Dr. Mary Byrne, Ed.D.
Missouri Coalition Against Common Core
October 5, 2013
The state board of education shall convene work
groups composed of education professionals to
develop and recommend academic performance
standards. Separate work groups composed of
professionals with appropriate expertise shall be
convened for each subject area listed in section
160.518. Active classroom teachers shall
constitute the majority of each work group.
Teachers serving on such work groups shall be
selected by professional teachers' organizations
of the state.
The state board of education shall develop
written curriculum frameworks that may be used
by school districts. Such curriculum frameworks
shall incorporate the academic performance
standards adopted by the state board of
education pursuant to subsection 1 of this
section. The curriculum frameworks shall provide
guidance to school districts but shall not be
mandates for local school boards in the adoption
or development of written curricula as required
by subsection 4 of this section.
Tyler stated his curriculum rationale in terms of four questions:
1.What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these
3.How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4.How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?
These questions may be reformulated into four-step process:
selecting learning experiences
organizing learning experiences (organized by scheduled formative
evaluating the curriculum
According to Tyler, curriculum evaluation is the process of matching initial
expectations in the form of behavioral objectives with outcomes achieved by
The approach to organization is different
◦ product models, such as Tyler and Biggs) are
◦ process models are descriptive
The role of assessment is different.
◦ The product models have clear objectives and
aligned assessment strategies (generally prepared
before the start of classes) designed to test how
well students have achieved the learning outcomes;
◦ Process models may have assessment strategies
designed to find out what students have learned,
and a highly diluted focus on learning outcomes.
At the most general level, the emphasis in our
educational systems need to be on helping
individuals make sense out of the world and
how to operate effectively within it. (p. 3)[italics
Criteria for High-Quality Assessment
. . . , policymakers in nearly every state have adopted new standards intended to ensure that all
students graduate from high school ready for college and careers. . . . Achieving that goal will
require a transformation in teaching, learning, and assessment . . . This transformation will
require an overhaul in curriculum and assessment systems . . . Ministries of education around
the world have been redesigning curriculum and assessment systems to emphasize these skills. .
. .[citing Singapore Education Minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam],
[We need] . . . The building of character, so that students can . . . Develop the attributes,
mindsets, character and values for future success. (p. 1)
The United States is poised to take a major step in the direction of curriculum and assessments
for this kind of deeper learning with the adoption of new Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
in more than 40 states. (p. 2)
Darling-Hammond, L., Herman, J., Pellegrino, J., et al. (2013). Criteria for high-quality
assessment. Stanford, CA: Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education. Retrieved from
Mom: “Son, why did you do your math in pen?”
Son: “Because I didn't have a pencil.”
Mom: “What happened to the two boxes of 24 we
brought on the first day of school?”
Son: “We had to turn them in to share with
everyone and Mr. C hasn't given us more. Everyone
took the mechanical pencils I brought in and I
didn't get any. Besides, the kid in my table group
just chews them up.”
The implicit curriculum: redistribution of wealth
(Personal Communication Oct, 4, 2013)
Issues of validity
Does an item measure what it purports to measure?
Read the story, critique the construction of the
item and response options for ELA academic
knowledge and skills posted on
What else is being assessed? Is the item valid?
Building on the excellent foundation of standards states have laid, the Common Core
State Standards are the first step in providing our young people with a high-quality
education. It should be clear to every student, parent, and teacher what the
standards of success are in every school.
Teachers, parents and community leaders have all weighed in to help create the
Common Core State Standards. The standards clearly communicate what is expected
of students at each grade level. This will allow our teachers to be better equipped to
know exactly what they need to help students learn and establish individualized
benchmarks for them. The Common Core State Standards focus on core conceptual
understandings and procedures starting in the early grades, thus enabling teachers
to take the time needed to teach core concepts and procedures well—and to give
students the opportunity to master them.
With students, parents and teachers all on the same page and working together for
shared goals, we can ensure that students make progress each year and graduate
from school prepared to succeed in college and in a modern workforce.
Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards
is provided by
Biggs (2003). He
calls the model
alignment. . . .
1999) but the
Recommend academic performance
◦ standards and evaluations of attributes, mindset,
character and values is incompliant
Active classroom teachers shall constitute the
majority of each work group.
◦ CCSS development team does is incompliant
Teachers serving on such work groups shall
be selected by professional teachers'
organizations of the state.
◦ CCSS development team is incompliant
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