Unit 14: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Craft Villages In Vietnam


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Unit 14: Responsible Tourism Good Practice For Craft Villages In Vietnam

  1. 1. UNIT 14.RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CRAFT VILLAGES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nerdcoregirl/3609065883/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  2. 2. Unit outline Objectives By the end of this unit, participants will be able to: • Understand the positive and negative economic, environmental and social impacts of craft villages in Vietnam and the benefits of responsible tourism • Explain the importance of developing products for markets and marketing them responsibly and ways to do so • Explain the principles and practices in ensuring product quality, innovation and competitiveness to ensure commercial viability • Explain issues of waste and pollution management in craft villages and steps to minimise negative impacts • Explain how to enhance participation and tourism destination attractiveness through craft village co-operation and co-ordination and development mechanisms Topics 1. Overview of Craft Villages and tourism in Vietnam 2. Developing product- market links & marketing responsibly 3. Ensuring product quality, innovation & competitiveness 4. Managing waste & pollution 5. Effective co-operation & co-ordination 6. Responsible craft village destination development
  4. 4. Craft villages in Vietnam • > 30 % of households participating in craft activities • Legally operate for at least 2 years • 2 types - traditional and new craft villages • 2017 craft villages estimated in 2007 Source: Mahanty, S, Dang, T & Hai, P. 2012, ‘Crafting sustainability: managing water pollution in Viet Nam’s craft villages,’ Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper 20, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
  5. 5. Vietnam’s 12 categories of handicraft products Picture sources: http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQyVfnymaeLpoQPqNEkBpi3ms49unjBgBqSW9uKt37JbGxp5Rmt; http://imagevietnam.vnanet.vn/Upload//2012/8/28/28-8TNDP4BaoAnh2882012104754928.jpg; http://ictpress.vn/uploads/imagecache/center-image/dsc_7456.jpg; http://www.dunghangviet.vn/uploads/content/2012-09- Identify the handicrafts!
  6. 6. Vietnam’s 12 categories of handicraft products Picture sources: http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3205/3123924949_2296a7837c_z.jpg; http://imagevietnam.vnanet.vn/Upload//2011/4/21/21-4TNDP09N421.jpg; http://dulichtaybac.net/images/stories/anhbaiviet/baiviet/dt_22720101447_nghia-an2-20121016123811.jpg; http://www.nguhanhson.danang.gov.vn/Portals/0/Images/1.Tintuc_sukien/3.Vanhoa_Xahoi/2013/130926-lang%20da%201.jpg Identify the handicrafts! 7.
  7. 7. Vietnam’s 12 categories of handicraft products Picture sources: http://sohanews2.vcmedia.vn/2013/1363650840031.jpg; http://www.ellaviet.com/Uploads/Images/LANGNGHE/ThanhTien.jpg; http://www.sggp.org.vn/dataimages/original/2009/03/images281986_image001.jpg; http://dancotravel.net/UserFiles/image/Cam-nang-du-lich/Cam-nang-du-lich-sapa/1304914053_sapa-13.jpg Identify the handicrafts!
  8. 8. The importance of craft villages… …to the nation • Addresses rural poverty & helps counter rural-urban income gaps and migration • Fosters rural industrialisation and modernisation & increases national and local budgets …to the community • Provides jobs and income during off-crop seasons • Improves quality of life for local people • Enables the continued expression of artforms
  9. 9. Did you know….? Craft villages generate jobs for 1.5 million people, of which 60% are women, with most jobs located in rural areas where employment is needed most Vietnam’s handicrafts are exported to > 100 nations and generate export revenue of about US$ 2.8 billion Source: Cong, T. 2012, ‘Handicraft sector told to refresh itself’, TalkVietnam, Available [online]: www.talkvietnam.com/2012/10/handicraft-sector-told-to-refresh-itself/, Accessed: 14/08/2013
  10. 10. • Crafts use accessible skills and resources • Crafts can support other sources of income • Crafts can fill employment gaps • Crafts are accessible to people with limited formal education Crafts foster employment for the poor Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ag_gilmore/8177441079/
  11. 11. • Crafts are based on traditional skills • Other sources of income can be limited • It is estimated craft workers have an income 60% higher than the average income of other rural people Crafts increase income for the poor
  12. 12. • Crafts are based upon traditional forms of art • Commercial craft production helps preserve cultural heritage • Crafts help create national pride and inspiration Crafts help preserve cultural heritage Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_silk_and_painting_shop_in_Hoi_An.jpg
  13. 13. • Crafts act as mementos or souvenirs that connect people to a place • Craft villages provide enriching cultural learning experiences for tourists • Craft villages create opportunities for other businesses to develop and improve local infrastructure and services Crafts and craft villages create good consumer products and destinations Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:An_aged_woman_wearing_traditional_Vietnamese_clothes,_selling_fictile_craft_souvenirs_in_one_of_Hoi_An_Ancient_Town_streets.jpg
  14. 14. Why handicrafts are the ultimate souvenirs! HANDICRAFT Handicrafts use a special mix of design, materials and production making them unique to a people and place Tourists want souvenirs that give a physical reminder of a place, people or experience
  15. 15. • Craft skills can be passed through families and communities over generations • Competition can help create greater cohesion amongst craft families and communities Crafts can help foster social cohesion Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Black_H'mong_family_%E2%80%93_Grandmother,_mother,_grandson-_Sapa_Vietnam.JPG
  16. 16. Picture source: http://www.dulichnamchau.vn/wp-content/uploads/lang-nghe-lao-cai.jpg The evolution of the handicrafts sector in Sapa Before 1994 1995 - 2000 After 2000 • Unknown • Few villagers maintain these traditional skills • Start engaging in tourism industry • More villagers involved • Crafts develop strongly • More than 10 villages involved in making handicrafts • Handicrafts exported • Villages begin attracting tourists
  17. 17. Major challenges of the crafts sector in sustainability 1/3 Overreliance on tourism professional Limited development Loss of authenticity Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/4331192254/
  18. 18. Major challenges of the crafts sector in sustainability 2/3 Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beggar_Japan_Man.svg; !design rights and benefits limited Threats of sector stagnation waste and pollution MINE YOURS
