Unit 8: Responsible Tourism Impact Monitoring For Sustainability
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Unit 8: Responsible Tourism Impact Monitoring For Sustainability

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Unit 8: Responsible Tourism Impact Monitoring For Sustainability Unit 8: Responsible Tourism Impact Monitoring For Sustainability Presentation Transcript

  • UNIT 8. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IMPACT MONITORING FOR SUSTAINABILITY
  • Unit outline Objectives By the end of the unit participants will be able to: • Explain how to apply research skills and analyse captured data • Explain how to design success criteria and performance indicators for monitoring and evaluating tour products and services • Explain how to interpret research output on impacts of tourism products and services • Explain how to implement principles of continuous improvement in monitoring and product development Topics 1. Overview of responsible tourism impact monitoring for sustainability 2. Planning & organising a monitoring programme 3. Developing monitoring indicators 4. Implementing , adapting & improving a monitoring programme
  • TOPIC 1. OVERVIEW OF RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IMPACT MONITORING FOR SUSTAINABILITY UNIT 8. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IMPACT MONITORING FOR SUSTAINABILIY Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Group_discussion_at_GLAM-Wiki_2013.JPG
  • The role and importance of tourism impact monitoring • Tourism markets and destinations are always changing • Monitoring is critical for evaluating and managing change • Monitoring helps: – Improve understanding about the effects of tourism – Identify where improvement is needed and where change is occurring – Enable destinations and businesses to remain competitive 4
  • A tourism world without monitoring… • Without data of tourism conditions and trends that monitoring provides, planners and managers: – Cannot assure stakeholders of the reliability of their decisions; – Cannot respond to public concerns and criticisms; and – Cannot properly fulfil their responsibilities or judge the effectiveness of their actions. • Moreover, if planners and managers do not undertake the monitoring, someone else will – and such monitoring may well be biased Adapted from: Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. 2002, Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevendepolo/4605621230/
  • Key characteristics of responsible tourism impact monitoring for sustainability 3. Requires SMART target setting
  • 1. Responsible tourism impact monitoring ensures tourism development is strategic Identifies indicators Sets targets Promotes effective monitoring Requires evaluation of results Fosters adaptation & continuous improvement
  • 2. Responsible tourism impact monitoring ensures sustainable tourism objectives are met Environmental objectives Social objectives Economic objectives
  • 3. Responsible tourism impact monitoring ensures objectives are SMART SMART OBJECTIVES Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timely
  • 4. Responsible tourism impact monitoring considers the concerns of key stakeholders Communities Business Authorities Others
  • The different objectives of stakeholders in monitoring tourism COMMUNITY MEMBERS Want to know how tourism is affecting their livelihoods, culture and environment INDUSTRY Want to know changes in tourism markets and implications for business growth NGOs Want to know the impact of tourism on their particular area of concern LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Want to know how tourism is performing and how well it contributes to local development goals NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS Want to know the economic and social value of tourism and how it contributes to national development goals
  • The benefits of responsible tourism impact monitoring IMPACT MONITORING BENEFITS Progress & effectiveness Decision- making Accountability Planning Policy-making & advocacy
  • Monitor tourism impacts because prevention and early intervention is always better than cure! In tourism, symptoms of negative impacts can be gradual… After a negative impact has been identified opportunities to manage become more limited… …and problems can be difficult to spot. …and in many cases returning to the original state can be impossible “Gosh where did all these tourists come from? I don’t remember seeing so many a few years ago!” “I thought we were able to handle all the tourists unit I saw some kids acting like foreigners and it occurred to me just how much our culture has changed!” “When we started running tours to the nearby cave some tourists damaged the beautiful rock formations. Now we have lost them forever” “We really have too many tourists here but with so many businesses now depending on them reducing the volume would never be supported”
  • Implementing a responsible tourism impact monitoring programme of sustainability PLANNING & ORGANISING A MONITORING PROGRAMME • Establish a monitoring steering committee or group • Plan a monitoring programme DEVELOPING MONITORING INDICATORS • Review existing indicators • Shortlist and select indicators IMPLEMENTING A MONITORING PROGRAMME • Evaluate feasibility and data collection methods • Collect and analyse data • Communicate and report results ADAPTING & IMPROVING THE MONITORING PROGRAMME Learn and adapt from wins and losses TOPIC 3 TOPIC 4TOPIC 2
