities
    121. 121. A. Define the responsible cultural heritage product development vision, goals and objectives • Vision: Reflects the broad aims and purpose of tourism development • Goals: A clear, agreed set of aspirations to work towards • Objectives: Specific targets that when reached, will achieve the goals
    122. 122. Example of a vision, goals, and objectives Example vision statement: • “To develop competitive and sustainable tourism products that contribute to the improvement of local livelihoods” Example development goals: • To increase the amount of spending by tourists in the destination • To improve the performance and profitability of local tourism businesses • To increasing investment in tourism • To reduce the impact of tourism on the local environment and resources Example development objectives: • To increase full time employment in tourism in the local area by 15% by 2015 • To increase average daily spend of international visitors in the local area by 5% by 2020 • To increase average annual visitation to cultural villages by 10% by 2015
    123. 123. B. Identify and prioritise responsible cultural heritage product development ideas Key considerations include the degree to which intervention ideas help achieve: 1. Commercial viability goals: The commercial viability and realistic development potential of the products 2. Sustainability goals: The degree to which local environmental, social and economic benefits will be created 3. Sectoral goals: Strengthening infrastructure & communications; Improving promotion in key markets; Improving visitor information & interpretation; Improving quality standards; Improving safety & security Commercial viability test Sustainability test Sectoral test PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OPTION
    124. 124. Prioritisation considerations: Targeting development impacts • The number of people in poverty who will be reached by the action  • The likely increase in income per person reached • Any non-financial benefits that could reach the poor • The ability of the action to reach the particular target segment of those in poverty  • The extent to which measurement of the action’s impact is possible  • The speed and visibility of impact • The sustainability of results • The extent to which the action will enhance knowledge and can be replicated 
    125. 125. Prioritisation considerations: Practicality • The cost of the initiative? • The possible funding and other resources available? • The relevance to agreed policies and commitments? • The availability of people with sufficient capacity to carry it out? • The chance of success and the risk implications?
    126. 126. C. Design responsible cultural heritage product development interventions • Starting point - review development goals, outputs of the product-market matching analysis and the product assessment activities • Approaches to consider when designing interventions can include: Working with products that are generating high volumes of spending Working with products which may already be delivering a high proportion of spending to the poor Fostering, supporting and encouraging growth and participation of the poor
    127. 127. Taking a pragmatic approach Finally, ensure the interventions selected consider the following two questions: What can be done with the resources available? What are the interests and commitment of the different stakeholders?
    128. 128. Principles for preparing a responsible cultural heritage product development strategy • Emphasise stakeholder involvement • Based on principles of sustainable tourism: RESPONSIBLE TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Economically viable and competitive Socially equitable and culturally sensitive Environmentally responsible
    129. 129. D. Develop the responsible cultural heritage product development action plan • Clearly sets out what is being done, when, by whom, and resource commitments • Should be able to function as a stand-alone resource • General principles: – Ensure participation – Duration appropriate for the destination – Specify actions for all key stakeholders Who? What? When? Resources?
    130. 130. Guiding principles for securing resources for implementing action plans • Use the project action plan as a tool • Use a joint partnership budget or fund individually • Allow time for resource mobilisation • Identify mechanisms for receiving funding • Be flexible in financial planning • Look to the future VND
    131. 131. Action plan template ACTIVITY 1 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 Sub-activity 3 Sub-activity 4 ACTIVITY 2 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 Sub-activity 3 Sub-activity 4 ACTIVITY 3 RESULT TIMING RESPONSIBILITY RESOURCES Sub-activity 1 Sub-activity 2 …
    132. 132. TOPIC 6. SUSTAINABLE FINANCING FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT UNIT 9. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:At_Hue_Citadel4..JPG
    133. 133. What is the issue? • Around the world securing adequate finance for cultural heritage sites is a struggle yet essential • In Vietnam most cultural heritage sites receive a small budget from the Government • Supplementary cultural heritage revenue raising activities to support Government funding for cultural heritage sites • Support to the local economy and help improve the socio-economic well-being of the local residents.
    134. 134. The role and importance of sustainable financing for cultural heritage management • Better enable the implementation of prioritised cultural heritage management activities and the achievement of cultural heritage objectives • Provide increased stability and confidence in forward budgeting • Reduce the financial strain on provincial and national budgets.
