1.
Learning from Online Erroneous
Examples
Dimitra Tsovaltzi, Erica Melis, Bruce McLaren,
Ann-Kristin Meyer, Michael Dietrich, Goerge Goguadze
DFKI- University of Saarland - Germany
Dimitra.Tsovaltzi@dfki.de
2.
Summary
• Research background
• Research questions
• Studies
• Summary of Results
• Discussion of results
• Conclusion
3.
Research Background
• Erroneous Examples (EE): worked out
solutions with errors
• Novel learning opportunities, reflection,
inquiry (Borasi ’95, Müller ’03, Oser&Hascher ’97)
• Benefit of self-explaining correct and
incorrect solutions (Siegler ’02, Siegler&Chen ’08)
• Evidence for erroneous examples with
feedback (Kopp et al ’08)
4.
Research Background
BUT
• May be more beneficial to students with
favourable prior knowledge (Grosse&Renkl ’07)
• „why“ self-explanations indispensible (Siegler ’02,
Grosse&Renkl ’08), but
to the detriment of principle-
based explanations (Grosse&Renkl ’08)
Help for self-explanation of errors and principle-based
explanations
Adaptation to counterbalance prior knowledge differences
5.
Summary
• Research background
• Research questions
• Studies
• Summary of Results
• Discussion of results
• Conclusion
6.
Research Questions
Online Learning of Fractions with Erroneous Examples and Self-
explanation
When?
• Do advanced students, gain more from online erroneous
examples?
How?
• Can online EE improve:
cognitive skills?
conceptual understanding?
transfer abilities improve?
• Can online EE improve error detection and error correction?
• Does adaptive help play a role?
7.
Research Questions
• Hypothesis 1: Presenting erroneous examples with help to
students will lead to deeper, more conceptual learning and
better error-detection (i.e., metacogntive) skills, which will
help improve their cognitive skills and will promote transfer.
control group (problem solving) vs. erroneous examples
and erroneous examples with help
• Hypothesis 2: The learning effect of erroneous examples is
conditional on whether students are supported in finding
and correcting the error with additional help.
Help vs. no help
8.
Summary
• Research background
• Research questions
• Studies
• Summary of Results
• Discussion of results
• Conclusion
9.
Studies
• Similar design:
– NOEE (control): standard exercise (standard feedback,
correct answer)
– EEWOH: standard exercise and erroneous examples
without extra help (standard feedback, correct
answer)
– EEWH: standard exercise and erroneous examples
with extra help
• Different levels: 6th vs. 7th-8th vs. 9th-10th
• Presentation of erroneous examples
11.
Study 1: Materials
• Familiarisation
• Intervention
– Standard exercises
Add
– Erroneous examples steps
Please write all individual
thinking steps as if you
• Sequences (6): Results
were thinking aloud. Add
more steps whenever you
– NOEE: SE – SE - SE need to.
– EEWH: SE – EE – SE help
– EEWOH: SE – EE – SE no help
12.
Study 1: Materials
• Familiarisation
• Intervention
– Standard exercises
– Erroneous examples
• Sequences (6):
– NOEE: SE – SE - SE
– EEWH: SE – EE – SE help
– EEWOH: SE – EE – SE no help
13.
Feedback in ActiveMath
Feedback consists of:
• Correct(√) / incorrect(X) (All conditions)
• error-awareness (EEWH):
“The result cannot be smaller than one“, if two fractions larger than one are added
• self-explanation (EEWH):
“Why is this step wrong?”, “How should Paul add?”
• error-correction (EEWH):
“How does one add fraction with like denominators”
• error-specific (EEWH):
“You did not expand the fractions”
• Worked-out correct solution (All conditions)
14.
Study 1: Materials
• Pretest and posttest
– Similar exercises plus erroneous examples with
conceptual questions: “What did Paul not
understand?”
• Questionnaires
motivation, self-efficacy, learning orientation,
cognitive load, error-awareness, critical thinking
16.
Study 2: Method
• Design as in Study 1, but one modeling
exercise 7 sequences
• Participants
– paid volunteers in lab studies – German 7th and 8th
grades
– EEWH (8), EEWOH (8), NOEE (8)
17.
Study 2:Materials
“2 groups of students get a pizza each. In the
first group there are 3 students, 2 of whom
are girls. In the second group there are 5
students, 4 of which are girls. The pizza is
split equally within every group. Karl is trying
to calculate what part of the pizza the girls of
both groups got together. His result is ¾ of a
pizza. Karl has made an error. Find the error
in Karl’s calculations. Choose the first
erroneous step.”
18.