  • TOPIC 2. PLANNING AND ORGANISING A MONITORING PROGRAMME UNIT 8. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IMPACT MONITORING FOR SUSTAINABILITY
  • Preparing for a tourism impact monitoring programme of sustainability 1. Establish a tourism monitoring steering committee or group 2. Plan the tourism monitoring programme of sustainability
  • 1. Establishing a monitoring steering committee or group Who has the leadership to drive & co- ordinate the programme? Who has the skills to review and adjust the programme? Who has networks to disseminate results? Who has the knowledge to develop programme objectives and areas of focus? Who has the resources to implement the programme? Picture source: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  • Involve stakeholders according to where they fit best into the monitoring process PLANNING PHASE DEVELOPMENT PHASE DATA COLLECTION PHASE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Local officials, planners, develo pment consultants, donor agencies, community groups Community members for assessment of key issues and indicators Community members and tourism industry representatives Multi-stakeholder group
  • Stakeholder groups to consider in tourism monitoring programmes PUBLIC SECTOR • Municipal authorities • Regional authorities • National, state, province, and county departments & ministries responsible for tourism • Other ministries & agencies in areas affecting tourism (e.g. environment, health) • Agencies with an interest in the planning or maintenance of specific attractions PRIVATE SECTOR • Private sector entrepreneurs and employees • Tour operators and travel agencies • Accommodation, restaurants and attractions, and entertainment facilities • Air, road, sea and river transportation services • Guides, interpreters, information providers and outfitters • Suppliers to the industry • Tourism and trade organisations • Business development organisations NGOS & OTHERS • Environmental and conservation groups • Other interest groups (hunters, fishermen and sports/adventure associations) • Communities and local community groups • Native and cultural groups • Traditional leaders • Tourists and organisations representing tourists in their origin country • International tourism bodies Source: Adapted from Miller, G & Twining Ward L. 2005, Montioring for a sustainable tourism transition: The Challenge of developing and using indicators, Cabi Publishing
  • 2. Planning a tourism impacts monitoring programme of sustainability • Important that the monitoring programme clearly understands its need, purpose and scope before starting work • Key requirements include: A. Agreement on need B. Good co- ordination C. Set vision, goals and objectives D. Consensus on what will be monitored
  • A. Agreeing on the need for a tourism impacts monitoring programme of sustainability What? Destination stakeholders need to understand importance of tourism impacts monitoring Why? To create ownership, facilitate support and gain participation How? Stakeholder meeting with full representation
  • B. Establishing effective co-ordination of the tourism impacts monitoring programme • Invite members with knowledge and skills required  • Agree on leadership position or examine other options • Ensure structure meets the needs of the tasks, members and stakeholder groups  • Ensure structure is inclusive, accountable and transparent but also effective  • Consider need for additional structural components according to collaboration size  • Determine functioning rules
  • C. Setting the objectives for a tourism impacts monitoring programme • Objectives define the vision for sustainability and the contribution of tourism in achieving it • Development process allows stakeholders to identify their expectations from tourism and consider how they might be met • All goals should follow SMART principles GOALS What we hope to achieve OBJECTIVES How we will achieve it
  • Example of tourism sustainability goals and objectives GOAL OBJECTIVE To contribute to poverty alleviation in XX village • Reduce the proportion of people living below the poverty line to less than 10% in 5 years • Increase the number of people employed in tourism by 25% in 3 years To encourage extensive local participation in community-based tourism • Ensure 100% households have access to running water in 2 years • To increase the number and range of community members attending planning meetings To improve the situation for women in XX village • To increase the number of opportunities for involving stakeholders in CBT • Increase the number of women involved in tourism planning to 50% or more of all those residents involved • Increase the number of women entrepreneurs working in tourism • Increase the proportion of women in supervisory positions to 25% or more Source: SNV Vietnam & the University of Hawaii, School of Travel Industry Management 2007, A Toolkit for Monitoring and Managing Community-based Tourism, SNV Vietnam & the University of Hawaii, USA Our goal How we will achieve it (SMART)
