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Grammar book 2nd semester
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Grammar book 2nd semester

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  • 1. Spanish 3 Honors Grammar Book
    Delmiro Trogstad
  • 2. THE CONDITIONAL TENSE
    Would/could/should
    Infinitive + ía
    Used to make polite requests
    Me gustaría al cine
  • 3. THE CONDITIONAL TENSE IRREGULAR
    Irregular stem + (ending)
  • 4. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
    You use the present perfect verb tense in Spanish to express/describe actions that happened recently
    Ending conjugations
    Ar------ado
    Er/ir----ido
  • 5. Present perfect irregulars
    Abir---abierto
    Cubrir---cubierto
    Decir---dicho
    Escribir---escrito
    Hacer---hecho
    Morir---muerto
    Poner---puesto
    Resolver---resuelto
    Romper---roto
    Var---visto
    Volver---vuelto
    Ir---ido
  • 6. PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
    Subjunctive with verbs of emotion
    Main clause + subordinate clause
    No change in subject
    Emotion + infinitive
    Change in subject
    Emotion + subjunctive
  • 7.
  • 8. Subjunctive with Emotion Verbs
    Ojalá que (I hope that…)
    Temo que (I fear that…)
    Tengo miedo de que (I am afraid that…)
    Me alegro de que (I am happy that…)
    Me molesta que (It bothers me that…)
    Me sorprende que (It surprises me that…)
    Siento que (I feel that…)
    Es triste que (It´s sad that…)
    Es bueno que (It´s good that…)
  • 9. “SE” IMPERSONAL
    Use ‘se’ to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb
    • Se vendefruta en la frutería
    When using ‘se’, the verb is always in the 3rd person
    Aquíse hablaespañol
  • 10. COMMANDS/MANDATOS
    Usted
    Yo form of the verb, drop the O and add the opposite ending
  • 11. COMMANDS/MANDATOS
    USTEDES
    Yo form of the verb, drop the O and add the opposite ending of the third plural form
  • 12. COMMANDS/MANDATOS
    TU AFFIRMATIVE
    Conjugate the verb in the 3rd person present
  • 13. COMMANDS/MANDATOS
    TU NEGATIVE
    Yo form, drop the O and add the opposite tu ending
  • 14. COMMANDS/MANDATOS
    NOSOTROS
    Yo form of the verb in present tense, drop the O and add the opposite nosotros form ending
  • 15. COMMANDS/MANDATOS
    DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN (DOP)
    Me, te, lo/la, nos, les, los/las
    Must be attached to the end of the affirmative command
    Requires the use of an accent mark over the stressed syllable of the verb if that syllable is followed by two or more syllables
  • 16. COMMANDS/MANDATOSAFFIRMATIVE
    REGULAR
    Conjugate in the tu form and drop the s
    Add pronoun if necessary
    IRREGULAR
    Di, haz, ve, pon, sal, se, ten, ven
    Put in the tu, stem change, and drop the s
  • 17. COMMANDS/MANDATOSNEGATIVE
    REGULAR
    Put it in the yo form, chane to the opposite vowel and add an s
    Place pronoun before the verb
    IRREGULAR
    Tvdishes add the s
    Or put in yo form, change to the opposite vowel and add an s
    Place pronoun before the verb
  • 18. NOSOTROS COMMANDS
  • 19. SUBJUNCTIVE
    Wishing/wanting
    Emotions
    Doubt
    Disbelief
    Impersonal expressions
    Negation
    God/grief
  • 20. SUBJUNCTIVE
    Yo form- drop the o- opposite endings
    Un verbo “especial”
    Dos cláusulas
    Dos sujetosdifferentes
    La palabra “que”
  • 21. THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
    INDICITIVE
    real
    Facts
    definite
    SUBJUNCTIVE
    ATTITUDES
    2 clauses in a sentence
    Uncertain
    hyperthetical
  • 22.
  • 23. Specific Events
    Time, weather, location
  • 24. FROM FIRST SEMESTER
  • 25. SER
  • 26. ESTAR
  • 27. SPAK VERBS
    dar
    ver
    ir
    ser
    hacer
  • 28. PRETERITE
    Actions completed
    Beginning or end of past action
    Snapshot
    Narrate series of past actions or events
    Specific events
  • 29. IMPERFECT
    No reference to beginning or end
    Hibitual past actions and events
    Movie
    Describe physical & emotional states or characteristics
    Time, weather, location
  • 30. CUCARACHA VERBS
    ENDINGS
    Andar- aduv
    Estar- estuv
    Poder- pud
    Poner- pus
    Querer- quis
    Saber- sup
    Tener- tuv
    Venir- vin
    Conducir- conduj
    Producir- produj
    Traducir- traduj
    Decir- dij
    Traer- traj
    -e
    -iste
    -o
    -imos
    -isteis
    -ieron
  • 31. Triggers del preterite
    Ayer
    Anoche
  • 32. Triggers son los imperfectos
    Hastaque
    Cuando
    Ojalá
  • 33. Irregular Preterite
  • 34. Irregular Imperfect
  • 35. VERBS LIKE GUSTAR
    Aburrir, encantar, faltar, fascinar, importar, interesar, molestar, quedar, caenbien/mal, doler, disgustar, hacer, falta, preocupar, sorprender, apetecer.
    When gustar is follwed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used
    Gustar is often used in the conditional to soften a request
  • 36. Irregular Preterites
  • 37. CAR, GAR, ZAR VARBS
  • 38. DEOMNSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
    always agree in gender and number with the noun they modify
    always come in front of the noun they modify
    SINGULAR
    • Este/Esta (this)
    • 39. Ese/Esa (that)
    • 40. Aquel/Aquella (that over there)
    PLURAL
    • Estos/Estas (these)
    • 41. Eses/Esas (those)
    • 42. Aquellos/Aquellas (those over there)
  • Demonstrative Pronouns
    lo, la, los, y las
  • 43. COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS
    La casa esgrande
    El graneroesmásgrandequela casa
    El castilloesel másgrande de todos
    • …más…que… (er)
    • 44. …la/el más…de… (est)
  • CONTINUED…
    BUENO- mejor
    MALO- peor
    VIEJO- mayor
    JOVEN- menor
    TAN… como
  • 45. CONNECTING WORDS
    Aunque- even though
    También- also
    Mientras- while
    A pesar de- in spite of
    Pero- but
    Por lo todo- therefore
    Sin embargo/no obstante- nevertheless
  • 46. EL FUTURO
    Yo- infinitive + é
    Tu- infinitive + ás
    Él/ella/usted- infinitive + á
    Nosotros- infinitive + emos
    Vosotros- infinitive + éis
    Ustedes/ellos/ellas- infinitive + án
  • 47. EL FUTURO IRREGULARS
    Decir- dir
    Hacer- har
    Poner- pondr
    Salir- saldr
    Tener- tendr
    Valer- valdr
    Venir- vendr
    Poder- podr
    Querer- querr
    Saber- sabr
    Caber- cabr
    Haber- habr
  • 48. POR
    Passing through
    General rather than specific location
    How long something lasts
    The cause of something
    An exchange
    Doing something in place of or instead of someone else
    A means of transportation
  • 49. PARA
    For whom something is done
    Destination
    The purpose for which something is done
    To express an opinion
    To contrast or compare
    To express idea of deadline