Producing Spoken English   Interpretations of Classifier-based Texts           Doug Stringham     2008 USDB Winter Workshop...
What we hope toaccomplish today:                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
not learn all the different kinds ofapplications of classifiers in ASL (Dan’s class)Understand basic notional and functiona...
Functional and notional roles of classifiers in     ASL discourse                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
How/Where do ASLusers use classifiers?                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
(1) ASL users use       classifiers to(simultaneously) satisfy   notional purposes.                      ©2008 Doug Stringham
Classifier PredicatesPredicates say something about nouns/nounphrases (‘the boy is sick’; ‘is sick’ is thepredication on th...
Base Classifier PhonemesA fist (A, S, T)              L thumb + index (L, L!)B flat hand (B, 4)            3 vehicle (3)5 spr...
Pronominals              ©2008 Doug Stringham
Subject PronounsPronoun                  English    ASLFirst person singular    I          PRO.1First person plural      w...
Object PronounsPronoun                  English   ASLFirst person singular    me        PRO.1First person plural      us  ...
‘X persons’: CL:{#}not #-OF-US                      ©2008 Doug Stringham
Verbs        ©2008 Doug Stringham
‘put an object up’:(2h)CL:C“raise overhead”(note initial nominal clarification)‘blender movement’:CL:1“spinning {part}”(see...
Adjectival modifers                      ©2008 Doug Stringham
‘big car,’ (2h)CL:L or (2h)CL:C‘small cars froman airplane,’ CL:G“size”                            ©2008 Doug Stringham
Adverbial modifiers                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
(closely tied toverbal information)                      ©2008 Doug Stringham
‘blender movement’:CL:1“spinning {part}”‘car in and out of traffic’CL:B“car weaving in traffic”(how the car moves)Police sto...
“David Meets The Police”http://teach-asl.blogspot.com/2007/02/asl-storytelling-scary-experience-with.html                 ...
Adpositionals/Locatives                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
most commonly perceivedusage of ASL classifiers                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
Specificity in ASL locative units is very efficient.                       ©2008 Doug Stringham
ASL’s implicit phonology     and morphology(pronunciation) allows fornear absolute specificity.                       ©2008...
“New York School f/t Deaf”   watch (2h)CL:A‘school and hospital’                                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
“Deaf Ninja”watch for multiple locative relationships      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8                     ...
(2) ASL users useclassifiers to satisfyfunctional purposes.                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
not to make ASL “look cool”                       ©2008 Doug Stringham
not to make ASL“look more ASL”                  ©2008 Doug Stringham
To satisfy/represent   pronominal object spatial or conceptualrelationship agreement.                     ©2008 Doug Strin...
“New York School f/t Deaf”  (spatial and conceptual relationships)                                      ©2008 Doug Stringham
To satisfy/represent descriptive size andshape specifier (SaSS)     descriptions.                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
SaSSes themselves don’tfunction as pronominalsDescribe pronominals’/objects’ character, not itsmovement or “objectness”e.g...
Why?       ©2008 Doug Stringham
Because ASL employs a   topic/commentsyntactical structure, spatial relationshipsand SaSS descriptions   must be defined.  ...
How does spokenEnglish discourse dealwith similar functional/    notional roles?                      ©2008 Doug Stringham
Pronominals              ©2008 Doug Stringham
Subject PronounsPronoun                  English    ASLFirst person singular    I          PRO.1First person plural      w...
Some English subject pronominal hangups:                   ©2008 Doug Stringham
Singular ‘they’:“When I tell a joke,   they laugh.”                   ©2008 Doug Stringham
gender-neutrality:“That student finished  his/their homework.”                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
Object PronounsPronoun                  English   ASLFirst person singular    me        PRO.1First person plural      us  ...
Verbs        ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically:concrete action words  (‘run’, ‘jump,’ ‘sing’)                       ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically:abstract action words (‘love,’ ‘think,’ ‘grow’)                        ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically: verbification/verbing(‘Fedex,’ ‘email,’ ‘chair’)                         ©2008 Doug Stringham
Modifiers           ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically:adjectival lexemes and phrases: ‘small,’ ‘blue,’  ‘oversized,’ ‘bouncing   baby boy,’ ‘once in a         lifetim...
adjectival lexemes may also bepositive, comparative, andsuperlative: ‘rich,’ ‘richer,’‘richest’; ‘beautiful,’ ‘morebeautif...
Lexically:   manner adverbial lexemes and affixes:‘really,’ ‘very,’ affix ‘ly’                         ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically:   redefined nominal  and verbal lexemes:  ‘so,’ ‘much,’ ‘wicked,’‘butt,’ ‘way,’ ‘sick,’ ‘phat’                  ...
