CCNA Router Startup and Configuration
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CCNA Router Startup and Configuration CCNA Router Startup and Configuration Presentation Transcript

  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Chapter 6 Router Startup and Configuration
  • Objectives
    • Describe the steps involved in starting a router
    • Describe and use the Cisco Discovery Protocol
    • Configure IP on the Cisco router
    • Troubleshoot router connectivity problems
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Router Startup
    • In general, the boot process follows these steps:
      • Test hardware (POST)
      • Load the bootstrap program
      • Locate and load the Cisco IOS
      • Locate and load the router configuration file
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Test Hardware (POST)
    • Read-only memory (ROM) in a router
      • Typically contains the power-on self-test (POST) , the bootstrap program, and often a version of the operating system
    • POST is a diagnostic test that determines if the hardware is operating correctly
    • During the POST, the bootstrap program, also called the ROM Monitor , checks basic operations of the attached hardware
      • The ROM Monitor checks the configuration register for instructions regarding how to load the Cisco IOS
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Router Configuration Files
    • startup-config
      • The router configuration file that loads during the boot process
      • Sometimes referred to as the backup configuration
        • Because it is the saved version of the configuration file
    • To revert to the settings in your startup-config
      • Reboot the system by powering the router off and back on again or
      • Issue the reload command at the privileged EXEC mode prompt
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Router Configuration Files (continued)
    • Note that when you copy over the startup configuration in NVRAM, that file is replaced
    • When you copy to the running configuration in RAM, the configuration files are blended
    • To view the contents of the startup-config
      • Type show startu-pconfig or just show start at the enable prompt
    • To see your working or running configuration
      • Type show running-config or just show run at the enable prompt
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Methods for Making Changes
    • You can usually implement and test changes without saving them to the startup configuration
    • Basic steps to implement changes:
      • Make changes as desired to the configuration
      • Examine those changes
      • Determine if the changes meet the desired result
      • Remove the changes if they do not meet the desired result, or simply reboot the router
      • Copy the changes from the running configuration to the startup configuration when they do meet the desired result
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • IP on the Router
    • To manually configure IP on an interface
      • You must first change to interface configuration mode
      • Then, you can use the ip address command to configure an IP address for the specific interface
    • In the event you are configuring a serial interface as a DCE (data communication equipment)
      • You will also need to add the clockrate [bandwidth in bits per second] command
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • IP Connectivity CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Telnet
    • Telnet
      • Utility that connects at the highest layer of the OSI model and provides remote access to other devices
    • Cisco routers allow telnet connections via their virtual terminal ports
    • If you can establish telnet connectivity to a router
      • It is available on the network and you have connectivity at all layers
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • IP Host Names
    • Sometimes, you cannot gain connectivity because the host name that you are trying to connect with is entered in a table incorrectly
    • To determine the address to name mapping on your router, type:
      • router#show hosts
    • To add an entry to your hosts file for name resolution
      • Go to global configuration mode and type:
        • router(config)#ip host router15 192.168.5.1
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • IP Host Names (continued)
    • To remove that entry, type:
      • router(config)#no ip host router15 192.168.5.1
    • To allow a name server to handle the IP address to name resolution, type:
      • router(config)#ip name-server 172.33.44.1
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Ping and Trace
    • Ping and Trace verify connectivity at the Internetwork layer of the TCP/IP model
    • Ping can return the following replies:
      • ! Successful receipt of the ICMP echo
      • . Request timed out
      • U Destination was unreachable
      • C Congestion experienced
      • I Ping interrupted
      • ? Packet type unknown
      • & Packet TTL exceeded
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Ping and Trace (continued)
    • Using the ping command alone
      • Referred to as extended mode ping
      • Allows you to enter your ping command step by step
    • Trace sends multiple ICMP packets with progressively higher time-to-live counters (TTL)
      • Until the packet reaches the destination
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Ping and Trace (continued)
    • The following responses can be returned by a trace:
      • !H Indicates that a router received, but did not forward, the ICMP echo request
      • P Protocol unreachable
      • N Network unreachable
      • U Port unreachable
      • * Request timed out
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • IP Route
    • If you cannot get connectivity using Ping or Trace, you should check your routing table
    • Issue the show ip route command from the enable mode prompt
      • To display the routing table
    • Typically, routing tables are dynamically created when routing protocols are configured on the router
      • If you want, you can use the ip route command from the global configuration mode
        • To statically enter routes in the routing table
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Checking the Interface
    • show interfaces command
      • Check the configuration of a specific interface from the enable mode prompt
      • Example: router#show int s0/0
    • Replies
      • Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up
      • Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is down
      • Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is administratively down
      • Serial0/0 is down, line protocol is down
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Checking the Interface (continued)
    • Clear counters
      • The router keeps detailed statistics regarding data passing across its interfaces
      • To clear the counters for interface f0/0, type:
        • router#clear interface f0/0
    • debug command
      • One of the most powerful tools you can use to obtain information from your router
      • Tool is only available from privileged EXEC mode
      • Debug has numerous subcommands
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CDP
    • Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
      • Cisco proprietary Data Link layer protocol
        • Shares configuration information between Cisco devices that are connected directly to each other
    • All Cisco devices can use CDP to:
      • Discover each other
      • Learn about the configurations of other devices
