DUALLdeliberative approach to the living labDr Richard Bull and team.01/07/10
Introductions Background: Living Lab & DUALL Why is ICT a problem? The environmental challenge Group discussion Next steps
Queens Building 1995-2010 At heart of DMU campus Houses Faculty of Technology Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development Green Building of the Year 1995 RIBA Award 1995 Europe's largest naturally ventilated building (at the time) The entire building is naturally ventilated, passively cooled and naturally lit Poor energy rating- D CHP never worked Gross Floor Area:110,000 ft² Construction Period: November 1991 -August 1993 Total Project Cost:£9.7 million sterling
The living labvision
A world class iconic centre of a sustainable building.
A visible statement of DMU’s commitment to sustainable development.
Achieved through applied research, user engagement and innovative partnerships.
Duall 12 month research project funded by JISC’s Greening ICT programme Aims : To understand the role of ICT in reducing energy consumption of a large scale public building through the design of an ICT interface connecting building users to their electricity consumption. Baseline evaluation Deliberation (Public engagement) & community of practice On-line tools – website/writetoreply
OBJECTIVES To design and test an ICT tool connecting building users to their energy consumption. To engage in an innovative, deliberative upstream approach in the design of the application. To understand the extent to which building users can impact the performance of the environment they are in. To what extent is this contribution, given claims that smart buildings, which use ICT to monitor and manage this consumption, have the potential to reduce utilities consumption by 10–20%. To contribute to the Living Lab To understand the impact of ICT interfaces on user-behaviour.
Baseline Evaluation (1)
Baseline evaluation (2) – energy consumption Baseline Evaluation (2)
The environmental challenge: Energy, Efficiency and Emissions Joss Winn email@example.com http://joss.blogs.lincoln.ac.uk 10
Energy, Environment, Economy There is a strong correlation between energy use and GDP. Global energy demand is on the rise yet oil supply is forecast to decline in the next few years. There is no precedent for oil discoveries to make up for the shortfall, nor is there a precedent for efficiencies to relieve demand on this scale. Public sector debt is a burden that ultimately requires economic growth to pay it off. Energy supply looks likely to constrain growth. Global emissions currently exceed the IPCC 'marker' scenario range. The Climate Change Act 2008 has made the -80%/2050 target law, yet this requires a national mobilisation akin to war-time. Probably impossible but could radically change the direction of HE in terms of skills required and spending available.
I = P x A x T The impact of human activities (I) is determined by the overall population (P), the level of affluence (A) and the level of technology (T). Even as the efficiency of technology improves, affluence and population scale up the impacts. 12
Technology as an efficiency factor? Where did the efficiencies go? Population rise and economic growth 13
We are energy efficient! “Energy efficiency improvement was an important phenomenon in the global energy balance over the past 30 years. Without energy efficiency improvements, the OECD nations would have used approximately 49% more energy than was actually consumed as of 1998.” Small print: Nevertheless, OECD energy use continues to rise. In 2000 it was 39% higher than in 1973. 14
More fuel use 15
More emissions 16
Kidding ourselves about consumption...? The UK reported a 15% decrease in emissions from 1990-2005. However, UK emissions increased by around 19% when emissions from aviation, overseas trade, shipping and tourism were accounted for. “The UK’s environmental impact is as significant from the resources exploited to produce its imports as from the domestic resources it consumes. It mandates counting emissions on a consumption basis.” (Dieter Helm 2007) 17
“From 2000 to 2006 UK energy efficiency increased by about 2% per year... Because the effects of technological change (including changes in the economy toward services and away from energy intensive industry) just about balanced the overall growth of the economy for the past decade, the UK has seen little growth in its overall carbon dioxide emissions.” (Pielke 2009) 18
Economy wide rebound effect 19
‘Rebound demands’ by the same consumer for the same product or service; by the same consumer for a different product or service; by a different consumer for the same product or service; by a different consumer for a different product or service. No rebound. Increase leisure, work less, reduce purchasing power. 20
‘Rebound’ is not new “If our parents doubled their income, or doubled the use of iron, or doubled the agricultural produce of the country, then so ought we, unless we are changed either in character or circumstances.” – Jevons 1865 21
Why is it a problem It is estimated that ICT accounts for 2% of global carbon dioxide emissions, and that its use in UK further and higher education generates over 500,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year The UK government has a target to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 26% from 1990 levels by 2020 Personal computing (PCs, laptops, monitors) is the main area of ICT-related energy consumption in UK universities and colleges, at 40–50% of the total, and digital printing is a further 10–16%* The overall energy use is growing at a much faster rate than technological development and deployment can offset *JISC Susteit Report 2009
Discussion: the role of information in changing behaviour Would you like to know the consumption of your own ICT equipment? Would you like to know the consumption of your team/department’s ICT equipment? How would you like it presented? £s Kwhs, CO2, text alerts, emails, phone app, web based, etc etc
The next steps Future meetings (July 8th– Sept?) Writetoreply http://duall.dmu.ac.uk/ Sub-metering Produce recommendations for the design of an ‘app’