  • D. Identifying the scope of the tourism sustainability monitoring programme • Scope refers to the “boundaries” of the monitoring programme • Can be geographical (location) as well as subject related (issues and / or assets) • Boundaries may be predetermined or unset If geographic boundaries are not set, then they should consider: • Wide geographic sampling • Priority zones • Both high and low visitation areas
  • Example of scopes of study in a tourism monitoring programme of sustainability Geographical scope Socio- cultural issues Economic issues Environ- mental issuesVILLAGE Socio- cultural issues Economic issues Environ- mental issues TOWN Socio- cultural issues Economic issues Environ- mental issues REGION Subject related scope
  • Examples of key issues to consider when scoping tourism sustainability Gender equity & social inclusion • Family well-being, equal employment opportunities, gender roles in traditional communities, access to loans and credit, control over tourism-related income Poverty reduction / economic development • Income, employment, entrepreneurs hip, quality of life Capacity development • Tourism awareness, tourism business training, local control of tourism operations, participation in local governance Environmental protection • Waste management, energy use and carbon emissions, access to water, biodiversity protection, protection from natural disasters Cultural preservation and promotion • Preservation of traditions and values, maintenance of cultural significance and meaning, maintenance of cultural heritage sites Social gains • Quality of life, crime, access to resources, access to heath care, access to education, limitation of rural to urban migration
  • TOPIC 3. DEVELOPING MONITORING INDICATORS UNIT 8. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IMPACT MONITORING FOR SUSTAINABILITY Picture source: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  • The role and importance of sustainability indicators in monitoring tourism impacts • An “indication” of the state of a particular issue • Formally selected and used on a regular basis to measure changes • Conventional tourism indicators include arrival numbers, length of stay, and expenditure • Sustainable tourism indicators focus on the link between tourism and sustainability issues FOCUS OF INDICATORS FOR MONITORING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM • Issues concerning the natural resources and environment of a destination • Concerns relating to economic sustainability • Issues relating to cultural assets and social values • Broad organisation and management issues within the tourism sector and broader destination
  • The focus of indicators at different levels in the tourism sector National level • To detect broad changes in tourism at the national level, compare with other nations, provide a baseline for the identification of changes at more localized levels and support broad level strategic planning Regional level • As input into regional plans and protection processes, to serve as a basis for comparison between regions and to provide information for national level planning processes Destination level • To identify key elements of assets, state of the tourism sector, risks, and performance Tourist site level • For decisions on site control, management and future development of tourist attractions where management level indicators can support site planning and control Tourism companies & establishments • To feed strategic planning process for destinations, To monitor the impact and performance of their operation Source: World Tourism Organization 2004, Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook, World Tourism Organisation, Madrid, Spain
  • Types of indicators • Early warning indicators • Indicators of stresses on the system • Measures of the current state of industry • Measures of tourism development sustainability impacts • Measures of management effort • Measures of management effects INDICATORS MEASURE Impacts OutcomesOutputs
  • Impact type vs. Indicator type Environmental impacts Social impacts Economic impacts Quantitative indicators Qualitative indicators IMPACT Category indices Normative indicators Nominal indicators Opinion-based indicators Raw data Ratio Percentage TYPE OF INDICATOR TYPE OF MEASURE
  • Benefits of good performance indicators Inform decision making Measure progress, achieveme nts, and trends Ensure legitimacy and accountability Ensure consistency of activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts Help assess project and staff performance
  • Selecting effective tourism sustainability indicators Consider set of key issues defined in the scoping exercise Use participatory approach to evaluate and prioritise issues Ensure input from all key stakeholders Agreed list of key issues for which indicators can be developed
  • Dissection of an sustainability issue into indicators ISSUE COMPONENT A ISSUE COMPONENT C ISSUE COMPONENT E ISSUE COMPONENT G ISSUE COMPONENT INDICATOR E1 ISSUE COMPONENT INDICATOR E2 ISSUE COMPONENT INDICATOR E3 …. SUSTAINABILITY ISSUE
