98% of the territory locate between 20-50 °, broad area of temperate and subtropical zone, good optical and thermal conditions.
N53 o 31' N3 o 51' E73 o 22' E135 o 03' 5500km 5200km
Broad country and vast living space
Basis of latitude strip incremental change laws
Mid-latitude ,Seasons change typically （ Influence people’s behavioral habit and variety of everything ）
1.2 China's Position on the Earth (1) Marine-Terrestrial Location
Both land and sea resources and the environment, transport and culture
Most typical monsoon country in the world, south-west monsoon, south-east monsoon, the plateau monsoon, instable climate
Basis of surface longitude zone regularity
Basis of large-scale farming and landscape zone regularity
Ice field Tundra Grassland in Temperate zone Desert belt Grassland in Tropical zone Rain forest Alpine plants belt Evergreen broadleaf in subtropical zone Distribution of land natural belts in the world Needleleaf forests in subfrigid zone Mixed forests in temperate zone and deciduous broadleaf in temperate zone Evergreen sclerophyte belt in subtropical zone
East of Eurasia, the West Bank of Pacific Ocean
Between the biggest mainland and the biggest oceans in the world
Seismic zone pattern——Circum- Pacific seismic zone ， Mid-latitude seismic zone pattern
Basis of macro physiognomy pattern
Vertical zonality （ Agriculture and Landscape ）
Basis of mineral resources pattern
Volcano and Seismic Zone Distribution in the World Circum- Pacific seismic zone Active volcano Continental breaking load seismic zone Mid-ocean-ridge seismic zone
(3) Natural Belt Location Ice field Tundra Grassland in Temperate zone Desert belt Grassland in Tropical zone Rain forest Alpine plants belt Evergreen broadleaf in subtropical zone Distribution of land natural belts in the world Needleleaf forests in subfrigid zone Mixed forests in temperate zone and deciduous broadleaf in temperate zone Evergreen sclerophyte belt in subtropical zone
Southeast of boreal forest （ Global Terrestrial Forest zone ）
North of tropical rain forest （ Global Terrestrial Forest zone ）
Eurasian desert center （ the world's largest temperate zone desert ）
East of European-Asian grassland
Highest elevation in the world –located in middle and low latitude
Subtropical forest ——famous agriculture fields
1.3 China's Position in the World (1) Position in the World Administrative Division and Economic Pattern ★
(2) Location in the World's Land Transportation China Asian Europe Rotterdam Hunchun
Mexico,Mediterranean sea——Egypt,Rome,Greece,India River and Yellow River
Regional closed （ East Sea and West Desert and Mountain ）-> Historical and Cultural closed
*Deblij: “One of the greatest ancient civilizations in the world ”
“ Chinese civilization developed through a long period of isolation ”
Chang’an Mediterranean Nile India River Euphrates River Tigris River Yellow River
From ancient to the modern times, China has been a country with a large population in the world, maintaining the proportion of 1/4 of the total world population in the long term. At the beginning of 12 century , the population was more than 100 million ， At the beginning of 19 century ,the population was more than 400 million At the year of 1949 , the mainland population of 5.4 billion, 1.2 billion in 1995. At the year of 2000 , （ Fifth Census ） 12.95 million people nationwide to the approximately 21% of total global population (1) China's Population Ranks First in the World Population Power Country China's Population Proportion Accounting for the World Population 1.4 Status of China in the World China India America Indonesia Brazil Russia World and other countries
Regional Distribution of Population Density with High-value (1995)
In the east of mid-latitude population density belt, the center of high-value population.
Great Population capacity of land ,representing the world 1/5.
China's population proportion of the total world population is gradually declining. 1970 to 22.5%. 1995 to 21.0%. It is expected that China's population will reach 15.7~16 million in 2040~2050 , the proportion will fall to around 16%.