Study 2: Results
Condition EEWH N=8 EEWOH N=7 NOEE N=8
Score Subscore mean(sd)% mean(sd)% mean(sd)%
Cognitive Pretest 73.7(26.7) 71.2(19.7) 77.9(12.4)
Skills Post-pre-diff 2.4(24.4)^ -4.3(26.6) 6.9 (17.9)+
EE-find 68.7(34.7) 75.0(13.4)^ 90.6(12.9)+
EE-correct 57.8(26.7)^ 54.7(21.1) 65.6(20.8)+
Metacognitive EE-ConQuest* 55.2(46.5) 62.5(12.6)+ 61.5(19.4)^
Skills (EE) EE-total 59.3(37.1) 63.7(11.9)^ 69.8(15.0)+
Total-time-on-postEE 8.1(4.3)+ 11.5(4.2)^ 15.5(4.8)
Transfer Transfer 45.2(45.8)^ 38.0(36.0) 67.3(28.5)+
Conc. Underst. Modelling 36.4(42.2)^ 19.8(35.0) 40.8(48.6)+
• Term-grade sig. covariate for conc. questions (F(1,21)=4.49, p=.047, n2 =.18)
• More students could find the error than correct (t(23)=4.89, p<.05 , d=0.59):
– EEWH (t(7)=2.19, p>.05 , d=1.64)
– EEWOH (t(7)=4.83, p<.05 , d=1.15)
– NOEE (t(7)=4.32, p<.05 , d=1.44)
• NOEE more cog. load drop than EEWOH (t(13)=2.52, p<.05, d=1.9)
19.
Study 3: Method
• Design as in Study 1 and 2, but
– conceptual sequences: “addition as increasing”, “part
of whole”
– Transformation exercises: 3/5+1/4
– More elaborated “how” questions
– Classroom for ecological validity
– Order of sequence: SE – SE- EE
• Participants
– German school kinds in 9th and 10th grades
– EEWH (18), EEWOH (20), NOEE(19)
20.
Study 3: Materials
Error Detection
Phase
Students find the
error
Error-awareness feedback
“The result, walking distance=5 1/30, cannot
be correct. Travel with the bus is already 4/5
of the total distance, so the walking distance
must be less than 1/5”
Step #: walking distance=…path
21.
[A2]In results file was named Add-subtr-total
Study 3: Results - Cognitive Skills
Condition EEWH N=18 EEWOH N=20 NOEE N=19
Type of score Type of Subscore mean(sd)% mean(sd)% mean(sd)%
Pretest 74.5(14.2) 66.4(21.1) 64.9(17.2)
Cognitive
Diff-post-pre-total 8.9(12.8)+ 1.4(23.5) 4.9(18.8)^
Skills
Transform 16.2(23.0)+ 4.9(33.2)^ -10.2(45.4)
•Cog. Skills: EEWH vs. EEWOH (t(30)=2.13, p<.05 , d=0.58)
•Transform:
•main (t(30)=2.42, p<.05 , d=0.66)
•EEWH vs NOEE: (t(23)=2.87, p<.05 , d=0.97)
•More cog load reduction:
•EEWH vs. NOEE (t(30)=2.22, p<.05, d=0.24)
•EEWH vs. EEWOH (t(28)=2.05, p=.05, d=0.14)
22.
Study 3: Results - Metacognitive Skills
EEWOH
Condition EEWH N=18 NOEE N=19
N=20
Type of score Type of Subscore mean(sd)% mean(sd)% mean(sd)%
EE-find 61.1(28.7)+ 50.0(28.1) 60.5(28.0)^
EE-correct 40.3(28.0)+ 21.3(30.6) 30.3(33.9)^
Metacognitive EE-ConQuest* 50.9(20.7)+ 50.4(24.9)^ 47.8(25.1)
Skills (EE) EE-total 50.8(22.1)+ 44.5(24.0) 46.8(24.7)^
Total-time-on-EE 5.9(3.2)+ 4.1(3.1) 5.9(3.9)+
• Significantly less students found the error than could correct it
t(56)=, p<.001 , d=0.87
• Also within individual conditions
• EEWH t(20)=3.83, p<.05 , d=0.66
• EEWOH t(19)=5.88, p<.001 , d=0.98
• NOEE t(18)=5.75, p<.001, d=0.97
23.
[A2]In results file was named Add-subtr-total
Study 3: Results - Transfer
EEWOH
Condition EEWH N=18 NOEE N=19
N=20
Type of score Type of Subscore mean(sd)% mean(sd)% mean(sd)%
Cog-transf-total 32.0(30.1)+ 20.0(34.3) 29.0(34.6)^
Transfer Conc-transf-total* 46.8(34.7)+ 30.4(29.3)^ 29.5(30.30)
Transfer-total 39.4(20.3)+ 24.3(26.8) 26.5(28.6)^
• EEWH better, but
• No significant results
24.
Study 3: Results – Conceptual
Knowledge
Condition EEWH N=18 EEWOH N=20 NOEE N=19
Type of score Type of Subscore mean(sd)% mean(sd)% mean(sd)%
Part-of-whole 11.1(47.3)+ -5.0(59.4)^ -9.9(44.6)
Addition-as-incr 65.3(44.7)+ 56.3(48.6)^ 30.5(46.4)
Conceptual
Subtr-as-decreas 52.9(49.9)+ 27.5(44.4) 34.2(47.3)^
Understanding
Rel-part-of 22.2(42.8)^ 7.5(24.5) 23.7(42.1)+
Modelling-total 54.5(30.5)+ 33.1(24.6) 35.6(27.4)^
• Significant results include:
Modelling in general
o EEWH vs EEWOH (t(30)=2.10, p<.05 , d=0.58)
Modelling “addition as increasing”
o Main (t(54)=2.32, p<.05 , d=0.63)
o EEWH vs NOEE (t(23)=2.35, p<.05 , d=0.64)
• Problem with “part of a whole”
26.