  • Example of tourism indicator development process for sustainability INDICATORS COMPONENTS OF ISSUE KEY SUSTAINABILITY ISSUE Environmental protection Waste management Number hotels with a recycling programme Biodiversity protection Number of threatened or extinct species as percentage of all known species Perceived value of forest resources to tourism
  • Don’t reinvent the wheel! Use and / or adapt existing indicators Many organisations have already developed and refined useful indicators for monitoring tourism impacts on sustainability World Tourism Organisation Indicator Guidebook Pressure, State, Response Indicators UNEP Environmental Indicators IUCN Indicators of Resources Management
  • Example of environmental and economic sustainability indicators in tourism ENVIRONMENTAL Number of threatened or extinct species as percentage of all known species Perceived value of forest resources to tourism Number of days tourists spend on nature tourism activities out of total number of days Number of hotels with environmental policy Environmental awareness campaigns conducted Number hotels recycling 25% or more of their waste products Demand/supply ratio for water Number of hotels with 50% or more of total toilets as dual flush % of energy consumption from renewable resources ECONOMIC Average wage rates in tourism jobs rural/ urban Number of local people employed in tourism (men and women) Revenues generated by tourism as % of all revenues generated in the community % of visitors who overnight in local tourist accommodation % of hotels with a majority local staff % of GDP provided by tourism Change in number of visitor arrivals Average tourist length of stay New tourism businesses as a percentage of all new businesses
  • Example of social and project / business sustainability indicators in tourism SOCIAL % of tourism operators who provide day care to employees with children % of tourism operators who have commitments regarding equal gender opportunity Women/men as a % of all tourism employment % women/men employees sent on training programmes Satisfaction with volume of tourists visiting the destination PROJECT / BUSINESS PERFORMANCE Sustainability Management Plan exists All personnel receive periodic sustainability management training % of purchases of services and goods from local providers % of purchases that are fair trade purchases Number of facilities built using local material Code of conduct developed with local community % of women and local minority employees
  • Good practice in setting effective tourism indicators Ensure indicators identify conditions or outputs of tourism development Ensure indicators are descriptive rather than evaluative Ensure indicators are easy to measure Ensure you start with only a few key variables
  • Tips for shortlisting indicators RELEVANCE COMPARABILITYCREDIBILITY CLARITY FEASIBILITY Of the indicator to the selected issue Of the information and reliability for users of the data And understand- ability to users Of obtaining and analysing the information Over time and across jurisdictions or regions
  • Example of method to shortlist indicators INDICATOR RELEVANCE CLARITY CREDIBILITY COMPARABILITY FEASIBILITY % of tourism operators who provide day care to employees with children      % of tourism operators who have commitments regarding equal gender opportunity      Women/men as a % of all tourism employment      % women / men employees sent on training programmes      Satisfaction with volume of tourists visiting the destination     
  • TOPIC 4. IMPLEMENTING, ADAPTING & IMPROVING A MONITORING PROGRAMME UNIT 8. RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IMPACT MONITORING FOR SUSTAINABILITY Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AN_LAC_CAVES_ROWING_BOATS_NORTHERN_VIETNAM_FEB_2012_(6973865371).jpg
  • The 4 key steps in implementing a tourism sustainability monitoring programme 1. Assess feasibility & data collection methods 2. Collect & analyse data 3. Communicate results 4. Review & improve • Data components • Sources of data • Responsibilities • Collection methods • Collection • Analysis • Styles of communication • Methods of communication • Review • Improve Image sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  • 1. Assessing programme feasibility and data collection methods DATA COMPONENTS •Range of data sets required SOURCES OF DATA •Primary •Secondary RESPONSIBILITIES •Data collection •Data analysis •Data manipulation •Data validation COLLECTION METHODS •Questionnaires / interviews •Visitor book •Observation •Focus group meetings
  • Dissect indicators to identify data components required for collection Identify the range of data sets required to make an assessment of an indicator Example: % of hotels in a destination who employ a majority of local staff Employment data for each hotel indicating % local and % migrant workers Data on the total number of hotels in the destination SOCIAL INDICATOR DATA SETS REQUIRED
  • Appropriate selection of data sources • Where will the data for monitoring progress come from? • Provides a chance to consider information availability and accessibility PRIMARY DATA • Interviews • Surveys • Observation Cost of collection Availability Accessibility Timeliness SECONDARY DATA • Reports • Documents ? ? ??