  19. 19. Major challenges of the crafts sector in sustainability 3/3 Depletionof natural resources commodification of culture Others?? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  20. 20. Adopting a responsible tourism approach to improve craft village sustainability Responsible tourism balances the needs of the consumer, supplier, community and environment Minimises negative economic social & environmental impacts Creates greater economic benefits for local people Promotes greater local participation Helps conserve natural and cultural resources Creates more attractive and commercially viable products (and destinations)
  21. 21. Application of responsible tourism in craft villages Developing product- market links & marketing responsibly Ensuring product quality, innovation & competitiveness Managing craft waste & pollution Effective co- operation & co- ordination Responsible craft village destination development Topic 2 & 3 Topic 4 Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 7
  22. 22. Benefits of adopting a responsible tourism approach in craft villages Greater ownership & accountability Maintenance of cultural integrity and pride Empowerment of local residents Enhanced experiences for tourists & consumer Enhanced appreciation of contribution of tourism to cultural preservation
  23. 23. TOPIC 2. DEVELOPING PRODUCT-MARKET LINKS & MARKETING RESPONSIBLY RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CRAFT VILLAGES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://chogombattrang.vn/upload/user/hieunt/news/du-lich-bat-trang-www.chogombattrang.vn.jpg
  24. 24. What do we mean by product-market links? • A product is the finished craft that is available for sale to consumers • Vietnam has 12 craft products groups • Markets are the end consumers who buy the products • Markets can be domestic or international (export) • Markets can be further defined into market segments MARKET PRODUCTS Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  25. 25. • Not all markets may be interested in the same product/s • Consumers have different needs in product design, form, and function • Consumers have different budgets • Expectations / requirements of product quality can also vary Why do we need to match products to markets? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  27. 27. Additional considerations for developing commercially viable products COMPETITION Market trends positioning market sizemarket Up? Down? How many consumers? How do we compare? How are we different?
  28. 28. Benefits of product-market matching • Better meets consumer needs making them more commercially viable and economically sustainable • More likely to have reliable sales which better secures incomes  Meet specific target market needs  Priced to meet the budget of the target market  Ensures producers obtain sufficient profit  Takes better advantage of market opportunities  Plans for market risks including those of competitors Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  29. 29. BUILDING STRONG PRODUCT- MARKET LINKS 2. Develop products using a market & competitor analysis 3. Strengthen products by reviewing & improving business linkages 4. Continually improve products based on feedback 1. Base products on a value chain analysis Principles of good practice in building strong product-market links
  30. 30. Principle 1. Build high value products based on a value chain analysis • Understand the activities that are performed (add “value”) to develop the craft product • Used to strengthen products by examining actors and linkages and finding ways to strengthen or improve activities • Quantification used to understand value, for example: – Number of the different actors (companies or workforce) – Product quantities sold by different actors (products or turnover) – Number of persons employed, gender ratios etc • Analysis generally requires specific skills and experience http://cityinsight.vn/data/images/uploads/2013/10/van-phuc-silk-handicraft-village-hanoi-one-day-tour-1.jpg
  31. 31. Steps to conduct a value chain analysis COLLECT DATA ANALYSE DATA Opportunities & constraints Mapping actors, functio ns & relationships End market analysis VET FINDINGS / DEVELOP ACTION PLAN
  32. 32. Example of typical handicrafts value chain After the value chain is developed, it is possible to identify challenges at different stages of the value chain. Based on the analysis, a range of solutions can be developed and implemented such as : technical skills training, gender equality and entrepreneurship development, access to business support services and finance, access to markets, and strengthening of craft cooperatives. Source: UNWomen, http://www.unwomen.org/mdgf/B/VietNam_B.html
  33. 33. Calculating product economic value • Requires assessing market prices at different levels of the value chain • How much money is spent on raw material, what is the producer price and what are wholesale and retail prices? • An example of a handicraft value chain is below: Raw material $0.5/handicraft Handicraft production $0.9/handicraft Middlemen – marketing $1.0/handicraft Retail market $1.1/handicraft Consumer Total value of product is price paid by consumer ($1.1) Source: International Trade Centre 2012, Inclusive tourism: Linking the handicraft sector to tourism markets, ITC, Geneva, Switzerland
  34. 34. Assessing opportunities and constraints for pro-poor benefit OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS CONSTRAINTS ANALYSIS • Is there any particular demand for a certain kind of handicrafts expressed by traders? • What kind of higher value handicraft products are appreciated by tourists? • Are there any particular product qualities which are in high demand? • How will the tourism sector change in the country in the near future? • What tourism trends are pushed by local and international stakeholders? • What possibilities are there to substitute imported products? • Are there any possibilities for new product development? • What market channels can be developed further? • What kind of raw material can be used in addition? • Can poor people be helped to upgrade their production? • Can poor people take over additional functions in the value chain? • What constraints need to be overcome in order to be able to make use of the market opportunities? • What other constraints do not allow craftsmen to receive a higher price paid by the tourists and to increase their income? • To what extent does the product quality need to be improved in order to increase sales? • What kind of skills and knowledge are missing? • Is the raw material supply sufficient? • Are the technologies and equipment used appropriate? • How can productivity be increased? • Are there any particular transport problems? • How is the relationship between traders and raw material suppliers? Source: International Trade Centre 2012, Inclusive tourism: Linking the handicraft sector to tourism markets, ITC, Geneva, Switzerland
  35. 35. Principle 2. Develop products using a market and competitor analysis • Confirms demand and positioning of current craft products • Identifies opportunities for current or new products with current or new markets • Allows craft organisations to understand and eliminate threats and challenges and pursue the strongest opportunities COMPONENTS OF A MARKET ANALYSIS • Market characteristics • Input supply • Technology / product development • Management & organisation • Policy framework • Finance
