Union Blockade “The Anaconda Plan” The Union navy did not allow ships to enter or leave Southern ports along the Atlantic coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mississippi River. It was an attempt to destroy the Confederate economy by shutting down trade.
Fort Pulaski A confederate fort located at the mouth of the Savannah River. Federal guns forced the fort to surrender April of 1862
First Battle –Bull Run (no notes) Fought 25 miles south of Washington DC. Residents of Washington DC. thought it would be an easy victory and many came to watch. After a fierce fight lasting most of the day Confederate troops routed Union troops sending them and northern observers panicking back to Washington. Nearly 5,000 soldiers were killed or wounded on both sides.
Battle of Antietem- Sept. 17 1862 Robert E. Lee moved the Southern army into Maryland to attack the North. Lee wanted to end the war with one big victory. He also hoped to encourage Maryland to join the confederacy and gain support from European countries.
The Bloodiest Day of the War Battle of Antietam A major battle led to the bloodiest day of the war (23,000 casualties). The Union victory gave President Lincoln the victory he needed to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
The Sunken road at Antietem battlefield – Summer 2008
Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 President Abraham Lincoln issued an order declaring an end to slavery in all Confederate states. It did not end slavery in slave states that stayed with the Union. (MO,KY,DE,MD) It kept European countries that abolished slavery from supporting the South. Encouraged African-Americans to join the Union army. The Union Army now fought to end slavery, not to just keep the Southern states from leaving the Union.
If I could preserve the Union by freeing none of the slaves I would do it; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union."- Abraham Lincoln
Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 Lee again invaded the North hoping to win a major battle that would convince the North to end the war.
The two armies fought a three day battle that led to a major Union victory. It was the bloodiest battle (not the bloodiest day) of the war (50,000 casualties) The Confederate defeat was considered the turning point in the war. Lee would never invade the North again.
Gettysburg National CemeterySite of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESSFourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent anew nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all menare created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whetherthat nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. Weare met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portionof that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that thatnation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But,in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate…we cannot consecrate…we cannothallow…this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, haveconsecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will littlenote nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they didhere. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished workwhich they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for usto be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that from thesehonored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave thelast full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shallnot have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birthof freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people,shall not perish from the earth.November 19, 1863 –President Abraham Lincoln
Chickamauga –Sept 18-20, 1863 Union forces went to Chickamauga. A battle was fought over control of railroad lines between Chattanooga and Atlanta. Union forces took over the railroad lines in Chickamauga. Railroads were used to supply armies like General Lee’s in Virginia.
Confederate troops attacked Union troops near Chickamauga, Georgia. 33,000 casualties made it the bloodiest battle in Georgia. The South won but did not recapture the rail center at Chattanooga.
Left side Assignment“Three things I like and two I do not understand.” Read through your copy of the Gettysburg Address. Write down 3 things you think are really important that Lincoln says. List two things you do not understand.
Civil War Part One Notes Write true or false on a lined piece of paper.1. The Anaconda Plan was the Union blockade of Northern ports.2. Antietam was the site of the bloodiest day in the Civil War.3. The Union Blockade was designed to hurt the Confederacy’s economy.4. The first shots of the war were fired at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.5. The Confederacy won the Battle of Antietam.6. General Robert E. Lee commanded the Southern forces at Antietam.7. The Confederate army moved North into Maryland hoping to find needed supplies.8. Savannah was not considered important enough to blockade during the Anaconda Plan.9. The Confederate Army was unsuccessful in its attempts to capture Fort Sumter.10. The battle of Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle in Georgia.
The Atlanta Campaign May-September 1864 A series of battles were fought around the city of Atlanta. Atlanta was an important supply railroad supply line for much of the south. Capturing it meant food and weapons would be cut off to Confederate armies.
General William T. Sherman led a Union Army of 100,000 and finally forced the smaller Southern army to give up Atlanta.
Andersonville Prison in Georgia The South constructed a prisoner of war camp built to hold 15,000 prisoners. Instead it had 45,000 prisoners at one time. Disease killed 13,000 Union soldiers. Camp commander Henry Wirz was hung after the war for war crimes.
Left side Assignment “A prisoner at Andersonville” Imagine you are a prisoner of war just captured on the battlefield at Chickamauga and sent to Andersonville by train. As you enter through the stockade consider these things.1. What do you see, hear, smell?2. How do you feel?3. What are you going to do?4. What will it take to survive?5. Write a journal entry in paragraph form.
March to the Sea Sept.-Dec. 1864 General Sherman and the Union army marched across Georgia hoping to destroy the southern economy. They marched from Atlanta to Savannah on a path often 60 miles wide.
Georgia’s Destruction Sherman hoped that damaging large areas of the South would lead to its surrender. The Union army met little resistance along the way. Fort McAllister (near Richmond Hill) fell December 13th. General Sherman spared Savannah from destruction and gave it as a Christmas present to President Lincoln.
Civil War Notes Part two Read through all of the statements before answering ANY of them. True or False1. Abraham Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg Address.2. In the Gettysburg Address, the word consecrate means to declare sacred.3. Four score equal 87 years.4. General William T. Sherman’s middle initial stands for Turnip.5. Henry Wirz won the Andersonville 500 driving a Dodge in 1864.6. The March to the Sea is a famous symphony written about penguins.7. Abraham Lincoln did not have a mustache.8. Chickamauga is a funny sounding word.9. I did not follow the instructions at the top.10. Do not answer any of the questions, turn over your paper and sit quietly.
Left side assignment Think about life in Georgia and how it might have felt as Sherman’s troops crossed Georgia while getting to Savannah. Write a letter to a friend discussing what you would be experiencing and what you would fear the most.