  • Tips for assessing the value of secondary source information Who is the organisation? Are they biased? Are the rules of sampling followed? Are there well defined units of measurement? Is the data accurate? Is it authorised? Is it pertinent to the problem? Adapted from: Goeldner, C. & Brent Ritchie, J. 2009, Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies, John Wiley & Sons, USA
  • Assigning responsibilities Who will… …collect the data …create the data tables …analyse the data …conduct additional data manipulation …validate / verify the data LOCAL SCHOOLS & UNIVERSITIES TOURISM OPERATORS LOCAL COMMUNITY VISITORS FIELD STAFF ? ? ? ? ?
  • 2. Selecting appropriate data collection methods in tourism Focus-group meetings Overall conditions & impacts of tourism Requires careful selection & moderation Visitor books Visitors’ experiences May not be statistically valid Questionnaires & interviews Insight into opinions and actions Careful sample selection required Requires research expertiseObservation Overview of a situation Gauge success or failure of actions Evidential Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  • Tips in writing effective surveys 51 • Not everyone is familiar with technical termsAvoid jargon • The survey should be easy to read and understand by the majority of peopleUse simple language • Ensure questions cannot be interpreted in more than one wayAvoid ambiguity • Don’t try to influence answers by the way you make the questionAvoid leading questions • Combining 2 questions together can result in only 1 being effectively answered Ask one question at a time
  • Poorly written survey questions TIP BAD PRACTICE GOOD PRACTICE Avoid jargon Are you visiting for VFR purposes? …? Use simple language What is the frequency of utilisation of retail travel agents? …? Avoid ambiguity Do you visit attractions often? …? Avoid leading questions Are you against the extension of the airport? …? Ask one question at a time Have you visited the tourist information centre, and if so what do you think of the service? …?
  • Survey questions following good practice TIP BAD PRACTICE GOOD PRACTICE Avoid jargon Are you visiting for VFR purposes? Are you here to visit friends and / or relatives? Use simple language What is the frequency of utilisation of retail travel agents? How often do you use travel agents? Avoid ambiguity Do you visit attractions often? Which of the following attractions have you visited in the last 6 months? Avoid leading questions Are you against the extension of the airport? What is your opinion on the extension of the airport? Are you for it, against it, or not concerned? Ask one question at a time Have you visited the tourist information centre, and if so what do you think of the service? Have you visited the tourist information centre? Yes / No (if yes, proceed to Q2) How satisfied were you with the service you received there? (provide rating scale)
  • The STCRC’s tips for reducing data collection costs • Use existing collection instruments • Prepare well your data collection • Limit and pre test questions Adapted from: Carson, D., Richards, F. & Tremblay, P. (undated), Local level data collection: ‘Know your patch’ kit, Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre, Australia • Get stakeholder support beforehand • Use innovative ways in data collection • Start small 
  • Principles in good data analysis •The first “foundation” study from which future studies follow BASELINES •Comparison of data against baseline •Can also use industry averages BENCHMARKS •Helps establish if results are positive or negative in local situation LIMITS OF ACCEPTABLE CHANGE (THRESHOLDS) Effective monitoring systems often incorporate at a number of different tools to assist in the analysis of results:
  • Examples of baselines, benchmarks and thresholds Establishing a baseline •A survey was conducted in 2014 which established that 15% of households in a village had running water •This forms the baseline for household access to running water in the destination Using a benchmark •In 2015 a repeat survey was conducted which recorded that 25% of households had running water •This shows a positive change of 10% against the Year 1 baseline Comparing to thresholds •In terms of access to running water, anything less than 100% requires action •If however, the study was of the amount of protected forest in a community, 40% might be an acceptable target depending on the year 1 benchmark