Lexically:redefined interjectory or intensifer lexemes   (‘damn,’ ‘f*****g,’)                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically:  determiners/articles(‘a,’ ‘the,’ ‘that,’ ‘those’)                          ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically:   nominal/pronominal         possessives(‘his,’ ‘yours,’ ‘the girl’s’)                           ©2008 Doug Str...
Lexically:     portmanteau (abso-f*****n-lutely,podagogical, funtastic)                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically: -like and -ish affixes(‘rainbow-like,’ ‘five-ish’)                        ©2008 Doug Stringham
Tonally: phonemic/morphemic      extensions‘be-you-tiful,’ ‘re-hee-   heelly,” “that was     awwwesome!”                  ...
Tonally:insinuate alternative  meaning—sarcasm,   feigned interest (‘great,’ ‘uh,’ ‘right’)                            ©20...
Metaphorically:  comparative phrases(‘hot as hell,’ ‘soft as a     baby’s bottom’)                        ©2008 Doug Strin...
Other modifer types?                   ©2008 Doug Stringham
Adpositions/Locatives                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
Lexically:  prepositionals andprepositional phrases                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
time, location, movementtypically always in aprepositional phrase“[preposition] the [object]”                           ©2...
Samples of English  prepositionals:                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
before, in front of, on, behind,under, beneath, beside, next to,before, between, on, into, near,through, off, over, upon, ...
Specificity in Englishprepositional units is    inefficient.                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
more specificity = more prepositional lexemes                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
‘the ball is next  to the glove.’                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
{preposition}‘the ball is next  to the glove.’  {prepositional phrase}                                 ©2008 Doug Stringham
‘the ball is extremelyclose to the glove, about three inches from thetop of the webbing, not  on the right side, but  over...
‘the ball is extremelyclose to the glove, about three inches from thetop of the webbing, not  on the right side, but  over...
Create personalstrategies for working   with classifiers in      signed texts                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
interpretation = “work”                     ©2008 Doug Stringham
interpretation ! “me”                    ©2008 Doug Stringham
Avoiding judgmental  language in interpreter talkEvaluative/judgmental                               Non-evaluative/-judgm...
Group text analysis/interpretation of signed classifier-based texts                      ©2008 Doug Stringham
Additional Readingsonlineslangdictionary.cometymonline.comen.wikipedia.org/wiki/english_grammarValli, C. & Lucas, C. (2000...
Thank you.dstringham@gmail.com                       ©2008 Doug Stringham
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Producing Spoken English Interpretations of Classifer-based Texts

  1. 1. Producing Spoken English Interpretations of Classifier-based Texts Doug Stringham 2008 USDB Winter Workshop ©2008 Doug Stringham
  2. 2. What we hope toaccomplish today: ©2008 Doug Stringham
  3. 3. not learn all the different kinds ofapplications of classifiers in ASL (Dan’s class)Understand basic notional and functionalroles of classifiers in ASL discourseUnderstand how spoken English discoursedeals with notional and functional rolesCreate personal strategies for working withclassifiers in signed textsSet up group terminologies in preparation toProduce interpretation work ©2008 Doug Stringham
  4. 4. Functional and notional roles of classifiers in ASL discourse ©2008 Doug Stringham
  5. 5. How/Where do ASLusers use classifiers? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  6. 6. (1) ASL users use classifiers to(simultaneously) satisfy notional purposes. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  7. 7. Classifier PredicatesPredicates say something about nouns/nounphrases (‘the boy is sick’; ‘is sick’ is thepredication on the noun); types of CL predicates: whole entity (object as a whole) surface instrumental depth and width extent (amounts or volumes) perimeter-shape on-surface (groups of objects) Valli & Lucas, 2000 ©2008 Doug Stringham
  8. 8. Base Classifier PhonemesA fist (A, S, T) L thumb + index (L, L!)B flat hand (B, 4) 3 vehicle (3)5 spread hand (5) 0 tapered (O, M)C cupped (C, C!) R crossed fingers (R)E claw (E, E!) V index + middle (V, V!)F “okay” (F, F!) W thumb + pinkie (W, W!)G point (G, D, 1) X hook (X, X!)H index + middle (H, N, U) Y ix/thumb + pinkie (Y, Y!, ILY)I pinkie (I) 8 bent middle (8, 8!)K “chopsticks” (K, P) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  9. 9. Pronominals ©2008 Doug Stringham