Study 3: Results – Conceptual
Knowledge
Condition EEWH N=18 EEWOH N=20 NOEE N=19
Type of score Type of Subscore mean(sd)% mean(sd)% mean(sd)%
Part-of-whole 11.1(47.3)+ -5.0(59.4)^ -9.9(44.6)
Addition-as-incr 65.3(44.7)+ 56.3(48.6)^ 30.5(46.4)
Conceptual
Subtr-as-decreas 52.9(49.9)+ 27.5(44.4) 34.2(47.3)^
Understanding
Rel-part-of 22.2(42.8)^ 7.5(24.5) 23.7(42.1)+
Modelling-total 54.5(30.5)+ 33.1(24.6) 35.6(27.4)^
• Significant results include:
Modelling in general
o EEWH vs EEWOH (t(30)=2.10, p<.05 , d=0.58)
Modelling “addition as increasing”
o Main (t(54)=2.32, p<.05 , d=0.63)
o EEWH vs NOEE (t(23)=2.35, p<.05 , d=0.64)
• Problem with “part of a whole”
27.
Summary
• Research background
• Research questions
• Studies
• Summary of Results
• Discussion of results
• Conclusion
28.
EEWH >EEWOH
Problem Solving Ceiling effect Ceiling effect
Cognitive
Skills Main effect
Transformation EEWH >NOEE
EEWH >EEWOH
Finding error EEWH >NOEE
Metacognitive
Skills Correcting error
Main effect
total-EE
EEWH>NOEE
Across conditions Across conditions
Finding vs. correcting
NOEE>EEWOH NOEE, EEWOH>EEWH
Main
Understanding Term grade covariate
EEWH >NOEE
Conceptual Modeling [not done] EEWH >EEWOH
Model. “addition as Main effect
[not done] [not done]
increasing” EEWH >NOEE
29.
EEWH >EEWOH
Problem Solving Ceiling effect Ceiling effect
Cognitive
Skills Main effect
Transformation EEWH >NOEE
EEWH >EEWOH
Finding error EEWH >NOEE
Metacognitive
Skills Correcting error
Main effect
total-EE
EEWH>NOEE
Across conditions Across conditions
Finding vs. correcting
NOEE>EEWOH NOEE, EEWOH>EEWH
Main
Understanding Term grade covariate
EEWH >NOEE
Conceptual Modeling [not done] EEWH >EEWOH
Model. “addition as Main effect
[not done] [not done]
increasing” EEWH >NOEE
30.
EEWH >EEWOH
Problem Solving Ceiling effect Ceiling effect
Cognitive
Skills Main effect
Transformation EEWH >NOEE
EEWH >EEWOH
Finding error EEWH >NOEE
Metacognitive
Skills Correcting error
Main effect
total-EE
EEWH>NOEE
Across conditions Across conditions
Finding vs. correcting
NOEE>EEWOH NOEE, EEWOH>EEWH
Main
Understanding Term grade covariate
EEWH >NOEE
Conceptual Modeling [not done] EEWH >EEWOH
Model. “addition as Main effect
[not done] [not done]
increasing” EEWH >NOEE
31.
Summary
• Research background
• Research questions
• Studies
• Summary of Results
• Discussion of results
• Conclusion
32.
Discussion
Hypothesis 1: cog., metacog., transfer, concept. for EEWH
• Maybe conceptual knowledge also promotes cognitive
skills
• No effects for other levels but maybe due to ceiling
effect, or due to less conceptual material
• No transfer, but maybe basic-concept should be made
explicit
• Metacognitive skills dependent on level
• Dissociation between declarative vs. procedural
knowledge (Ohlsson ‘96), but students learned
33.
Discussion
Hypothesis 2: Help vs. no Help
• Microadaptation: more effects for help
• EE with help to self-explain errors take advantage of
learning opportunities (Ohlsson ‘96)
• Conceptual, principled-based help is useful (van Gog et
al ‘04)
• Correcting the error may not be important lower
cost
Other results: When
• Macroadaptation: EE after practice with SE
• Despite adaptive help, class level may be important
34.
Summary
• Research background
• Research questions
• Studies
• Summary of Results
• Discussion of results
• Conclusion
35.
Conclusion
• EE can be beneficial
• Previous results on EE and WE in other
domains transfer to only EE and in fractions
(Siegler ’02; Siegler&Chen ’08; Grosse&Renkl
‘07)
• Analogues to aptitude-treatment from
Große&Renkle(07), grade-level importance
• Like Kopp et al (08), help better
36.
Learning from Erroneous
Examples
Dimitra Tsovaltzi, Erica Melis, Bruce McLaren,
Ann-Kristin Meyer, Michael Dietrich, Goerge Goguadze
DFKI- University of Saarland - Germany
Dimitra.Tsovaltzi@dfki.de
Thank you!
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