  • Example: Acceptable thresholds of change for a national sustainable tourism programme in Samoa INDICATOR RESULT THRESHOLD PERFORMANCE ENVIRONMENTAL % of new hotels undertaking environmental impact assessments 33% 90-100% V.POOR % of hotels using secondary or tertiary sewage treatment 8% 30-50% V.POOR % of tourists participating in nature tourism 8% 20-40% V.POOR % of tourist sites passing water quality tests 50% 70-90% POOR % of hotels composting their biodegradable waste 76% 60-80% ACCEPTABLE Water usage per guest night in hotels (in litres) 928 500-1000 ACCEPTABLE ECONOMIC Contribution of direct tourism businesses to GDP 4% 10-20% POOR Proportion of new businesses focused on tourism 4% 10-20% POOR Proportion of hotel jobs in rural areas 48% 40-60% ACCEPTABLE SOCIAL Hotel staff participating in training courses 27% 25-50% ACCEPTABLE Villages included in tourism awareness programmes 28% 25-50% ACCEPTABLE Proportion of traditional events in Tourism Festivals 50% 50-70% ACCEPTABLE Proportion of handicraft stalls out of all stalls in markets 21% 20-40% ACCEPTABLE Tourism operators informing visitors of village protocol 72% 50-70% GOOD Source: SNV Vietnam & the University of Hawaii, School of Travel Industry Management 2007, A Toolkit for Monitoring and Managing Community-based Tourism, SNV Vietnam & the University of Hawaii, USA
  • 3. Communicating tourism impacts monitoring programme results • There is no point in doing a monitoring programme if no one finds out about the results • Stakeholders and decision makers need to hear about the results so they can take action • Results should presented to help stakeholders reinforce positive actions or remedy problem situations Consider the needs of the potential user Portray the results as simply as possible PRINCIPLES IN COMMUNICATING RESULTS
  • Options for getting the message out Meetings and workshops Provide an analysis of the monitoring programme results in a practical and “hands-on” workshop or meeting. It also in-depth analysis and detailed clarification of issues. Newsletters & reports Provide details of the results within the organisation newsletter or alternatively create a newsletter specifically for communicating the results. Include results in the organisation’s annual report. Website Create a section on the organisation’s website that provides details of the progress being made in sustainability performance. Email Deliver information about the sustainability monitoring program directly into the mailbox of the stakeholders. Coming from senior management can add a level of authority. Quick and direct. Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  • 4. Adapting and improving the tourism impacts monitoring programme • Situations change so regular reviews should take place to ensure the monitoring programme remains effective and meaningful • Review of successes and failures should be conducted by the steering committee after each campaign • Consult stakeholders to obtain opinions on data usefulness and strategies for improvement
  • UNWTO checklist of issues in the re-evaluation indicator effectiveness 1/2  Are the indicators being used (by whom and how?)  Which indicators are not being used?  Do the users find the current set useful?  Do users now have other needs?  Are there new potential users?  Are the indicators in the right form, or are other output forms now needed?  Are there new means to collect or analyse data for the indicators which might make production easier or more efficient? Assessment of indicator effectiveness
  • UNWTO checklist of issues in the re-evaluation indicator effectiveness 2/2 62  Are there new issues which have arisen and which require indicators?  Is information now available which could permit indicators which were too difficult to produce, but which were seen as important, to be added?  Is there evidence of outcomes which have been influenced by indicators use?  What are the barriers, if any, which have prevented optimal use of the indicators? Assessment of indicator effectiveness