  36. 36. Overview of key elements of a market analysis Industry overview Current size, historic growth rate, trends and other characteristics such as life cycle stage, projected growth rate Target market analysis Critical needs of consumers, demographics, location, seasonal or cyclical purchasing trends, size of the primary target market, annual purchases made, forecast growth, anticipated market share, pricing structure, gross margin levels, promotional offers planned etc Competitor analysis Competitor market share, importance of target market to competitors, indirect or secondary competitors Regulatory restrictions Customer or governmental regulatory requirements affecting business, operational or cost impacts for compliance
  37. 37. Considerations in a competitor analysis COMPETITOR TYPE/S OF CRAFTS PRODUCED TARGET MARKET PRODUCT FEATURES QUALITY PRICING DISTRIBUTION Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  38. 38. Principle 3. Strengthen products by reviewing and improving business linkages • Forward linkages – Identify opportunities and / or gaps – Develop forums – Complement existing linkages with new ones • Backward linkages – Solidify access to sufficient raw materials / quality inputs at reasonable prices HANDICRAFT COOPERATIVE RETAIL SHOP RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS Forward linkages Backward linkages
  39. 39. Principle 4. Continually improve products based on feedback • Markets needs and wants are continually changing based upon social, cultural and economic influences • Crafts need to stay informed about what the market wants in order to remain viable in the long term • Feedback helps us understand the WHY behind what people are doing: Why are people buying her handicraft much more than mine? Why do most customers only buy one handicraft and not two? How can I get more men to buy my handicrafts? Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  40. 40. Benefits of gaining customer feedback Guides better business decisions Identifies ‘at risk’ customers Stop problems reoccurring
  41. 41. Three simple ways to get customer feedback Talk to customers if you are selling your handicrafts directly in the village. If not, ask your retailers to ask some simple questions about what they like and dislike about the handicrafts. Conduct a focus group session with retailers, tour operators, hotels and other sellers of your crafts to get their opinions on your products. Conduct a survey with the help of partner retailers. Consider talking to a local college or university to see if they can provide some students to help as a part of their course.
  43. 43. What is the issue? • Poor marketing of cultural products can result in loss of meaning and significance • Poor marketing and communication in craft village tourism destinations can result in cultural conflict and erosion of cultural integrity • Sensitively marketed handicrafts and craft village tourism destinations can promote cross-cultural understanding and respect This bowl was produced by the Black Hmong Women’s Cooperative. The design uses traditional patterns that date back hundreds of years. 5% of all sales support community projects. Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  44. 44. Benefits of marketing authentically and responsibly Builds relationships between handicraft producers and consumers Builds handicraft brand recognition Builds cross-cultural understanding and respect Creates more appealing and interesting products Can result in increased sales if handicraft is Fair Trade certified
  45. 45. EFFECTIVE, AUTHENTIC & RESPONSIBLE MARKETING OF CRAFTS 2. Develop a brand that reflects cultural and community values 3. Implement creative promotional strategies 4. Raise awareness and appreciation of cultural heritage 1. Market strategically Principles of effective, authentic and responsible marketing in crafts
  46. 46. Principle 1. Market craft products and destinations strategically Develop a marketing plan that: • Specifies a long term vision with clear objectives • Identifies key target markets, market strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats • Identifies the products, promotional strategies, distribution channels, and pricing • Contains an action plan that is budgeted, time bound and assigns responsibilities http://cityinsight.vn/data/images/uploads/2013/10/van-phuc-silk-handicraft-village-hanoi-one-day-tour-1.jpg
  47. 47. Inclusions of a marketing plan Vision Communicates both the purpose and values of the organisation Objectives Define what you want to accomplish through your marketing activities. Objectives should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely). Should be consistent with the priorities of the organisation. Target markets Identify and analyse key target markets. How big is the overall market? How rapidly is it growing? And what is the consumer profile (e.g. age, gender, location, marital status, income, customer’s interests, hobbies, values, attitudes behaviours, lifestyle, etc). SWOT analysis Identify the organisation’s internal strengths and weaknesses and the external opportunities and threats. The results guide action plan development. Strengths (e.g. cost advantages, financial resources, customer loyalty, wide recognition for social responsibility), Weaknesses (need for experienced managers, inadequate financing, weak market image), Opportunities (e.g. growing demand for quality, enter new markets), Threats (e.g. changing buyer tastes, new competitors, adverse government policies) Products The mix of all the features, advantages, and benefits that the products offer to target markets (e.g. the core benefit of the products, additional features, and non-tangible benefits such as warranties, delivery) Promotions The promotional activities that communicate the benefits of the products to the target market to persuade them to make a purchase. Can include direct marketing, advertising, personal selling, sales promotions etc. Distribution Where the sales are to be made and how the products will be distributed (e.g. channels of distribution, extent of market coverage, transportation and logistics). Should identify all key intermediaries (Retailers, wholesalers, agents and brokers) Pricing Price relates to the pricing strategy of your products or services. Pricing strategies include: Premium Pricing (e.g. high prices charged for luxury products), Penetration Pricing (where a lower price is set than the general market in order to increase sales and market share), Skimming Pricing (setting a high initial price relative to the prices of competing products and then lower the price over time), and Competition Pricing (setting prices in comparison with your competitors) Action plan Activities that will take place to meet each objective. Informed by the SWOT analysis. Budgeted, time bound and assigns responsibilities.