  10. 10. Subject PronounsPronoun English ASLFirst person singular I PRO.1First person plural we WE, TWO-OF-US, THREE-OF-US…Second person singular you PRO.2 (singular)Second person plural you PRO.2 (plural), TWO-OF- YOU, THREE-OF-YOU…Third person singular he, she, PRO.3-IX, PRO.3-thumb itThird person plural they THEY, TWO-OF-THEM, THREE-OF-THEM(Jeff Pollock, 2007)
  11. 11. Object PronounsPronoun English ASLFirst person singular me PRO.1First person plural us WE, TWO-OF-US, THREE-OF-US…Second person singular you PRO.2 (singular)Second person plural you PRO.2 (plural), TWO-OF- YOU, THREE-OF-YOU…Third person singular him, her, PRO.3-IX, PRO.3-thumb itThird person plural them THEM, TWO-OF-THEM, THREE-OF-THEM(Jeff Pollock, 2007)
  12. 12. ‘X persons’: CL:{#}not #-OF-US ©2008 Doug Stringham
  13. 13. Verbs ©2008 Doug Stringham
  14. 14. ‘put an object up’:(2h)CL:C“raise overhead”(note initial nominal clarification)‘blender movement’:CL:1“spinning {part}”(see SN 16: How things work) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  15. 15. Adjectival modifers ©2008 Doug Stringham
  16. 16. ‘big car,’ (2h)CL:L or (2h)CL:C‘small cars froman airplane,’ CL:G“size” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  17. 17. Adverbial modifiers ©2008 Doug Stringham
  18. 18. (closely tied toverbal information) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  19. 19. ‘blender movement’:CL:1“spinning {part}”‘car in and out of traffic’CL:B“car weaving in traffic”(how the car moves)Police story (Martin)CL:B“car weaving in traffic”(CL:Y’“airplane”, how the plane fliesaround; (2h)CL:3, how the cars arepulled over) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  20. 20. “David Meets The Police”http://teach-asl.blogspot.com/2007/02/asl-storytelling-scary-experience-with.html ©2008 Doug Stringham
  21. 21. Adpositionals/Locatives ©2008 Doug Stringham
  22. 22. most commonly perceivedusage of ASL classifiers ©2008 Doug Stringham
  23. 23. Specificity in ASL locative units is very efficient. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  24. 24. ASL’s implicit phonology and morphology(pronunciation) allows fornear absolute specificity. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  25. 25. “New York School f/t Deaf” watch (2h)CL:A‘school and hospital’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  26. 26. “Deaf Ninja”watch for multiple locative relationships http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8 ©2008 Doug Stringham
  27. 27. (2) ASL users useclassifiers to satisfyfunctional purposes. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  28. 28. not to make ASL “look cool” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  29. 29. not to make ASL“look more ASL” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  30. 30. To satisfy/represent pronominal object spatial or conceptualrelationship agreement. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  31. 31. “New York School f/t Deaf” (spatial and conceptual relationships) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  32. 32. To satisfy/represent descriptive size andshape specifier (SaSS) descriptions. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  33. 33. SaSSes themselves don’tfunction as pronominalsDescribe pronominals’/objects’ character, not itsmovement or “objectness”e.g. ‘CL:1’ or ‘CL:V!’ doesn’tindicate its nominal nature ©2008 Doug Stringham
  34. 34. Why? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  35. 35. Because ASL employs a topic/commentsyntactical structure, spatial relationshipsand SaSS descriptions must be defined. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  36. 36. How does spokenEnglish discourse dealwith similar functional/ notional roles? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  37. 37. Pronominals ©2008 Doug Stringham
  38. 38. Subject PronounsPronoun English ASLFirst person singular I PRO.1First person plural we WE, TWO-OF-US, THREE-OF-US…Second person singular you PRO.2 (singular)Second person plural you PRO.2 (plural), TWO-OF- YOU, THREE-OF-YOU…Third person singular he, she, PRO.3-IX, PRO.3-thumb itThird person plural they THEY, TWO-OF-THEM, THREE-OF-THEM(Jeff Pollock, 2007)
  39. 39. Some English subject pronominal hangups: ©2008 Doug Stringham
  40. 40. Singular ‘they’:“When I tell a joke, they laugh.” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  41. 41. gender-neutrality:“That student finished his/their homework.” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  42. 42. Object PronounsPronoun English ASLFirst person singular me PRO.1First person plural us WE, TWO-OF-US, THREE-OF-US…Second person singular you PRO.2 (singular)Second person plural you PRO.2 (plural), TWO-OF- YOU, THREE-OF-YOU…Third person singular him, her, PRO.3-IX, PRO.3-thumb itThird person plural them THEY, TWO-OF-THEM, THREE-OF-THEM(Jeff Pollock, 2007)
  43. 43. Verbs ©2008 Doug Stringham
