The Civil War in GASS8H6b: State the importance of key events of theCivil War; include Antietam, EmancipationProclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Unionblockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s AtlantaCampaign, Sherman’s March to the sea, andAndersonville.
Early stages of the Civil War• GA, FL, MS, AL, LA, SC, and TX seceded from the Union.• The United States refused to turn over possession of the forts that they had in the Confederacy.• On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces began to fire on Fort Sumter, two days later Union forced to surrender.• This was the first official fighting between Union and Confederate troops.
Fort SumterNotice howIt blocks theChannel leadingInto Charleston.
View of Charleston at the beginning of theCivil War. Notice Fort Sumter in the harbor.
Early stages of the Civil War• After the attack at Fort Sumter; VA, TN, NC, and AR decide to join the confederacy.• Even though Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware were slave states they remained with the Union, because they did not believe it was right to secede. – They were known as the border states. – Some of VA’s western counties decided to stay with the Union, creating West Virginia.
Map of The United States and Confederate States of America• Dark Red: – Original states to secede.• Light Red: – States that seceded after Fort Sumter• Yellow: – Border States• Blue: – Union
The Civil War• After Fort Sumter was bombed, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to enlist for three months to “put down the rebellion”• Many thought that the war would be quick and relatively bloodless.• It became the bloodiest war in US history, with the highest number of American casualties because both sides were considered to be Americans. – 600,000 killed – 400,000 wounded
Leaders• General Robert E. Lee – Commander of the Confederate Army• General Ulysses S. Grant – Commander of the Union Army.• Both men were graduates of West Point.• Lee was considered to be one of the finest military men in the nation at this point. He was asked to command the Union Army by President Abraham Lincoln. Lee refused Lincoln stating that he must decline because he felt an allegiance to his home and state of Virginia.• Reflect – What if Lee had led the Union troops? How might have the war been different?
GeneralRobert E. LeeCommanderof theConfederateArmy
Union Blockade of Southern Ports• Shortly after the bombing of Fort Sumter Lincoln declared a naval Blockade on southern ports. – Any ship coming or going would be stopped and searched for contraband.• Some supplies did come through the blockade on ships designed to elude the Union ships, called Blockade runners. – Very, fast ships
Union Blockade of Southern Ports• This blockade not only limited the amount of goods coming into the Confederacy but it also limited the amount of cotton that was sent to other countries for sale. This limited the amount of money available.• The blockades hurt the Confederacy because they needed these supplies to continue fighting the war.• The Union called this strategy the “Anaconda Plan.” – It would eventually squeeze the Confederacy to death.
• The Nashville – a Civil War Blockade running ship
Wartime resources• The North was more prepared to fight the civil war than the south. – North – larger population, more factories, more railroads (suitable to carry heavy loads) – South – agriculture based economy, 1/3 of total population was slaves, railroad built to carry farm products ( light loads) • King Cotton Diplomacy – The south felt that they could force France and Britain into the war due to their need of cotton. This didn’t work because the north convinced them to use cotton from another source.
The Civil War• Antietam – September 17, 1862 – General Lee attempts to invade the north. – Single “bloodiest” day of the Civil War – No clear winner – Lincoln used the aftermath of this battle to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
The New York Gazette September 23, 1862Battle of Antietam: Over22,000 Casualties in SingleDay
Just six days ago on September 17, 1862, the bloodiest singleday so far in the Civil War was fought in Antietam, Maryland,where Confederate troops under the command of General RobertE. Lee clashed with Union soldiers led by General McClellan. Theviolent battle raged on for only one day as the Union men pushedthe Rebels out of United States territory back into Virginia.The photo shown was taken about two days after the Battle ofAntietam, and shows the disgruntled body of a Confederatesoldier lying limp in a ditch used as a rifle pit. The gruesome bodyshown was a result of lethal artillery shells firing down upon theinfantrymen. The men in the background are Union soldiersprobably burying the bodies of dead Confederates, and even afew of their own.In the early morning of the battle, Confederate and Union soldiersmet in D. R. Millers cornfield where hidden Rebels overwhelmedmany surprised Union troops. Only after a couple of hours was theUnion able to push back the Confederates.
The second major part of the battle took place at SunkenRoad. Here, Confederate soldiers held their ground at acrucial point with a fence to cover them. After a while though,they could not handle the heavy fire from the Union. After thebattle, this area was nicknamed "Bloody Lane."In the final major dash, the Union attacked a Confederatestronghold right near a bridge. The first few waves of Unionmen were completely unsuccessful, but then they swarmedthe bridge and drove the Rebels back into Confederateterritory. The military skills of the Southerners were no matchfor the sheer number of Union men.Although there was no real victor of the Battle of Antietam, theUnion claimed a win because even though they lost more menthan the Confederates, they did fulfill their purpose which wasto drive the Army of Northern Virginia back into their own land.