  48. 48. Principle 2. Develop a brand that reflects cultural and community values • Branding aims to build market presence • Should be connected to quality • Brand should be sympathetic to the culture of the community • Follow a brand development process that identifies product attributes, benefits, and a brand “DNA” • Physically represent the brand through the development of a slogan, logo and label Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/fischerfotos/7447237212/
  49. 49. The brand pyramid • How the experience will satisfy Emotional benefit • Summarises the emotional need of the consumer Consumer benefit • Summarises the tangible experience – what do the attributes give the consumer? Functional benefit • The most desirable / differentiated tangible assets of the product Product attributes DNA: Phrase that captures the soul of the brand
  50. 50. Principle 3. Implement creative promotional strategies • Promotion is required to get the craft product from the producers to the consumers • Promotion can be a costly endeavour, so low cost, innovative strategies are important • Methods can include print material, web presence, working with media, and direct promotion Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  51. 51. Practical promotional strategies Develop Tags & stickers print material Develop & distribute a range of Develop a village display centre Participate in trade fairs & events Develop stories for the local media Door local businesses knock Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  52. 52. Tips for communicating marketing messages effectively • Be clear and direct • Speak to the target market/s • Convey features and benefits • Use every-day language • Have a strong storyline • Speak to people’s emotions • Explain where & how to purchase • Incorporate photos / images
  53. 53. Principle 4. Raise awareness and appreciation of cultural heritage • Crafts provide an opportunity to promote culture and enhance cultural understanding • A lack of cultural understanding can result in mistrust and offensive behaviour • Improve cultural understanding by: A. Raising awareness through a destination code of conduct B. Informing consumers / tourists in promotional material C. Communicating “pro-poor” messages http://cityinsight.vn/data/images/uploads/2013/10/van-phuc-silk-handicraft-village-hanoi-one-day-tour-1.jpg
  54. 54. A. Developing a visitor code of conduct for craft village tourism destinations • “Soft management” tool for tourism destinations • Visitors asked to follow appropriate behaviour to respect the local culture, protect the environment, and support the local economy • Dissemination through signs, brochures, destination website (if available), tour guides, information packs Picture source: http://luangprabang-tourism.blogspot.com/2010/07/dos-and-donts-in-laos.html EDUCATE INFLUENCE
  55. 55. Example of a visitor code of conduct 1/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
  56. 56. Example of a visitor code of conduct 2/2 Source: VNAT, Do’s and Don'ts in Vietnam for Community-based Tourists, VNAT, Vietnam
  57. 57. Environmental issues to consider in a code of conduct Picture sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/superciliousness/15175142/sizes/n/in/photostream/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/photosofsrilanka/4268169172/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/goron/67076452/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/klachi6/7141668687/; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hiking_at_highest_peak_in_Kosova_-_Gjeravica.JPG; http://www.flickr.com/photos/markturner/3460610476/ Following walking trails, driving in natural areas, boating…Litter Large tour groups Watching wildlifeNoise Picking a flower How can these become an issue?
  58. 58. Social issues to consider in a code of conduct How can these become an issue? Picture sources: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Young_woman_at_Waikiki_Beach.jpg; http://www.flickr.com/photos/tracy77/1038537421/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourist_sign; http://www.flickr.com/photos/nogoodreason/3355665500/; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Annie_Lin_taking_a_photo_at_the_Wikimedia_Foundation_office,_2010-10-25.jpg; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beach_from_Le_Royal_M%C3%A9ridien_Beach_Resort_and_Spa_in_Dubai_2.jpg; Villagers making a living from tourism Foreign languages Dressing like at home Photographing the locals Coastal resorts Expansion of international food & culture
  59. 59. Economic issues to consider in a code of conduct Picture sources: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Boy_begging_in_Agra.jpg; http://www.flickr.com/photos/jason_weemin/3031278325/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_with_KFC_franchises; http://www.flickr.com/photos/da5ide/795541154/; http://www.flickr.com/photos/davidstanleytravel/8590204805/ How can these become an issue? Giving to beggars Extreme bargaining Patronising foreign owned restaurants Paying unfair salaries and rates to local suppliers Patronising foreign owned hotels
  60. 60. The responsibility of visitors in local tourism destinations As a visitor I agree to: Help the local economy by… • Using accredited operators • Buying locally made souvenirs • Eating at local restaurants • Staying in locally-owned places • Purchasing fair trade products • Supporting responsible tourism operators.. Help the local environment by… • Not littering • Avoiding excessive waste • Leaving nature as it is • Not disturbing wildlife • Putting out cigarettes properly • Carbon offseting • Saving energy • Not purchasing or eating endangered species… Help the local people by… • Being considerate of the communities I visit • Donating via reputable institutions • Not giving money to children and beggars • Respecting cultural difference • Not supporting the illegal drug or sex trade • Using responsible travel providers • Using operators with responsible tourism policies. Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  61. 61. B. Communicating cultural significance and understanding in promotional material • Develop interesting stories about the cultural significance of the craft products and destination • Connections help drive visitation and sales • Integrate stories across all promotional material WHERE?  Brochures  Websites  Flyers  Email signature  Business cards  Labels  Others?
  62. 62. Topics to discuss when promoting cultural products and destinations • People • History • Culture • Geography • Production methods • Traditional use • Design significance • Materials DESTINATIONS PRODUCTS Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  63. 63. C. Communicating “pro-poor” messages • “Pro-poor” tourism refers to tourism strategies developed to help alleviate poverty • Includes craft products developed by local villagers and cooperatives • Pro-poor messages are explanations about how the purchase of the craft product or visiting the craft village destination will help alleviate local poverty • The extent to which sales contributes to poverty reduction should be made clear • Pro-poor messages can lead to increased sales from consumers with a social conscience HOW? • Product labels • Product stickers • Brochures • Websites • Others?
