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  • If it is your choice, consider that sometimes writers compose a project description section that explains what they are proposing to do prior to the methods (how they will do it). For others, it makes more sense to have a single methods section that covers both what and how rather than two separate sections. Again, the shape of these areas of your proposal and the headings you use will be governed by the specifics of your particular research focus and the conventions used in your field of study. 
  • Keep in mind that a goal is something long-term. For example, a research goal to encourage the growth of the salmon population would not be specific to use as a research objectives. Your long-range goal may be to save salmon, but the specific goal of your research would be more specific (i.e. how well fish-ladders work). If you find yourself writing long-range goals rather than specific objectives, it may be that your research design is flawed and you need to think about narrowing the focus of your research to something much more specific.  
  • Sometimes a statement of the problem is provided in the background section, so a separate statement of the problem may not be needed if is clear in your background what specific problem your proposed research will address. Often, if a client needs something, there isn’t a problem per se, but simply a need for the proposed research. In other cases, clarifying the specific parts of a problem require a new section in the introduction.
  • Whether or not you cite sources depends on the type of project you are doing. Often, engineering proposals will not need to cite secondary sources unless establishing a theoretical framework is necessary. Remember, however, that many other types of proposals require writers to situate their specific project focus within the context of work by others, so citing sources in describing the project background and problem as well as other sections in the proposal body would be necessary.
  • The Writing Center at Colorado State is a useful resource for understanding documentation styles. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/researchsources/documentation/specific.cfm

Grant proposal Grant proposal Presentation Transcript

  •  English 317: Technical Writing Writing Grant Proposals 1
  • Types of Proposals Solicited. Business or organization advertises its needs often called a Request for Proposals (RFP), Information for BID (IFB), Request for Bids (RFB) or other names. Writer responds to these needs exactly as requested. Unsolicited. Reader is not expecting the proposal. Writer identifies the need and offers to meet it. 2
  • Proposal Deliverables Goods-and-services proposals differ from research proposals in that goods- and-services proposals promise to deliver a tangible product, a service, or some combination of the two. Research proposals lead to a document (a report, scholarly article, and/or conference paper) in which findings/results are disseminated. Of course, such research may lead to tangible products as well, such as an experimental new drug or a prototype of something. For this assignment, you are writing a research proposal. 3
  • Follow the proposal instructions. Prepare your proposal exactly as instructed in steps 1 through 3 of the Student Grant Proposal instructions with one exception:1. You will not need to include a faculty letter of support. 4
  • Proposal Components Completed Investigator Form (only your signature is needed for the purposes of this assignment) Abstract of no more than 200 words.  (Note: the abstract is part of the Investigator Form). Completed Budget Form Cover Letter (1 page max) Narrative (6 pages max) Additional Information (3 pages max)NOTE: You will need to compose a single document that includes theComponents listed above. 5
  • Compose a title that conveys what is in the proposal.Vague Specific Project Grant Proposal Overwintering of Blue Spruce; A Proposal to Improve Survival Rates Using a New Type of Container. 6
  • What is an abstract? A summary of a proposal or report. Reviewers will use it to decide if proposal or report warrants further merit. 7
  • Writing the abstract for your proposal. Provide a concise abstract (limited to 200 words) as a non- technical description of the problem, work to be performed, and expected outcome(s). The abstract should serve as a guide to the reader, introduce key concepts and provide the groundwork for understanding key points. The abstract is part of the Investigator Information online form – write then cut and paste into form. 8
  • Writing the proposal cover letter (1 page max) Provide a cover letter that, concisely states the following:  The main goal(s) of your work and your overall methods for accomplishing said goal(s),  The importance of your work to your academic career as well as to the university and your field of study,  A statement of need, summarizing available funding (or lack thereof) for your work. 9
  • Writing the proposal narrative (6 pages max) Use the same headings as in the proposal instructions:  Objectives  Importance  Methods  Timeline  Bibliography 10
  • Narrative needs to answer both of these questions1. What exactly are you proposing to do?2. How exactly are you proposing to do it?Often an RFP will direct you as to how to organize the proposal narrative,At other times it will simply leave the organization up to you.For your proposal, keep in mind the instructions direct you to organize yourproposal according to the following sections. 11
  • Writing the objectives (2 pages max). Describe the proposed activity, the overall goal, and your specific objectives and include relevant background information. Cite appropriate sources when necessary such as placing you work within the context of other research. (See slides in this lecture about citing sources). Consider a list if more than one objective. Use strong verb(s) to describe the objectives. 12
