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PLTW EDD: Unit I, Lesson 2 - Project Management

PLTW EDD: Unit I, Lesson 2 - Project Management



Project Management

Project Management



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  • This presentation will address the topics listed above.
  • In order to successfully complete a project, an individual or team must properly plan, organize, and manage the project.Project constraints involveCompletion using only available resources including people, equipment, and materialsCompletion of a number of tasks – these required tasks are referred to as the “scope” of the project and define the project size, goals, and requirementsCompletion within a given time frame, andCompletion within a fixed budget.Very simple projects can sometimes be completed using common sense and the drive to get things done. However, more complex projects can be accomplished more quickly and less expensively if careful planning and a disciplined management approach are employed to guide project completion.
  • Project management may seem like it takes away from the real task at hand. The truth is that without planning, the “real work” may be for nothing. Without adequate planning, the project may not make a deadline, may cost too much, or may not really meet the customer’s needs.Good planning and project management often lead to more of the “real work” when less time is spent fixing problems that have arisen from poor planning.Almost all engineers will need to manage one or more projects during their career.
  • Planning: The project phase concerned with breaking the project into manageable chunks and planning how best to proceed.Projects that are well-planned can still experience bumps in the road, but the better the plan, the less likely it is that those bumps will be disastrous to the overall project.
  • When starting a project, it is important to answer some common questions:Where do I need to go? Beginning with the end in mind is important. It is imperative to understand the scope, limits, and criteria for the project.When do I need to be there? Time frame is important. This is a constraint that is important and usually non-negotiable for supervisors and clients. If the time constraint is not met, then extra costs and profit are affected. It is important to break down the project into manageable tasks. This is one area that will need to be watched closely with the teams. What do I need to get there? It is important to brainstorm and plan with your team the resources that will be needed to accomplish the project. Whom do I need to help me? Often times, big projects can not be done alone. Projects of this caliber has several members on the team. These team members must have a vested interest in their responsibilities and must work collaboratively to accomplish the project. It is also important to identify and involve subject matter experts during several phases of the project.Fully answering these questions above will allow the team to see the “How” and “Why” of the project. Just remember that a well planned project will most likely evolve and change. Be flexible and ready to adapt.
  • All stakeholders, because they have a “stake” in the outcome, should be involved in the project from beginning to end. For a building project, stakeholders can include the owner, employees, maintenance staff of the building, architect, civil engineer, other professionals involved in the design, end users, community members, and others.Zombie stakeholders are primarily avoided in the initiating and planning process. Clearly defining all stakeholders and their expectations before controlling and executing ensures that nothing or nobody has been forgotten. Furthermore the closure of a project is clear and justifiable when stakeholders are involved and buy in at the beginning of the project.
  • Project Life Cycle: The phases that any project progresses through (initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing)The most time in projects is usually spent executing and controlling. The success or failure of a project is often determined by planning, initiating, and closing.Poor initiating can lead to team members not sharing the same vision for the project and to difficulty deciding when the project is really finished.Successful planning involves detailed short-term planning and broad long-term planning and requires that plans be revisited as the project progresses to adjust to new information and changes.Successful closure means that everyone recognizes when a project is complete and that the results are successfully transitioned or handed over.
  • The initiation phase develops the scope of the project. It includes Analyzing the needs of the clientAnalyzing stakeholder input, including input from the end user(s) and support personnel Financial analysis of costs and benefits and development of a budgetDetermining constraintsCreation of a program which describes the design objectives, constraints, and criteria of the project The project team will need to make sure they have thoroughly outlined the scope of the project prior to moving forward. The teacher will need to check their scope of work and offer feedback to each team.
  • The planning phase includes creating a plan to handle communications among team members and stakeholders, quality control, human resource (people) management, procurement of materials, cost containment, and creating a project schedule to plan the time and resource allocation during the project.Note: Teachers, it is important that you have weekly meetings with each team.
  • The Project Organization Chart shown is an example - each project organization chart will look different. The important thing is that everyone that has anything to do with the project is included.
  • Gantt charts are a tool used to manage a project. The ability for the team to list small tasks, milestones,reminders, and due dates on one spreadsheet that everyone can access is critical to the process of reaching a conclusion to a project on time and within budget.Teacher Note: Several different versions of Gantt Chart software are available. Excel can produce a Gantt chart for the students. A tutorial on how to create a Gantt chart in Excel and word is available in the curriculum. You may consider the free download Gantt Project or a purchasable software version called Microsoft project. The teacher will need to make a determination on which software to use.
  • Choose major phases for your project
  • Tasks: The activities undertaken to achieve deliverablesFor each phase, choose major tasks that must be completed.
  • You can include sub-tasks under each task. [click] For example, under Research past and present solutions you may want to include [click] (read sub tasks)[click] Under Market research you may want to include [click] (read sub tasks)
  • A team should be considered a grouping of experts. All tasks should add value and all members should be able to understand the value of each task. Tasks need to be monitored closely and may take less or more time depending on unforeseeable factors that the team was not aware of when creating the plan and documenting the tasks on the Gantt chart.Other tasks may result from a finished task. Additionally, a task may be too large and may need to be divided into smaller tasks. It is important for all members of the team to come to a consensus.
  • Milestones is a scheduled events signifying the completion of a major deliverable or a set of related deliverables. For example, the Design Proposal may be the milestone that indicates the end of Phase 1.
  • The presentation date is a drop dead date – you must be ready to present on the required day. Include it first.Include required milestone due date, if applicable or set your own.Fill in the tasks and subtasks necessary to meet each milestone in the time available. Consider the likelihood that a task will not be completed on time. What will happen if you can’t work for a day (illness, snow day, assembly, etc.)? Is the task vital to later tasks? Should you build in a cushion for some tasks? Consider tasks that are required prior to other tasks such as acquiring materials before you build a prototype, scheduling facilities before you test or hold a meeting, obtaining feedback before you write a report, and gathering required permissions. Be sure to include the prerequisite tasks early enough to meet the schedule for the dependent tasks.
  • Who are the people that will help complete the project? Every task should be assigned to a responsible person.
  • A good place to start in order to choose and schedule tasks is the rule of thirds. Although the timeline will vary for each project and your schedule will be adjusted as you work through the design process, you can initially schedule tasks by dividing the available time for your project into three roughly equal time periods. Then schedule tasks from each of the columns in the Rule of Thirds within the first, middle, or last “third” of your available time, as appropriate. [click]You can select Milestones from the list and add additional milestones as appropriate for your project. For example, in the middle third, perhaps some appropriate milestones might be the design proposal, complete technical drawings, a prototype build procedure, and a complete prototype model. But remember, your project schedule is flexible within the constraint of your final project presentation date.
  • The execution phase includes completing the project work. It involves coordinating the people and resources to complete the project tasks and activities according to the project management plan. The deliverables, which typically include drawings and specifications for the project, are produced. If the team is creating products, often working prototypes are created prior to the mass production of the product.
  • In the monitoring and controlling phase, it is important to monitor the cost, effort, and scope of the project. Scope refers to the work that is required in order to define, design and produce a product, service or result with the specified features and functions. Controlling scope creep is an important part of project management. Scope creep refers to the expansion of the scope of a project beyond the initial planning of the project which almost always adversely affects the cost and effort required to complete the project.Feedback is very important at this stage. Make sure your corrective action is valid and warranted.Scope refers to
  • The closing phase is a wrap up and report of the project. This may be achieved in a variety of ways based upon each project.
  • This presentation will address the topics listed above.