  64. 64. Example of effective promotion of sustainability activities: Joma Café, Hanoi Pro-poor message
  65. 65. Example of effective promotion of sustainability activities: Joma Café, Hanoi Pro-poor message
  67. 67. What is the issue? • Commercially viable craft products must be based on product development best practice to ensure commercial viability • Adding a responsible tourism component means that products must also be environmentally and socially sustainable • To achieve commercial viability, responsible craft products must meet market needs, be innovative, and maintain cultural authenticity Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jepoirrier/6053558665/
  68. 68. The key requirements of commercially viable and responsible craft products • Based on market needs • Connect to market segments • Cater to more than one market • Consider market positioning • Consider competitors in positioning and pricing
  69. 69. Understanding and meeting end user requirements of craft products Product sizeColour preferences Type of materials used Additional functional requirements Core functional requirements Product weight + Innovative / contemporary design features + Cultural authenticity, meaning and significance Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  70. 70. Benefits of developing high quality, innovative and competitive craft products Sustain higher prices Relevant to a broader range of consumers Differentiation Use stronger, more durable materials Blend contemporary & traditional design
  71. 71. HIGH QUALITY, INNOVATI VE & COMPETITIVE CRAFTS 1. Develop unique & innovative designs 2. Pursue practical options for support & capacity building 3. Aim for quality Principles of developing high quality, innovative and competitive craft products
  72. 72. Principle 1: Develop unique & innovative designs • Attractive and marketable crafts are based on good design • Design can relate to: – Creating new products – Redesigning existing products – Exploring new or old markets – Applying traditional skills for new opportunities – Using new materials, processes, tools and technologies Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/runran/6885362990/
  73. 73. Design elements consumers are looking for in handicrafts Cultural values Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  74. 74. Principle 2: Pursue practical options for support and capacity building • Craft producers often know the importance of developing quality, competitive products but don’t know what to do • Practical options for support, advice and capacity building can come from: – NGOs and Government – Industry / Private sector Have an intimate understanding of their customers Are more aware of global fashion and trends Have access to technology and information resources PRIVATE SECTOR
  75. 75. How government and NGOs can support and build capacity of craft producers Co-operatives can… …contact relevant government authorities to find out about free and low cost training opportunities …set aside a percentage of earnings to fund sending a designer to a training course …research and contact NGOs working in the crafts sector and discuss opportunities for gaining their support
  76. 76. How industry can support and build capacity of craft producers PRIVATE SECTOR CAPACITY BUILDING Training Informati on resource s Mentori ng Network s
  77. 77. Principle 3: Aim for design quality • Quality is important to help maintain customer satisfaction and loyalty and to reduce the risk of faulty goods • Quality products are important in building long- term revenue and profitability • Quality products can also support higher pricing • A strong reputation for quality can also be a differentiator in competitive markets Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/runran/6885362990/
  78. 78. 4 simple ways to ensure production of good quality craft products Raw material type Production checks Final product quality control checks Raw material supply Picture sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_Water_puppets http://www.pixabay.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/ag_gilmore/8177441079/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/usdagov/5216079185/
  79. 79. Example: Ensuring quality brocade products in Ha Giang The H’mong women’s weaver’s co-operative of some 100 H’mong female weavers has developed new brocade designs based on their traditional weaving practice with the assistance of the French NGO, Batik International. The co-operative produces more than 120 different types of products of high quality that are supplied to high value markets such as resorts, large hotels and craft shops in Hanoi and overseas. Before the craft products are delivered to buyers they are carefully checked by a senior master weaver and the chairwoman of the co-operative. In order to keep up with consumer demand and trends and introduce the traditional brocade to new markets the chairwoman travels to craft trade markets both nationally and internationally.
  80. 80. TOPIC 5. MANAGING CRAFT WASTE AND POLLUTION RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GOOD PRACTICE FOR CRAFT VILLAGES IN VIETNAM Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/notsogoodphotography/4547807568/
  81. 81. What is the issue? • Almost all craft enterprises and villages in Vietnam are releasing untreated waste, which is seriously polluting and degrading the environment • The discharge of untreated pollutants into the environment causes pollution of ground and surface water resulting in degradation of the natural environment and impacts on human health Silk and textile production release large volumes of waste water which contain high levels of chemicals Production of metal products releases lower volumes of waste water, but with higher levels of toxicity
  82. 82. Handicraft related environmental impacts in villages CRAFT WASTE AIR WATER SOLID OTHERS Textile & dyeing, silk & leather tanning Dust & chemical pollutants Biological & chemical (dyes, bleaches), contaminants, heavy metals from tanning Cinders & textile scraps; unsafe chemical containers Localised heat & humidity Ceramics Dust & chemical pollutants Biological waste, oils & dye chemicals Coal ash & other solid waste Heat Lacquer, stone engraving Dust and chemical pollutants from solvents Biological waste, oils and dye chemicals Solid waste Stone processing Dust & other chemical pollutants Chemical pollutants Coal ash, small stone scraps Heat, noise, exposure to vibration
  83. 83. Causes of excessive and harmful waste in crafts sector • Excessive waste can be caused by incorrect material storage and handling, overestimation of material requirements, excessive product packaging, and use of one-off disposable products • Waste that is harmful to the environment and people is often the result of the use of toxic products in production or alternatively production by-products Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/notsogoodphotography/4547807568/
  84. 84. Impacts of craft pollution on the health of the community A study of the Red River region conducted by the Korean Environment Institute (KEI) and the World Bank found: Source: Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment 2008, Environment report of Vietnam, 2008: Craft village environment' / 'Bao Cao Moi Truong Quoc Gia 2008: Moi Truong Lang Nghe Viet Nam, MONRE, Hanoi, Vietnam “Craft village residents report higher levels of eye, intestinal and skin disease, and respiratory conditions than people from other villages” “The life expectancy of craft villagers is reported to be 10 years shorter than the national average” “Cancer is more common in craft villages engaged in plastic, lead and metal recycling”
