In our Literacy class we’re reading Donald Graves Book Writing: Teachers & Children at work and in it he states that too often we focus on plot and not on character In science, history and other content subjects, the notion that people make these important decisions and discoveries is being left out. So In honor of that I’m going to try and bring both Dr. Bronfenbrenner and his contributions to life….
Born 1917 Moscow, Russia – Emigrated USA aged 6, WWII: Psychologist Army Air Corps,Veterans Administration, Asst Chief Clinical Psychologist University of Michigan, Asst Professor PsychologyFaculty-elected member of Cornell’s Board of TrusteesJacob Gould Schurman Professor Emeritus of Human Development & PsychologyLifetime Contribution to Developmental Psychology in the service of Science & Society renamed the Bronfenbrenner Award 1996Passionate Child Advocate: (with a wife of 63 years, 6 kids, 13 grand kids and 1 great grand child) Who actively promoted the parents involovement in their child’s educationTestified in ‘64 congressional hearing urging President Johnson’s War on Poverby to include children1970 White House Conference on American Children – he was speaker, asst. to President Nixon asked him to stay an extra day – he declined he wanted to return home for a family birthday celebration. White House Aide are you putting your children ahead of this country? I said yes I am.The focus of his later years was his concern over the disintigration of the american family: “ The hectic pace of modern life poses a threat to our children second only to poverty and unemployment,” We are depriving millions of children – and thereby our country – of their birthright…virtues, such as honesty, responsibility, integrity and compassion.
Though we’re here today to dig into his Ecological systems theory, I thought it was important to recognize contribution to the founding of head start. He was one of only 3 developmental psychologists who were included in the panel to develop the program that includedUntil this moment Child psychologists were studying children, sociologists family, anthropologists society, economists the economic framer work and political scientists political structure. No one recognized that in order to understand human development the ENTIRE ecological system in which growth occurs must be studied. There were other guys before but he was the first to move it forward – berlin study 1870 the effects of neighborhood on the dev. Of children’s concepts Bronfenbrenner himself says that the development took place not so much because of his writings but because the ideas he was promotoing are ideas whose time has come (1986)The Theory is also called the “Bioecological Systems Theory” in order to recognize that the child’s own physiolocial development is the primary driver of her own development.
At first glance it looks like a bulls eye – Bronfenbrenner however referred to it closer to a series of Russian Nesting Dolls with the Child at the heart or the nest of the entire systemWe’ll get into the details and definitions in a moment – The important thing about these systems is to realize they are a series interconnected system that the child is either directly involved in or affected by. AND When something goes awry in one, it will affect the other (often to varying degrees) This will be important to us as we discuss the theory’s relevance in the classroom.Because looking at all the charts kind of made me bug eyed I thought I would try to visualize the systems and their components and that we should break them down in order to better understand them and how the child and her development relates to each system.
Definition: How the child interacts in “face-to-face” settings of home, school and peer groups. I like to call this the Heart of the Nest as this is the system the child has the most direct contact.The power & importance of interaction: invite, engage, permit, inhibit, share. As the child grows these interactions and activities become more complexBronfenbrenner passionately believed in the quality (not fly by) time spent with parents – even the simplest of activities like taking a walk – create this bond of sharing and learning from each other. (the break down of this is what he attributes many of our behavioral problems today)It’s important to note here that this interaction is two way – not just how the child learns from others, but how others learn from the child too.Understanding the Child’s Microsystem will be key for us in the class room: Who are her parents, does she have siblings, what type of neighborhood does she live in, what are her religious beliefs.Access to Play What is their community like – do they have one?: urban, suburban, rural (thinking about James what you said about kids not going outside to play after school because it wasn’t safe – so they stayed inside and played video games)Theinfluence here is tremendously important as it’s the foundation for Culture and Ideals development:
Definition: How the groups of the microsystem interact with one another Parents Involvement In School, Church or the communityThe disagreeing pressures a child may feel from peers vs. parents. Lightfoot Cole & Cole use the example of Teachers & Parents supporting academic success but peers push them to form a rock band. I was thinking more complex like religious differences in the class room as it pertains to the various holidays – Christmas, Chanukah OR I went to school with Girls who were never allowed to cut their hair, wore dresses all the time and were not allowed to dance. It was awful for them – and we were awful to them. As teachers the two-way communication or partnership we have with the child’s parents regarding the child’s development will be the most active components of the mesosystem
Definition: Situations, primarily involving the parents, that affect the child but doesn’t include them.A PromotionAccess to Day CareAbility to work from home/or notStress on the job: Lay Off, FiredAccess to Good Benefits and health careLocal Governmental Decisions: changes in transportation, service cuts, school closingsSchool Board DecisionsLocal Industry: Seattle, Boeing lay offs, Construction downWhen you look at it this way we (humans in general) do live in a pretty complex culture
Definition:The Larger Cultural Context - Lightfoot, Cole & Cole: “Values, Customs, Hazards, Resources of the larger culture that shape what happens in all the settings of the systems nested within.Each of these is a major event that affected our culture: Prior to 9/11 the idea of Security was not part of our mass media discussion, it changed who we are as a nation – in my previous life I worked in Product Development and Trend Research for Getty Images a picture company. We studied the cultural and visual effects of 9/11 of each of these events in order to understand how we as a culture would change visually.Each of these events will be felt in the class room on some level – it can be an opportunity for Teaching – SHELBY story about he teacher who used the world cup to teach Geography.Will also include Eastern vs. Western CultureAlso the Media plays a big role here and Children’s exposure to it
Here’s the chart from our Book. What I like about this slide is that it illustrates how they are all interconnected – when one component of the system goes awry the effects will be felt to varying degrees
TheChrono system was added later as studies from the ‘70’s identified “time not merely as an attribute of the growing human being, but also as a property of the surrounding environment not only over the life course, but across historical time.”The child will react differently to any number of things based on where they are in their own development – thus the relevance of physiological changes.