  44. 44. Lexically:concrete action words (‘run’, ‘jump,’ ‘sing’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  45. 45. Lexically:abstract action words (‘love,’ ‘think,’ ‘grow’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  46. 46. Lexically: verbification/verbing(‘Fedex,’ ‘email,’ ‘chair’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  47. 47. Modifiers ©2008 Doug Stringham
  48. 48. Lexically:adjectival lexemes and phrases: ‘small,’ ‘blue,’ ‘oversized,’ ‘bouncing baby boy,’ ‘once in a lifetime’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  49. 49. adjectival lexemes may also bepositive, comparative, andsuperlative: ‘rich,’ ‘richer,’‘richest’; ‘beautiful,’ ‘morebeautiful,’ ‘most beautifulspecificity in English adjectivalmodifiers is inefficient(‘deciduous’ vs. ‘evergreen,’‘computer’ vs. ‘laptop’) butlexically rich ©2008 Doug Stringham
  50. 50. Lexically: manner adverbial lexemes and affixes:‘really,’ ‘very,’ affix ‘ly’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  51. 51. Lexically: redefined nominal and verbal lexemes: ‘so,’ ‘much,’ ‘wicked,’‘butt,’ ‘way,’ ‘sick,’ ‘phat’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  52. 52. Lexically:redefined interjectory or intensifer lexemes (‘damn,’ ‘f*****g,’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  53. 53. Lexically: determiners/articles(‘a,’ ‘the,’ ‘that,’ ‘those’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  54. 54. Lexically: nominal/pronominal possessives(‘his,’ ‘yours,’ ‘the girl’s’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  55. 55. Lexically: portmanteau (abso-f*****n-lutely,podagogical, funtastic) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  56. 56. Lexically: -like and -ish affixes(‘rainbow-like,’ ‘five-ish’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  57. 57. Tonally: phonemic/morphemic extensions‘be-you-tiful,’ ‘re-hee- heelly,” “that was awwwesome!” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  58. 58. Tonally:insinuate alternative meaning—sarcasm, feigned interest (‘great,’ ‘uh,’ ‘right’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  59. 59. Metaphorically: comparative phrases(‘hot as hell,’ ‘soft as a baby’s bottom’) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  60. 60. Other modifer types? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  61. 61. Adpositions/Locatives ©2008 Doug Stringham
  62. 62. Lexically: prepositionals andprepositional phrases ©2008 Doug Stringham
  63. 63. time, location, movementtypically always in aprepositional phrase“[preposition] the [object]” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  64. 64. Samples of English prepositionals: ©2008 Doug Stringham
  65. 65. before, in front of, on, behind,under, beneath, beside, next to,before, between, on, into, near,through, off, over, upon, across, of, concerning, like, except, about, in, for, without, toward,to, around, by, past, at, against,during, until, throughout, after ©2008 Doug Stringham
  66. 66. Specificity in Englishprepositional units is inefficient. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  67. 67. more specificity = more prepositional lexemes ©2008 Doug Stringham
  68. 68. ‘the ball is next to the glove.’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  69. 69. {preposition}‘the ball is next to the glove.’ {prepositional phrase} ©2008 Doug Stringham
  70. 70. ‘the ball is extremelyclose to the glove, about three inches from thetop of the webbing, not on the right side, but over on the left side.’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  71. 71. ‘the ball is extremelyclose to the glove, about three inches from thetop of the webbing, not on the right side, but over on the left side.’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  72. 72. Create personalstrategies for working with classifiers in signed texts ©2008 Doug Stringham
  73. 73. interpretation = “work” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  74. 74. interpretation ! “me” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  75. 75. Avoiding judgmental language in interpreter talkEvaluative/judgmental Non-evaluative/-judgmental S/he/you/me The interpret -ation/-er Could have, should have When I saw/heard ____, I I would have... understood it to mean... Clear, good, right/wrong, I saw a pattern; here is more/less, better/worse an/are example(s) that might help illustrate I liked the way... I thought it worked I saw/heard ______; to me that means _______©2001 Betty Colonomos, Bilingual Mediation Center
  76. 76. Group text analysis/interpretation of signed classifier-based texts ©2008 Doug Stringham
  77. 77. Additional Readingsonlineslangdictionary.cometymonline.comen.wikipedia.org/wiki/english_grammarValli, C. & Lucas, C. (2000). “ClassifierPredicates and Locative Verbs” (ch. 7) and“Classifier Predicates and SignerPerspective” (ch. 8). In Linguistics ofAmerican Sign Language. Washington, D.C.:Gallaudet University Press. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  78. 78. Thank you.dstringham@gmail.com ©2008 Doug Stringham

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