  85. 85. Benefits of effective waste management and treatment protects natural resources for sustainable long term harvesting from waste disposal fees, more effective purchasing decisions & fine avoidance saves money less drinking & agricultural water contaminated reduces illness and improves quality of life Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  86. 86. MANAGING WASTE 1. Implement the 3R’s 2. Promote collective action 3. Upgrade technology 4. Transition to natural products Principles of good practice in managing waste in crafts + Government actions
  87. 87. Principle 1. Implement the 3R’s For any operation the first step to minimise waste is to implement the 3R’s: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Reduce • Reduce single-use and disposable products • Reduce products with excessive packaging • Buy in bulk (also saves money) • Choose concentrated products or refillable containers • Plan raw material requirements according to seasonal requirements Reuse • Repair instead of replace • Choose well made durable items (cheaper in long term) • Sell, donate or gift unwanted equipment or appliances • Reuse containers and jars for other uses • Where possible consider using recycled materials as components of craft products Recycle • Sell broken products to repair services who can resell • Buy products made from recycled material or recyclable packaging • Separate glass, hard plastics, aluminium, steel, and paper and sell to recycling collectors
  88. 88. Conducting a walk through waste audit Process: 1. Create audit checklist for waste facilities and processes 2. Survey product procurement use and waste disposal systems using observation and measurements to complete the audit checklist 3. Take notes of any outstanding questions or areas that need follow-up information or expertise OBJECTIVES • Identify current types and volumes of waste • Distinguish sources of waste • Identify poor practices in procurement of goods and waste disposal • Identify potential savings and low cost or no cost improvements • Identify potential longer- term capital improvements
  89. 89. Principle 2. Work with others to promote collective action • Small and family based craft enterprises have limited access to capital for waste management technology • By joining together craft enterprises can create economies of scale and gain better access to waste management technology • Co-operatives can also pool finances and are more eligible for government loans Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_wastewater_treatment
  90. 90. Government policies on credit to support SMEs and non-farming jobs Decision 193/2001/QD-TTG Calls for the establishment of a SME Credit Guarantee Fund Direction 84/2002/TT-BTC Provides guided financial support for the development of rural non- farming jobs
  91. 91. Principle 3. Upgrade craft production technology • Many craft enterprises use old technology that is more than 50 years old • Old, low-cost and inefficient technologies are a primary cause of pollution in craft villages • Inefficient machinery contributes to pollution as more inputs and waste are associated with each unit of production Source: Mahanty, S, Dan, T & Hai, P 2012, ‘Crafting sustainability: managing water pollution in Viet Nam’s craft villages,’ Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper 20, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University, Canberra This paper processing machine is from the 1960s and is still in use in Phong Khe
  92. 92. Principle 4. Transition to natural products • Some crafts involve the use of toxic chemicals which can affect the health of the environment and the community if not treated • Natural products can reduce these impacts when waste treatment technology is inaccessible • Natural products are also in demand from consumers meaning an increase in price doesn’t need to affect sales • Using natural products can also be an effective differentiator from the competition Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_dye
  93. 93. Practical solutions for authorities to minimise excessive and harmful waste EIAs planning land use infrastructure waste management CAPACITY BUILDING raising awareness incentives PENALTIES and
  95. 95. What is the issue? • Many handicraft operations in Vietnam are home-based and not formally registered • Whilst workers in such family businesses might receive a career, income and family-based social support, the informal nature: – Restricts businesses’ ability to upscale – Restricts business’ access to government support – Restricts workers’ access to decent working conditions Picture source: http://pixabay.com/en/weaving-woman-vietnam-ethnic-art-271075/
  96. 96. Using co-operatives for effective co-operation and co-ordination in crafts • Groups families or individuals that come together for a common business purpose • Must contain 3 or more individuals • Members contribute assets and work together to create jobs and benefits • Based upon mutual responsibility • Regulated by Decree No. 151 / 2007 / ND-CP (10/10/2007) • Certified by People's Committee of Communes, Wards & Towns Picture source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/atoll/182853364/
  97. 97. Benefits of co-operatives • Upscale supply potential • Strengthen market positions • Regular supply and quality control • Improved access to training • Improved government, business and NGO dialogue & support • Improved working conditions • Stronger marketing activities • Greater access to finance 
  98. 98. Stop - check • Before starting a new co-operative check no other such groups already exist. • It can be counter-productive to have too many groups in one community performing similar functions. • Only proceed if there are no such organisations or alternatively if the capacity, cohesiveness and profitability of the existing organisations is insufficient. Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  99. 99. CO-OPERATIVE PLANNING & MANAGEMENT 1. Ensure stakeholder support & participation 2. Develop an effective organisational structure 3. Establish good recruitment & employment conditions 4. Implement effective finance management systems 5. Implement business planning 6. Monitor outcomes and continually improve Principles of good practice in co-operative planning & management in crafts
  100. 100. Principle 1. Ensure stakeholder support and participation • Stakeholder support is important because crafts have a range of positive and negative impacts and the interests of all must be considered • Stakeholder participation is important because good co- operatives are based upon achieving a common business purpose through mutual co-operation and responsibility • Moreover, participation best utilises the full range of skills available BENEFITS • Members achieve results more efficiently and effectively • Benefits of membership are spread more widely and fairly
  101. 101. The UNWTO’s 12 roles and benefits of collaboration in tourism • To reflect multiple aims and agree common targets1. • To ensure inclusiveness and equity2. • To sharpen focus and co- ordinate action3. • To raise awareness and engage those with power over outcomes 4. • To link components in the value chain5. • To strengthen long term support and commitment6. • To pool knowledge and skills7. • To strengthen resources and funding8. • To widen contacts and strengthen communication9. • To add value and creativity10. • To share costs and risks – economies of scale11. • To cross boundaries12.
