DanielContent, Connections, and ContextDaniel TunkelangPrincipal Data Scientist at LinkedIn      Recruiting Solutions     ...
Recommendation Products at LinkedIn                             Similar Profiles                                  Connecti...
More than 50%Recommendations drive:> 50% of connections            > 50% of job applications                         > 50%...
Inputs for Recommender Systems               Social Graph Content                                 Behavior                ...
Take-Aways  Content is king.  Connections provide social dimension.  Context determines where and when  a recommendation i...
What is the goal of recommendations?O  GrowthO  EngagementO  Revenue                                       6
What is the goal of recommendations?O  GrowthO  EngagementO  Revenue                                       7
Users First!          Provide relevant content      and establish social connections           in appropriate context.    ...
Content is King                  9
Goal-Seeking is about Content                                10
Content (Ir)relevance§  No right answer, but many wrong answers.  %no                         WTF!   [Voorhees, 2004]    ...
Example: Related Searches                            12
Collaborative Filtering as Content Signal§  Use temporal locality within sessions.§  Find queries with clicks on similar...
Example: Jobs You Might Be Interested In                                           14
Content Signals Dominate Social Signals              Job                                             Corpus Stats         ...
Summary      Provide relevant content    and establish social connections          in appropriate context.                ...
Connections              17
Connections are Social Dimensions                                    18
Example: People You May Know                               19
Relationships are Social                           20
Shared Connections as a Signal                                 21
The Power of Social Proof                            22
Beyond Triadic Closure§  Triads suggest and affect relationships.    [Simmel, 1908], [Granovetter, 1973]§  Triangle clos...
Summary          Provide relevant content   and establish social connections          in appropriate context.             ...
Context     "to every thing there is a season”             [Ecclesiastes 3:1]                                          25
One Platform, Many Users, Many Needs          http://blog.lab42.com/the-linkedin-profile                                  ...
No Weekend Meetings! Weekdays                       navigational queries                       exploratory queries        ...
Different Devices for Different Needs                                        28
Time and Place for a Career Change                                     29
Active vs. Passive Job Seekers                  >10x more likely                  to reply if active                      ...
Summary      Provide relevant content    and establish social connections          in appropriate context.                ...
Recap  Content is king.  Connections provide social dimension.  Context determines where and when  a recommendation is app...
Thank You!                                     175M+           2/sec                                     62% non U.S.     ...
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Content, Connections, and Context

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Content, Connections, and Context
Daniel Tunkelang, LinkedIn

Keynote at Workshop on Recommender Systems and the Social Web
At 6th ACM International Conference on Recommender Systems (RecSys 2012)

Recommender systems for the social web combine three kinds of signals to relate the subject and object of recommendations: content, connections, and context.

Content comes first - we need to understand what we are recommending and to whom we are recommending it in order to decide whether the recommendation is relevant. Connections supply a social dimension, both as inputs to improve relevance and as social proof to explain the recommendations. Finally, context determines where and when a recommendation is appropriate.

I'll talk about how we use these three kinds of signals in LinkedIn's recommender systems, as well as the challenges we see in delivering social recommendations and measuring their relevance.

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Content, Connections, and Context

  1. 1. DanielContent, Connections, and ContextDaniel TunkelangPrincipal Data Scientist at LinkedIn Recruiting Solutions 1
  2. 2. Recommendation Products at LinkedIn Similar Profiles Connections Network updates Events You May Be Interested In News 2
  3. 3. More than 50%Recommendations drive:> 50% of connections > 50% of job applications > 50% of group joins 3
  4. 4. Inputs for Recommender Systems Social Graph Content Behavior Queries Page Views Actions … 4
  5. 5. Take-Aways Content is king. Connections provide social dimension. Context determines where and when a recommendation is appropriate. 5
  6. 6. What is the goal of recommendations?O  GrowthO  EngagementO  Revenue 6
  7. 7. What is the goal of recommendations?O  GrowthO  EngagementO  Revenue 7
  8. 8. Users First! Provide relevant content and establish social connections in appropriate context. 8
  9. 9. Content is King 9
  10. 10. Goal-Seeking is about Content 10
  11. 11. Content (Ir)relevance§  No right answer, but many wrong answers. %no WTF! [Voorhees, 2004] @k http://bit.ly/percentno http://bit.ly/wtfatk 11
  12. 12. Example: Related Searches 12
  13. 13. Collaborative Filtering as Content Signal§  Use temporal locality within sessions.§  Find queries with clicks on similar results.§  Look for query overlap.§  Learn more at CIKM! [Reda et al, 2012] 13
  14. 14. Example: Jobs You Might Be Interested In 14
  15. 15. Content Signals Dominate Social Signals Job Corpus Stats Matching Transition probabilities Connectivity Binary yrs of experience to reach titletitle industry … Exact matches: education needed for this titlegeo description …company functional area geo, industry, … User Base Soft Similarity (candidate expertise, job description) transition Filtered 0.56 probabilities, Similarity Candidate similarity, (candidate specialties, job description) … 0.2 Transition probability Text (candidate industry, job industry)General Current Position 0.43expertise titlespecialties summary Title Similarityeducation tenure length 0.8headline industry Similarity (headline, title)geo functional areaexperience … 0.7 . derive d . . 15
  16. 16. Summary Provide relevant content and establish social connections in appropriate context. 16
  17. 17. Connections 17
  18. 18. Connections are Social Dimensions 18
  19. 19. Example: People You May Know 19
  20. 20. Relationships are Social 20
  21. 21. Shared Connections as a Signal 21
  22. 22. The Power of Social Proof 22
  23. 23. Beyond Triadic Closure§  Triads suggest and affect relationships. [Simmel, 1908], [Granovetter, 1973]§  Triangle closing is a Big Data problem. [Shah, 2011]§  Use machine learning to rank candidates. 23
  24. 24. Summary Provide relevant content and establish social connections in appropriate context. 24
  25. 25. Context "to every thing there is a season” [Ecclesiastes 3:1] 25
  26. 26. One Platform, Many Users, Many Needs http://blog.lab42.com/the-linkedin-profile 26
  27. 27. No Weekend Meetings! Weekdays navigational queries exploratory queries Weekends 27
  28. 28. Different Devices for Different Needs 28
  29. 29. Time and Place for a Career Change 29
  30. 30. Active vs. Passive Job Seekers >10x more likely to reply if active [Rodriguez et al, 2012] 30
  31. 31. Summary Provide relevant content and establish social connections in appropriate context. 31
  32. 32. Recap Content is king. Connections provide social dimension. Context determines where and when a recommendation is appropriate. 32
  33. 33. Thank You! 175M+ 2/sec 62% non U.S. 25th 90 We’re Most visit website worldwide (Comscore 6-12) 55 Hiring! >2M Company pages 85% 32 17 8 2 4 Fortune 500 Companies use LinkedIn to hire2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 LinkedIn Members (Millions) Learn more at http://data.linkedin.com/ 33
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