    135. 135. Typical economic model of tourism in cultural heritage sites Government funding Entrance fees Return of income over budget Departure & hotel taxes Business & sales tax Employment & income tax Employment & wages Licences & user fees Infrastructure & management costs Employment & wages Payments for goods & services Tourists National government – Local government Businesses Local communities Cultural heritages Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., and Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
    136. 136. RESPONSIBLE FINANCING 1. Review financing mechanisms to identify opportunities 2. Implement innovative fund raising strategies 3. Support the local economy Three principles of good practice in responsible financing of cultural heritage sites
    137. 137. Principle 1: Review financing mechanisms to identify opportunities • Existing funding and revenue making structures and systems may be inefficient or ineffective providing • Analysing current financing systems can sometimes reveal opportunities to cut costs or increase revenue. Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    138. 138. Four areas to look for financial opportunities 1 FINANCIAL PLANNING Consistencies / inconsistencies with government financial planning timeframes. Ensure up to date. Specification / allocation of funding requirements. 3BOARDS Role and responsibilities. Financial autonomy. 2 REVENUE GENERATION Range of user charges. Account for inflation, current day costs, changes in disposable income, increasing demand. Examine opportunities for non-tourism charges. 4INVESTMENT Range of existing incentives. Examine opportunities to implement new or increase existing incentives. Source: PARC Project 2006, Policy Brief: Building Viet Nam’s National ProtectedAreas System – policy and institutional innovations requiredfor progress, Creating Protected Areas for Resource Conservation using Landscape Ecology (PARC) Project, Government of Viet Nam, (FPD) / UNOPS, UNDP, IUCN, Ha Noi, Vietnam
    139. 139. Principle 2: Implement innovative fund raising strategies • Reducing reliance on government funding by generating revenue from additional fund raising strategies is an increasing worldwide trend • To be most effective a range of strategies should be pursued to target different stakeholders and generate the maximum amount of revenue • Strategies may include entrance fees, concessions and leases, taxes and donations
    140. 140. Entrance fees Fees charged to visitors to enter the CH CHALLENGES • Inefficient fee collection resulting in losses of entrance fee revenue • Scarce human resources for fee collection / reducing conservation activities • Corruption / bribery CHARACTERISTICS • Fees charged to visitors to enter the CH • Most effective in high visitation CHs or where unique cultural exhibition items can be found • Rate should aim to cover capital and operating costs, reflect quality of service and product offering, and market demand / willingness to pay • Visitors pay more if they know the money will be used to enhance the experience or conserve culture • Tiered pricing can maximise revenue Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
    141. 141. Permits, leases and licences Contracts between CHs and businesses allowing them to operate a commercial activity in exchange for a fee CHALLENGES • Unsuccessful businesses = less revenue • Business not respecting contractual obligations • Business not controlling visitor behaviour • Profit made by business = income lost by CH CHARACTERISTICS • Private sector more critical due to limited government funding • Examples: tour guiding, accommodation, restaurants, transportation • Requires good control • CH benefit: business has the knowledge, experience, equipment etc • Business benefit: access to attractive location, limited competition Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
    142. 142. Direct commercial operation CH authority provides commercial goods and services CHALLENGES • Human resources, knowledge, skills, financial resources • Ensuring businesses are not owned by CH personnel who receive all the profits and no benefit to the CH CHARACTERISTICS • Can cover same activities as private sector • Increasing revenue through the sale of additional goods and services such as souvenirs, food and beverages and in-house tours. • Can be wholly-state owner or Public-Private Partnership (PPP) / joint venture • Ensures all / more money is obtained by the CH • Should include local labour and goods / services Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
    143. 143. Taxes Charges on goods and services that generate funds for the government and can be used to support CH management CHALLENGES • Not popular with locals or visitors • Ensuring money goes back into conservation • Costs of managing the system • Hard to manage “small” taxes (same administration as larger taxes) CHARACTERISTICS • Allows for generating funds nationally and on a long-term basis and to use the funds to suit needs • Examples: Local tax on users of a cultural heritage or use of equipment, bed levies on accommodation • Accessing tax concessions for conservation works/donations where possible Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
    144. 144. Donations Gifts of money, goods or services, offered free of charge to support CHs CHALLENGES • Requires good communication to visitors by guides and print material etc • Good transparency and accountability in management and use of money CHARACTERISTICS • Can use trust funds to hold and manage the donations • Providing opportunities for visitors to donate directly to restoration projects including cash, ‘in-kind’ gifts, and labour • Can encourage businesses to donate a small % of sales to support a CH project (e.g. restoration of monuments, collection of cultural exhibition items) • Can use donation boxes • Fund raising through projects or events such as cultural festivals Source: Font, X., Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2004, Tourism for Protected Area Financing: Understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
    145. 145. Principle 3: Support the local economy • Responsible tourism requires socio-economic benefits are received by the local people • If local communities only see the cost of the CH and no benefits, they are unlikely to support CH management or tourism Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
    146. 146. Understanding the local communities’ views of tourism in cultural heritage sites Create income Create employment Create opportunities for local businesses Assist community development Protect culture Access to better services
    147. 147. Helping build a stronger local economy in cultural heritage destinations Source: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK Employing local community members as heritage site staffs Engaging the local community in the cultural heritage site supply chain Providing advice and support on how to improve the quality of local goods and services Helping the local community to institutionalise its tourism service providers Establishing clear mechanisms for the use of fees paid by the tourists Implementing financial management training for locally managed cultural heritage sites Bundling the price of a locally made handicraft product into cultural heritage tour fees.
    148. 148. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!

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