  102. 102. Getting the collaboration fundamentals right COLLABORATION FUNDAMENTALS People make partnerships work No two situations are ever the same Stakeholder collaborations are learning experiences All stakeholders need to see wins Being inclusive Recognising differences Formal structures & processes ADDITIONAL FACTORS
  103. 103. Three simple ways to encourage support and participation when forming a co-operative Involve all stakeholders in the co-operative formation process and obtain stakeholder input into identifying the scope, aims and objectives, organisation and roles and responsibilities Make information from meetings accessible so all members can contribute to it, comment on it, criticise it and revise it Promote open communication. An intermediary or facilitator can help bridge stakeholder differences and create an atmosphere for constructive dialogue
  104. 104. Principle 2. Develop an effective organisational management board • Co-operatives are legally owned by the members who elect a board of management to make decisions and formulate plans or policy for the co-operative • Because co-operatives are member organisations, directors must make decisions that are based not only on what is most profitable, but also on the needs of the members TYPICAL DUTIES OF CO-OPERATIVE BOARD OF DIRECTORS • Develop guidelines to control business activities • Appointment, supervision and removal of employees • Calling of special meetings • Approval of general business arrangements • Settlement of arrangements for handling funds • Attending and participating in general meetings • Actively keep members informed of business activities and problems
  105. 105. The pillars of good governance in co-operative management boards ACCOUNTABILITY & TRANSPARENCY RISK MANAGEMENT CONTROL Foster trust, honesty and collaboration through access to information and disclosure of regular management reports including financial arrangements that are accessible to all. Show leadership, entrepreneurship, integrity and good judgment in directing the affairs of the co- operative and provide guidance for long-term and short-term planning. Establish a code of conduct to guide decision-making and manage conflicts in the best interests of the organisation. Set up monitoring mechanisms to assess performance of business and of staff. Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  106. 106. Principle 3. Establish good recruitment and working conditions • Because co-operatives are membership-based organisations the good treatment of each member is critical to the overall success of the organisation • Following responsible principles in employment, the work undertaken in co-operatives should: – Follow Vietnamese labour standards – Be decent and productive – Be based upon the principles of equal opportunity Picture source: http://talkvietnam.com/2012/07/hanoi-marks-international-year-of-cooperatives/
  107. 107. Key benefits of implementing responsible employment in tourism • Improvements in productivity and economic performance • More satisfied workers and lower staff turnover • Better trained workforce and higher employment levels • Reduction in costly accidents and health care fees • Enhanced innovation from staff
  108. 108. Ensure decent working conditions Follow the Vietnam Labor Code Develop position descriptions for each role Provide employment benefits Provide an adequate work space Ensure equal opportunity and practice non-discrimination Provide skills training Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com Recruit according to skill requirements
  109. 109. Principle 4. Implement effective finance management systems • Finance management systems help ensure co-operatives remain economically stable by helping members manage and monitor the financial situation and measure the success of the organisation • The key objectives in finance management is to: – Comply with all legal financial requirements – Adhere to sound accounting principles that produce reliable financial information – Ensure fiscal responsibility and build public trust COMPONENTS OF FINANCE MANAGEMENT • Implement monitoring of direct and indirect costs • Implement a system for tracking revenue and expense to comply with government reporting requirements, funder’s expectations and to effectively manage co-operative finances • Engage in cost effective fund development activities
  110. 110. 12 Tips for effective financial management of co-operatives FULFILLING FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS 1. Provide consistent financial reporting 2. Separate financial duties 3. Adopt financial procedures 4. Assess risks 5. Prohibit loans 6. Build capacity in finance ENSURING COMPLIANCE 7. Comply with regulations 8. Provide timely and accurate reports 9. Enable reporting of financial misconduct FOSTERING ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY 10. Report financial information 11. Avoid recurring deficits 12. Ensure non-use of assets for personal gain Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  111. 111. Principle 5. Implement business planning • Business plans are the road map of an organisation’s operational methodology, marketing and financing process and general management philosophy • Business plans provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating progress • Business plans are the key document for investors or donors when seeking finance BUSINESS PLANS… • Articulate specific goals and objectives • Promote efficiencies • Identify opportunities for improvement • Establish performance guidelines • Raise funds • Guide implementation of capacity-building
  112. 112. Key components of a business plan Executive summary Provide a succinct overview of the entire plan. Body of the plan and organisational structure Describes the nature of the organisation Products, programmes or services Describes the products, programs and services provided Marketing plan Defines the market, market conditions, promotion, distribution, etc Operational plan Explains the organisation’s plans, location, equipment, etc Management and organisational team Describes the management team, principals, key management employees and their expertise. Major milestones Describes major programme, service or organisational milestones Capitalisation Describes the organisation’s capital structure Financial plan Illustrates the organisation’s current and projected financial status
  113. 113. Principle 6. Monitor outcomes and continually improve • Monitoring progress and evaluating your outputs and processes is key to constantly improving performance • The key components of monitoring for responsibility include: A. Ensuring the monitoring considers the community’s needs and interests B. Ensure the monitoring is ongoing and includes sustainability indicators and targets C. Ensure the results of the monitoring and evaluation are effectively communicated to members Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  114. 114. A. Ensuring monitoring considers the community’s needs and interests Co-operatives must consider monitoring not on the effectiveness of their performance in business, but also impacts on the local community and environment REQUIREMENT POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Economic Organisation provides equitable and attractive earning opportunities Environmental Natural environment is not harmed in craft production processes Socio-cultural Local cultural heritage is respected in craft designs Institutionalisation Co-operative supports and complies with relevant government policies, plans and programmes Picture source: Pixabay, www.pixabay.com
  115. 115. B. Ensuring monitoring is ongoing and includes sustainability indicators • Indicators provide an “indication” of the state of a particular issue • Sustainable tourism indicators focus on the link between tourism and economic, social and environmental sustainability issues • Can use or adapt existing indicators such as those provided in the WTO Indicator Guidebook, UNEP Environmental Indicators, and IUCN Indicators of Resources Management ENVIRONMENTAL Energy use Water use Waste management Conservation SOCIAL Respecting local culture Community development Safety and security Protecting children ECONOMIC Responsible employment Supporting local businesses Training and capacity building SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES
  116. 116. Sustainable business performance indicators for craft co-operatives  Sustainability Management Plan exists  All personnel receive periodic sustainability management training  % of purchases of services and goods from local providers  Quantity of facilities built using local material  Code of conduct developed with local community  % of women and local minority employees