The Emancipation Proclamation“And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and forever shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.”
The Emancipation Proclamation• Through the Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln expressed his desire for all people to be free.• It did not create freedom for everyone, this did not happen until the 13th Amendment, which was adopted after the end of the Civil War.• Not everyone received their freedom, because the Emancipation Proclamation did not make slavery illegal in the slave states still loyal to the Union.• There was still a long fight ahead ensure this freedom.
The Emancipation Proclamation“And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.”
The Emancipation Proclamation• This statement welcomed former slaves into the armed services. – 186,000 African American enlisted. • 133,000 came from slave states. – Over 38,000 died during the Civil War. – Have you ever seen the movie “Glory.”
51,000 died in 3 days• From July 1, 1863 – July 3, 1863.• General Lee attempts to invade the North for a second time.• The two armies fought a battle in Pennsylvania that would change the course of the war. – North - 97,000 troops • 23,000 -- killed, wounded, or captured. – South – 75,000 troops. • 28,000 -- killed, wounded, or captured.• This battle was known as Gettysburg.• The Union army won this battle. South forced to take a defensive role for the rest of the war.
The War comes to Georgia• For the first two years of the war very few battles were fought in GA.• This changed during September 1863, Union forces had captured Chattanooga, and started to advance into GA.• The Union forces met stiff resistance at the site of Chickamauga Creek.
The War comes to GeorgiaChickamauga is located inNorthwestern GA just southof Chattanooga, TN.
The War comes to Georgia• This was the first major advance of Union forces into GA.• Two days of fierce fighting and the Confederate Army was able to defeat the Union Army at a terrible cost.• 33,900 either wounded or killed.• This was to be last major victory of the Confederacy.• The following spring, William T. Sherman would begin his Invasion of GA.
Sherman Invades GA• In the spring of 1864, Sherman begins his march from Chattanooga to Atlanta. – Atlanta was the munitions center of the Confederacy.• This invasion of GA was designed to not only to take Atlanta but to also break the will of the Confederacy.• Throughout Sherman’s invasion of GA, he was met with resistance.• He finally was able to take Atlanta after much fighting in the surrounding areas.
One of many defensive sites set up around Atlanta.
Sherman Takes Atlanta• Sherman did not want Atlanta for military standpoint, he wanted to take Atlanta to stop the supplies that were supporting the Confederate Army.
Sherman Takes Atlanta• Before the Confederates left Atlanta They destroyed anything that they could not carry with them. (ex. Locomotives and railroad cars)• Sherman did not want the supplies, he wanted everything destroyed. – Within a week of taking Atlanta, he forced all Southern citizens to leave. – He then had anything used in supplying the confederate army destroyed and its building burned. • The fires spread quickly and burned down most of the city.
Atlanta, GA. View on Marietta Streetbefore Sherman came to Atlanta.
Sherman’s March to the Sea• After 2 ½ months Sherman burned Atlanta and set off for Savannah.• This March was intended to speed up the end of the war and end civilian support for the war effort.• His goal was to bring “the sad realities of war” to the heart of GA.
Sherman’s March to the Sea• Sherman issued orders that explained how the march would be conducted. – 6. To corps commanders alone is entrusted the power to destroy mills, houses, cotton-gins, etc.; and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested, no destruction of each property should be permitted; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army commanders should order and enforce a devastation more or less relentless, according to the measure of such hostility.
Sherman’s March to the Sea• After Sherman reached Savannah he estimated that his troops had destroyed over $100 million worth of food and other resources. – This does not count houses, personal property, or government property (railroads, courthouses, etc..)
Area damaged by Sherman’s March. Notice that it did not stop in GA.
Sherman Reaches Savannah• Sherman entered Savannah on December 21, 1864. 1 ½ months after leaving Atlanta. – He captured 150 guns, plenty of ammunition, and 25,000 bales of cotton. • Why was there so much cotton in Savannah? – He sent a telegraph to Lincoln saying “I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the city of Savannah.” – Neither GA nor the Confederacy was able to recover from this march in time to change the outcome to the Civil War.
Andersonville• One of the most notorious Confederate prisons during the Civil War.• Held so many Union prisoners that its population was greater than most confederate cities.• Because of the overcrowding and unsanitary conditions nearly 13,000 prisoners died of disease and starvation.
Andersonville• The South constructed a prisoner of war camp built to hold 15,000 prisoners.• Instead it had 45,000 prisoners at one time.• Disease killed 13,000 Union soldiers.• Camp commander Henry Wirz was hung after the war for war crimes.
Surrender• April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.• Two weeks later, General Joseph Johnston surrendered to General William Sherman in North Carolina.