I Like this model because it is inclusive of External Forces that help us understand and nurture a child’s development and consequently is relevant in the classroom.Microsystem: Will help determine the nature in which the child will develop – for example parents who are active and engaged with the child or parents who are not. Single parent home vs. dual parent home – not necessarily good or bad, but will affect the childAcitve Participant: Partner with parents, be aware of the larger systems – seek teaching opportunities as a resultBehavioral Changes: What part of the system is breaking down – micro – is it close to home? Is there a conflict in the meso? Has parent lost job or stressed at work as part of exo or is there a larger cultural force at work like with the economy? Identifying the breakdown in the system will help us determine the best course of action to guide/nurture/support to a healthy placeDON’T FORGET JESSICA’S DAILY AFFIRMATION MICRO INTERPRETIVE DANCE!!!!DON’T FORGET THE JESSICA AFFIRMATION SLIDE AFTER THIS ONE!!!
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1<br />EDUC 509: Human Development & Learning/Kenneth A. Hapke, JD, PhD<br />UrieBronfenbrenner: Ecological Systems Theory<br />Denise Funderburk, July 15, 2010<br />
His Story<br />2<br />Cornell University, 1938: Music, Psychology<br />Harvard: MA Developmental Psychology<br />University of Michigan, 1942: Ph.D. <br />Cornell University Professorship in Human Dev., Family Studies & Psychology 1948<br />Chair, 1970 White House Conference on Children<br />Cornell University prominent throughout life<br />
Why He Matters<br />1965 Co-Founder Head Start (Edward Zigler, Mamie Clark)<br />+24M children since 1965<br />2006<br />12.1% Children with Disabilities (national)<br />WA Funding 99.2M<br />WA Enrollment 11,190 Children<br />One of the first Developmentalists to actively link Child Psychologists, Sociologists, Anthropologists into a framework inclusive of Economists and Political Scientists.<br />Father of Ecological Systems Theory : Recognizing that human development occurs not in isolation but in the actual environments human beings interact:<br />Microsystem<br />Mesosystem<br />Exosystem<br />Macrosystem<br />Chronosystem<br />3<br />
Bibliography<br />Dede Paquette – John Ryan, Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory; (1 of 4) 7/12/2001 http://pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf<br />"Bronfenbrenner, Urie." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. Web. 15 July 2010. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Urie_Bronfenbrenner<br />Woo, Elaine. Boston.com. 29 Sept. 2005. Web. 15 July 2010. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/obituaries/articles/2005/09/29/urie_bronfenbrenner_theories_altered_approach_to_child_development_at_88/<br />"Statistical Fact Sheet Fiscal Year 2007." Administration for Children and Families Home Page. Web. 15 July 2010. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ohs/about/fy2007.html<br />Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In International Encycopedia of Education, Vol. 3, 2nd. Ed. Oxford: Elsevier. Reprinted in: Gauvain, M. & Cole, M (Eds.), Readings on the development of children, 2nd Ed. (1993, pp.37-43. NY Freeman http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/35bronfebrenner94.pdf<br />YuktiAhujaBronfenbrenners Ecological Theory Introduction http://www.mymontessoriacademy.com/newsletters/websitebronfenbrennerecologicaltheory.pdf<br />“The Ecological Perspective of development” – WSU CHF 1500 Human Development http://faculty.weber.edu/tlday/human.development/ecological.htm<br />Lightfoot, Cynthia, Michael Cole and Sheila R. Cole. The Development of Children. Sixth ed. New York, Worth, 2009 Print<br />“Head Start” Background/History University of Michigan http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.bell/background_history<br />13<br />EDUC 509: Human Development & Learning/Kenneth A. Hapke, JD, PhD<br />UrieBronfenbrenner: Ecological Systems Theory<br />Denise Funderburk, July 15, 2010<br />
Visual Sources<br />Pictures<br />UrieBronfenbrenner: psychologicalscience.org<br />Cornell University: Cornell University<br />Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Chart: Weber State University<br />Seattle City Hall: Wikipedia.org<br />September 11, 2001 Tribute Candle: HilaryShepard.com<br />Stock Market Crash Graph: The Kirk Report, October 10, 2008<br />Lehman Brothers Lay Offs: ABC Australia.net, September 15, 2008<br />Foreclosure Sign: How stuff works, no date given, Joe Raedel/Getty Images<br />President Elect Obama and Family November 4, 2008: Daily Mail, UK<br />FIFA World Cup Poster: Baltimore Sun, June 17, 2010<br />The Ecological Systems Theory: Lightfoot, Cole & Cole – The Development of Children 6th Edition pg. 29 <br />All other photos & illustrations: Clipart.com<br />Video<br />Http://www.youtube.com: Jessica’s Daily Affirmation, dmchatster, December 2001<br />14<br />EDUC 509: Human Development & Learning/Kenneth A. Hapke, JD, PhD<br />UrieBronfenbrenner: Ecological Systems Theory<br />Denise Funderburk, July 15, 2010<br />