    • Using CDP can help you quickly determine the network topology
    • CDP was designed to be a low-overhead protocol
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CDP (continued) CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Cisco IOS
    • Cisco IOS is usually loaded from flash memory
      • If the router cannot find the IOS in flash memory, it will look for a copy on a TFTP server
      • If it cannot find one there, it will boot a minimal version of the IOS from ROM
    • If you want to see information about your router’s flash memory:
      • Type show flash from the enable mode prompt
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Cisco IOS (continued) CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Configuration Register
    • Every Cisco router has a 16-bit configuration register, which is stored in NVRAM
    • This register allows you to control several boot functions:
      • Forcing the system into the bootstrap program
      • Enabling or disabling the console Break function
      • Setting the console terminal baud rate
      • Loading the IOS from ROM
      • Loading the IOS from a TFTP server
    • Examine the configuration register by typing show version
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Configuration Register (continued) CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • ROM Monitor Mode
    • ROM Monitor mode
      • The bootstrap program that is built into the firmware of the router
      • Used to initialize the hardware and load the IOS
      • ROM Monitor can be used to perform other tasks such as diagnostics and recovering passwords
    • Configure your system to enter ROM Monitor mode
      • Enter the following command at the global configuration prompt:
        • router(config)#config-register 0x2100
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • ROM Monitor Mode (continued)
    • Configure your system to boot a smaller IOS image from ROM and enter RxBoot mode
      • Enter the following command at the global configuration prompt:
        • router(config)#config-register 0x2101
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • RxBoot Mode
    • RxBoot mode
      • A limited version of the IOS
    • Entering RxBoot mode is often done intentionally
      • When you want to access a TFTP server to download a new IOS
    • If your router enters RxBoot mode without your intervention
      • Indicates that the router could not find a good IOS image
    • Prompt: router(boot)
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Boot System Commands
    • As long as the configuration register is configured with a 2 as the final hexadecimal digit
      • The ROM Monitor will look for boot system commands in NVRAM during the bootup process
    • Enable your system to boot an IOS file from the TFTP server
      • Issue the following command from global configuration mode:
        • router(config)#boot system tftp somefile.bin
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Backing Up and Restoring the IOS
    • copy flash tftp
      • The command for backing up your IOS to a TFTP server
    • You will be asked for the source filename, the IP address of the TFTP server, and the destination filename
    • Type erase flash at the privileged EXEC mode prompt
      • To erase the IOS
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Upgrading the IOS
    • Before you load a new IOS file to your router
      • Use the show flash command to ensure there is enough free memory to hold it
    • The system will tell you how much memory is used and how much is free
    • If there is not enough memory to hold both the current IOS image and the upgrade
      • You will have to erase the existing flash memory as previously mentioned
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Router Password Recovery
    • Password recovery
      • Process that allows you to get into the router without the necessary passwords
      • You must be physically connected to the router using the console cable
    • Steps to perform password recovery on the Cisco 2600 series:
      • Connect to the router from a PC using the console port and the HyperTerminal program
      • Enter the show version command and record the value of the configuration register
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Router Password Recovery (continued)
    • Steps to perform password recovery on the Cisco 2600 series: (continued)
      • Turn the router off and on using the power switch
      • Press Ctrl+Break several times within the first 60 seconds of bootup
      • At the rommon 1> prompt, type confreg 0x2142 and press Enter
      • Enter the reset command at the rommon 2> prompt
      • Enter no if asked to enter the system configuration dialog
      • Enter enable to get to privileged mode
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Router Password Recovery (continued)
    • Steps to perform password recovery on the Cisco 2600 series: (continued)
      • Enter the copy start run command to load the saved configuration file from NVRAM into RAM
      • Enter the show run command to view the configuration
      • To change the enable secret command, enter the following commands:
        • Router#config t
        • Router(config)#enable secret [secret password]
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Router Password Recovery (continued)
    • Steps to perform password recovery on the Cisco 2600 series: (continued)
      • Enter config-register 0x2102 at the global configuration mode prompt to make sure the router reboots in the default manner
      • Enter the copy run start command to save your changes
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Security Device Manager
    • Security Device Manager (SDM)
      • A Web-based tool primarily used for implementing and testing security configurations
      • Commonly used to configure routing protocols, WAN services, wireless routing, firewalls, virtual private networks (VPNs), and quality of service (QoS)
    • SDM is typically not used to configure basic functionality on a Cisco router
      • In fact, SDM cannot do all things
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Summary
    • When a router boots, it follows a set routine
    • Although a router’s boot process can vary, the typical boot process follows a standard sequence
    • If the Cisco IOS is set to load from a TFTP server, but the TFTP server cannot be located, then the IOS will boot from flash memory
    • If the IOS cannot be found in flash memory or on the TFTP server, then a limited version will boot from ROM
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Summary (continued)
    • If the Cisco IOS is set to load a configuration file from a TFTP server, but the file or server is not available, the configuration file will be loaded from NVRAM
    • The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) shares information between Cisco devices about other local Cisco devices
    • CDP uses broadcasts to update neighbors every 60 seconds by default
    • Devices share information about their interface configurations and connections to other devices
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition
  • Summary (continued)
    • You can verify router connectivity to other systems by using telnet to determine if there is Application layer connectivity
    • If you cannot get connectivity at the Application layer, try Trace and Ping
    • One of the most important troubleshooting commands is the show interfaces command
    • Cisco’s Security Device Manager (SDM) is a Web-based tool designed to help you configure Cisco routers
    CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition