SS8H1 The student will evaluate thedevelopment of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on the Native American cultures in Georgia. a. Describe the evolution of Native American cultures (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland and Mississippian) prior to European contact.
EQ: How did theenvironment impact the development of each prehistoric Native American culture?
EQ: How did thevarious improvementsof inventions assist the advancement of early Native Americans?
Where did they come from?• The first theory is that they came from Asia during the last ice age. (12,000 years ago)• During the last ice age the ocean levels dropped and created a land bridge between Asia and America.• This land bridge is known as BERINGIA.
Humans migrated acrossa land bridge known asBeringia, now The BeringStrait, following prey. Prehistoric man reached the Southeast about 12,000 years ago
Where did they come from?• Some scientists also believe that early man might have come to America much earlier and by other routes, including by boat.
How do we learn about them?• Scientists called ARCHAEOLOGISTS study the first people of America.• They study them through ARTIFACTS.
How do we learn about the Native Americans?• Artifacts - objects that are left by prehistoric cultures that help archaeologists understand them.• Prehistoric - is the time before written history.• Culture - a way of life shared by people with similar arts, beliefs, and customs.
The Paleo-Indians• This is the earliest inhabitants of North America.• They are thought to have come to America across Beringia.• This period began as the glaciers from the last ice age started to melt.
The Paleo Indians• The Paleo Indians were nomadic.Nomadic - moving from place to place following the animal herds.1. They used spears to hunt the animals.2. The animals that they hunted were wooly mammoths, large bison (buffalos), and elk.3. They used the animals they killed for food, clothing, and tools. (their form of Wal- Mart)
Clovis PointFirst known type of spear point found in North America
Paleo Indians• The group is rarest of the prehistoric Native Americans – They traveled in very small groups. – They were nomadic. – There are very few sites that archeologists can use to learn about their everyday lives.
Animals of the Paleo-Indian Period. Saber Tooth Tiger
The Paleo Indians• As the ice age ended, the herds began to shrink.• The extinction of the large animals changed the lives of the Paleo Indians.• There have been no settlements from the Paleo-Indian period found in Georgia, but there have been a few artifacts found in GA.
The Archaic Period• As the ice age ended forests began to replace the open plains from the ice ages.• During this time the Paleo-Indians were slowly replaced by the Archaic Indians.• This new time period lasted from 8000B.C.E to around 1000B.C.E
The Archaic Indians1. They adapted to their changing environment by improving techniques in fishing, hunting, and gathering.2. They started making tools and bowls from stone.3. They also began trading with other regions.
Types of Shellfish that the Archaic Indians would have eaten.
The Archaic Indians• During this period the early humans began to settle into small groups of people.• They lived in rock shelters and pit houses.• They also started hunting small animals and the beginning stages of agriculture can be seen.