China's land area is about 9.6 million Km 2 or approximately 6.5% of the total land area in the world, after Russia and Canada, ranking third in the world. (2) China's Land Area Ranks Third in the World China in the world, representing 6.5% of the total land area for 21% of the total world population ？
Country Name Land Area / km 2 Comparison （ China :1 ） Accounting for world’s area(%) Russia 17075400 1.78 11.4 Canada 9976139 1.04 6.7 China 9600000 1.00 6.5 America 9372614 0.98 6.3 Brazil 8511965 0.89 5.7 Australia 7682300 0.80 5.2 India 2974700 0.31 2.2 Kazakstan 2721730 0.28 1.8 Saudi Arabia 2149690 0.25 1.4 Indonesia 1904570 0.20 1.3 France 551600 0.06 0.37 Japan 377750 0.04 0.25 Britain 244100 0.03 0.16 Comparison between China's Land Area and Some Countries
(3) China's Major Socio-Economic Indicators Rank First in the World Economic Gross Ranks Sixth in the World China's GDP accounting for 2.5% of the world and 12.9% of the developing countries, seventh in the world in 1995 . China's GDP ranks sixth in the world, with China's rapid economic development, economic output and the gap between the world's major developed countries gradually reduced In 2000. In Recent Years, Economic Growth Ranks First in the World During the Eighth and Ninth Five-year Plan period , China's annual average economic growth was 12% and 8.3% respectively, the world economy grew at 2.6%, 3.8% over the same period, significantly higher than the world average, the growth rate ranks first in the world.
Output of Major Industrial and Agricultural Products Ranks First in the World In 1999, the Chinese grain, cotton, rapeseed, fruit, vegetables, meat, eggs, fish, steel, coal, chemical fertilizer, cement, TV production and other industrial and agricultural products maintain primacy the world. In 1996, grain output breached 5000 × 108kg. In 2001, grain output for 4526 × 108kg. In 2001,generating capacity to 14,838 million kilowatt-hours, the second highest in the world. In 2000,crude oil output 1.6 × 108t, 5th place in the world;gas output 277 × 108M 3 , is No. 15 in the world. In 1996 steel output reached 10,124 × 104t. exceeded 100 million tons for the first time, being the largest in the world; production reached 15,163 × 104t in 2001 .
Total Foreign Exchange Reserves and Foreign Capital also Rank Second in the World 1978 to 160 million U.S. dollars 1989 to 5.6 billion U.S. dollars 1995 to 73.6 billion U.S. dollars 2000 to 165.6 billion U.S. dollars 2001 to 212.2 billion U.S. dollars Ranking second in the world Since 1990, China's absorption of foreign investment has been in the forefront of developing countries. After 1993, the total foreign capital has been the second highest in the world, after the United States. The Top Eight Countries of Foreign Exchange Reserves in the World America Spain Singapore Germany Taiwan Hong Kong China Japan (A hundred million dollars)
Since reform and opening up, China's foreign trade has been developing rapidly, the average annual growth of foreign trade more than 15%, more than the national economic growth rate. China's import and export trade gross amounted to 20.6 billion U.S in 1978, ranking 32 in world trade. By 1997 the total value of import and export trade reached 325.1 billion U.S. dollars, ranking No. 10 of the world; increased to 509.7 billion U.S. dollars in 2001, the six largest in the world. "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, China's exports amounted to a total of nearly 17740 million. China has become the world trade great country . Foreign Trade Ranks Highest in the World
International Tourism Revenue Ranks Seventh in the World In 1997,the number of international overnight entry tourist reached 2377 ten thousand, ranking sixth in the world. Tourism foreign exchange income amounted to 12.1 billion U.S. dollars, ranking eighth in the world after the U.S., Spain, France, Italy, United Kingdom, Austria and Germany . In 2000, the number of international overnight entry tourist reached 3123 million, the tourism foreign exchange revenue amounted to 16.2 billion U.S. dollars, ranking fifth and seventh places respectively. Data update information : National Bureau of Statistics. China Statistical Yearbook -2002 . Beijing : China Statistics Press, 2002