  117. 117. C. Ensuring monitoring results are communicated for continual improvement • There is no point in doing a monitoring programme if no one finds out about the results • Stakeholders and decision makers need to hear about the results so they can take action • Results should presented to help stakeholders reinforce positive actions or remedy problem situations Consider the needs of the potential user Portray the results as simply as possible PRINCIPLES IN COMMUNICATING RESULTS
  118. 118. Options for getting the message out Meetings and workshops Provide an analysis of the monitoring programme results in a practical and “hands-on” workshop or meeting. It also in-depth analysis and detailed clarification of issues. Newsletters & reports Provide details of the results within the organisation newsletter or alternatively create a newsletter specifically for communicating the results. Include results in the organisation’s annual report. Website Create a section on the organisation’s website that provides details of the progress being made in sustainability performance. Email Deliver information about the sustainability monitoring program directly into the mailbox of the stakeholders. Coming from senior management can add a level of authority. Quick and direct. Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  119. 119. Adapting and improving the monitoring programme • Situations change so regular reviews should take place to ensure the monitoring programme remains effective and meaningful • Review of successes and failures should be conducted after each monitoring programme • Consult stakeholders to obtain opinions on data usefulness and strategies for improvement Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  121. 121. What is the issue? • Tourists are attracted to craft villages because of their strong cultural assets and settings • Tourists want to learn about craft production, meet the producers, and purchase an authentic product • Tourism in craft villages however, has historically been unplanned and evolved from visitor demand • Without proper strategic planning and management of tourism, craft villages can suffer from a range of impacts IMPACTS OF POORLY PLANNED TOURISM DESTINATIONS • Over- or uneven development • Limited spread of economic benefits • Social conflict • Uncontrolled environmental pollution • Cultural conflict
  122. 122. Benefits of responsible tourism destination planning and management • Increases sales of handicraft products  • Enhances reputation and brand  • Fosters ancillary goods and services  • Fosters preservation of heritage  • Fosters cross- cultural understanding  • Better ensures quality and safety 
  123. 123. CRAFT VILLAGE RESPONSIBLE TOURISM DESTINATIONS 1. Plan for responsible craft village tourism destinations 2. Responsibly develop, market & manage craft village tourism destinations Principles of planning and managing craft village responsible tourism destinations
  124. 124. Principle 1: Plan for responsible craft village tourism destinations • Planning for responsible craft tourism destinations requires: – Raising community awareness about impacts of tourism – Enabling participation in tourism planning – Developing and following a tourism destination plan – Being consistent with relevant government policies and plans Picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A1i_%C4%90%C3%ADnh_Temple
  125. 125. Raise community awareness about impacts of tourism The motivations of tourists The nature of the tourism industry Tourism’s benefits and negative impacts What should the community know about these issues and why? Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  126. 126. Enable participation in tourism planning • Tourism requires the participation of a range of goods and services to function successfully • The involvement of all key stakeholders from the start will better ensure commercial viability of the craft village tourism destination • By co-operating, the community can pool together its knowledge, skills and resources and better ensure widespread support for tourism development PARTICIPATION OF STAKEHOLDERS IN DESTINATION PLANNING 1. Invite community members to be drivers of tourism development 2. Identify a shared vision for the future 3. Analyse social, economic and environmental opportunities and risks 4. Develop plan of action
  127. 127. Roles of key stakeholders in tourism destination planning & development COMMUNITY Feasibility Assets Labour Services BUSINESS Investment Consumption Marketing Capacity building Link to tourists GOVERNMENT Land use planning Infrastructure Marketing Policy Co-ordination Training
  128. 128. Develop and follow a tourism destination plan structure, funding, product & destination development vision, goals, objectives, strategies resources, infrastructure, services, experiences opportunities, risks actions, timelines, responsibilities skills, human resources Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  129. 129. Stop - check • Before continuing, ensure the type of tourism planned fits with existing local development plans and is in keeping with local, regional and national policies • Look out for: – Development plans – Land use plans – Tourism plans… Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  130. 130. Principle 2: Responsibly develop, market & manage craft village tourism destinations • Responsible development, marketing and management of community based tourism destinations requires: – Good management structures and processes – Good financial management processes – Working to develop a skilled tourism workforce – Following good practice in responsible tourism product development and marketing – Implementing a visitor code of conduct Picture source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Between_Son_La_and_Moc_Chau.png
  131. 131. Develop tourism management structures and processes • To successfully market and manage tourism within the community an effective management body such is required • Such destination management organisations (DMOs) help: – Ensure benefits of tourism are more widespread – Enforce rules and regulations on planning, operation and development of tourism – Help resolve disputes – Represent the community’s interests in interactions with government and business • The craft co-operative can participate as a member of the broader DMO which represents all tourism groups including accommodation, guides, F&B etc Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  132. 132. Example: Nam Dam CBT Management Board People Committee of Quan Ba Commune People Committee of Quan Ba District Nam Dam Community Based Tourism Management Board Homestay group Local guide group Culture performance & handicrafts group Transport CUM security group Community tourism fund Head of Nam Dam CBT MB V.Head Secretery 2 MB members (CUM fund /treasury management)
  133. 133. 4 good practice tips in financing community based tourism Enable stakeholders to identify funding sources and structure Ensure benefits of tourism are felt by all Give equal priority to all forms of tourism assets for development Ensure small- scale producers are equally included Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  134. 134. Develop a skilled tourism workforce • Tourism is a highly competitive industry • Community based tourism destinations require staff who have good understanding of how to do their job efficiently, effectively and to an industry accepted standard • Prepare and strengthen the community’s ability to manage the delivery of tourism by: – Building capacity through ongoing training and skill development; – Building skills gradually and expanding as tourism increases; – Prioritising local capacity development and training in quality management Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  135. 135. Where to find training opportunities to fill skill gaps Existing skilled workers NGOs Volunteer organisations Tour operators Formal education and training providers
  136. 136. Follow good practice in responsible tourism product development and marketing Define the products and link to potential target markets Tailor marketing strategies to target markets Reflect values of the community in marketing messages Communicate using accessible and appealing language Develop links with other tourist attractions
  137. 137. Implement visitor code of conduct • As discussed, a visitor code of conduct is important to ensure the cultural, natural and economic environment is not adversely affected by tourism • Code of conduct themes might include: – Places that may be visited – Acceptable activities – Acceptable clothing – Use of photography – Acceptable forms of communication – Shopping behaviour – Acceptable ways of contributing to the community Picture sources: Pixabay, http://pixabay.com/
  138. 138. Xin trân trọng cảm ơn! Thank you!