  • Including background with the objectives. Sets the context for proposed research. Here are questions that are typically answered in a background to the objectives.  What is the research context behind the proposed project? For example, what, if anything, has been tried to solve a problem, test an hypothesis, answer a central research question, or meet aneed? How well have prior solutions worked? Note: don’t try to answer all of these. Decide how to place the background. Should it come before or after the objectives? Which would be clearer to reviewers? If you place background before the objectives, be certain it is not much longer than a paragraph because readers will want to move quickly to your objectives. Consider listing the objectives and be very specific. 13
  • Writing a statement of the problemAnswers the following question: What is the specific problem that your proposed research will address? Problem can also be defined as an identified engineering or design need, scientific hypothesis, or central research question. 14
  • Writing the importance (1 page max) Explain how the proposed activity will contribute to your academic success as well as to your discipline or to other disciplines and the university. Cite appropriate sources where necessary. Note: this lecture explains how to make rhetorical choices about using sources and citing. 15
  • Writing the methods (2 pages max) Describe in detail the procedures or techniques you plan to use to conduct the proposed research. Cite appropriate sources where necessary. 16
  • Writing the timeline (1 page max) Provide a timeline that demonstrates that you have a realistic understanding of the sequence of events and the amount of time it will take to complete the project within the funding period. This means you need to list the specific research tasks for the project and connect to specific dates. 17
  • Writing the bibliography If applicable. Sometimes the research or scholarly activity does not require a bibliography, so consider if you need to include one. Although you may use the format appropriate to your discipline, the bibliography should remain consistent throughout the Narrative. NOTE: the bibliography is not counted towards the 6-page limit. 18
  • Example: Science Proposal From introduction to a scientific proposal written by a team of scientists. Writers targets members of the scientific community. Their readers would have a high-level of technical expertise but are not “equal” in what they know. Some researchers may be interested because they are working on the same problem (high-level); others simply interested in a proposal to approach a problem in a new way (mid-level). Notice how writers move readers between information they would likely know to the new information the proposal promises. 19
  • Background contains information readers know, but it sets the context. Notice the definition (blue text) and a statement of the main problem (green text).  Peptic ulcer disease is a chronic condition characterized by frequent recurrences. After ulcer healing, the continuation of anti-ulcer therapy results in a reduced rate of ulcer recurrence, but it does not affect the natural history of the disease. When maintenance therapy is discontinued, expected patterns of rapid recurrence resume (1).  When creating background, you may want to move from a definition leading to the main problem --- something that other researchers have been working on.  Note: the number in parenthesis is a citation style. 20
  • Writers begin to introduce new information. This may or may not be informationreaders know, but the writers are drawing attention to it to set the context for whatfollows. Recent studies have suggested that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection affects the natural history of duodenal ulcer disease such that the rate of occurrence decreases markedly (2,4). 21
  • Specific statement of the problem However, the interpretation of these results has been complicated by the fact that several of the larger studies did not use control groups or any form of blinding (3,5,6). In addition, studies of the effect of H. pylori eradication in patients with gastric ulcer have not been done. 22
  • Objective – the new information. We propose to conduct a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of therapy designed to eradicate H. pylori on the pattern of ulcer recurrence in patients with duodenal or gastric ulcer. Readers would now expect, in the body of the proposal, for the writers to explain why H.pylori is important to curing ulcer disease because this was a very radical idea. 23
  • Citing Sources24
  • Purposes for Citing Sources Places your research in context, relating it to other work on the subject. Acknowledges conflicts with other research findings. Provides support for important claims. Directs reader to bibliographical information not only where to find the source but this information conveys aspects of credibility. A first-tier, peer-reviewed journal article by a major researcher may have more weight with readers than a lower-tier or industry produced report or article. 25
  • Two Basic Citation Systems Name-Year System Used By: -MLA: Modern Language Association -APA: American Psychological Association Numbered-Sequence System Used By: -CMS: Chicago Manual of Style -CBE: Council of Biology Editors -IEEE: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers 26
  • Choosing a Style for Citing Sources No “right” or “wrong” -- only preferences. Reasons to select a specific citation style:  Standard for your field.  Employer or publisher preference.  Reader preference. 27
  • Rhetorical Moves in Citing Sources Some silly sentences follow this slide to make a point.28
  • Direct and Indirect Citation Direct citation. Author (and/or work) is identified directly and cited by parenthetical reference or through a footnote or endnote. Indirect citation. Author (and/or work) is not identified but cited parenthetically or through a footnote or endnote. 29
  • Direct CitationTwo Parenthetical Documentation Styles APA [emphasis on date] Brie (1988) showed that the moon is made of cheese. Cheddar (1990) reached the same conclusion. MLA [emphasis on page number] Brie showed that the moon is made of cheese (111-19). Cheddar reached the same conclusion (40-52).Typically, APA is used in the social sciences while MLA is used by disciplines inthe humanities (English, history, etc.). 30
  • Three Documentation Styles Using Endnote Systems CMS [superscript number placed at the end of sentence.]  Brie showed that the moon is made of cheese.1 Cheddar reached the same conclusion. 2 CBE [superscript number placed closed to author’s name]  Brie¹ showed the moon is made of cheese. Cheddar² reached the same conclusion. IEEE [uses brackets around superscript number placed close to author’s name or reference to research]  Brie[¹] Brie showed that the moon is made of cheese. . Cheddar[²] reached the same conclusion. 31
  • All Documentation Styles In-text citation information (parenthetical or superscript) must be accompanied by a corresponding entry in a Works Cited, References List, or Bibliography where information about the source is provided. Basic elements of a bibliography (any documentation style):  Name of author  Name of text  Date of text  Publisher of text 32
  • Writing the Additional Information (3 page max) Institutional resources available – This includes resources already available through the university that will aid in the completion of your project (i.e. laboratory/gallery facilities, existing equipment that you will therefore not have to purchase to complete your project, etc). Other sources of funding – If you need additional sources of funding aside from the SGP to complete your project, you need to address in this section of the proposal how you will be obtaining these funds. You also need to address in your budget where/how these funds will be used. Plan to disseminate to the university – As mentioned under “Responsibilities of Grant Recipients”, you will need to present the results of your project to the students of the University of Idaho. In this section, outline how you intend to fulfill this requirement (i.e. Grad Expo, campus poster session, etc). 33
  • Additional information continued Regulatory committee approvals – Any research proposal involving controlled substances, radioactive materials, human beings, or animals must be cleared with the appropriate university compliance committee(s) before any funds are released from the SGP. NOTE: for the purposes of this assignment, you will not be required to obtain clearance from the university compliance committees, but you will need to explain the following:  In this section of the proposal, identify whether your project will require approval from any of these committees and how you will address the common concerns of these committees. In addition, projects involving the use of controlled substances must be (co-)sponsored by a permanent faculty member who is properly licensed by the appropriate state/federal agencies and the necessary license information and/or identification must be noted in this section. 34
  • Additional information continued Other – Provide any other information that demonstrates you are capable of conducting the activities specified in the proposal 35
  • Writing the Budget: use the form. Equipment (Capitol Outlay): Any item which will retain its usefulness beyond the grant period is considered capital equipment and will be retained by the university once the project is completed. All equipment, including laptops and desktop computers, must receive a university identification tag. Expendable Supplies and Materials: Include enough supply money for all activities in the project. Include both expendable laboratory supplies and expendable large-quantity office supplies (e.g. stationery, duplicating supplies, typing/computing supplies, and software). Travel Costs: Please refer to the university travel guidelines for appropriate expenditures. 36
  • Writing the Budget: use the form. Personnel/Services: Identify who is to receive funds and include salaries and fringe benefits (i.e. graduate or undergraduate assistants, digital services, secretarial help, etc). Remember, requests for funds to pay investigators on the grant will not be considered. Other Expenses: List all other expenses not covered under any of the headings above. All items in this section should be described in the Budget Justification. 37
  • Writing the Budget: use the form. F&A Fee: Facilities & Administration fees traditionally pay for indirect costs of research, such as office and laboratory space, heat and lights, library services, administrative assistance/staff, and other costs. This fee must be included as part of your overall total requested from the SGP. Calculate the amount needed by totaling your budgetary line items (budget sections a-e) and multiplying by 8%. That number must then be added to the total budgetary line items (a-e) for the total amount requested from the SGP. Justification - For all expenses over $100 and those items listed under “Other Expenses”, describe on an additional page the expenses such that reviewers and committee members will be able to immediately recognize the relevance and necessity of the items. For all expenses listed under "Equipment", indicate who will assume responsibility for the equipment once the project has been completed. 38