PLTW EDD: Unit I, Lesson 2 - Project Management PLTW EDD: Unit I, Lesson 2 - Project Management Presentation Transcript

  • Project Management
  • Project Management •Planning Misconceptions •Planning •Stakeholders •The Project Life Cycle •Initiation •Planning •Project Management Tools •Gantt Chart Plan •Executing •Monitoring and Controlling •Closing
  • Project Management • Planning, organizing, and managing resources to successfully complete a project – Achieve all project goals – Comply with all project constraints • Resources • Scope • Time • Budget
  • Planning Misconceptions It’s boring It takes too long It’s too difficult
  • Planning “The best laid schemes of mice and men often go awry.” Robert Burns, 1785 – Scottish Poet
  • Planning Planning Questions Where When What Whom How and Why
  • “Zombie stakeholders” keep coming back again and again asking for changes. How can this be avoided? Stakeholders Stakeholders are those who are involved in, interested in, or affected by the project.
  • The Project Life Cycle Planning, Executing, and Controlling tasks form a loop Initiating Closing
  • Project Life Cycle Initiation Phase Client analysis Stakeholder input analysis Financial analysis and budget Constraints Program Initiating Closing
  • Project Life Cycle Planning Communications Quality control Human resource management Procurement Cost management Schedule Initiating Closing
  • Project Management Tools Project Organization Chart: Organizes everyone involved in the project.
  • Project Management Tools Gantt Chart: A bar chart representation of a project schedule
  • Gantt Chart Plan Choose Phases • Option 1– Rule of Thirds –Research and Exploration –Design and Construction –Testing, Documentation, and Presentation • Option 2 –Research and Exploration –Design –Construction –Testing –Documentation –Presentation • Other Options
  • Gantt Chart Plan Choose Tasks Example •Research and Exploration – Choose a topic – Research topic – Write Problem statement – Research past and present solutions – Write Statement of purpose – Conduct Market Research – Write Problem Proposal
  • Gantt Chart Plan Choose Tasks Example – Research past and present solutions • Evaluate competition • Patent research – Conduct market research • Write market survey • Administer market survey • Analyze market survey results
  • Project Tasks . . .  Should have value rather than be pointless.  Should be important to the entire team, not just one member.  Are more powerful and achievable if they are tied to deliverables. Be prepared to articulate the value of any task to team members.
  • Gantt Chart Plan Indicate Milestones Example •Research and Exploration – Choose a topic – Research topic – Write Problem statement – Research past and present solutions – Write Statement of purpose – Conduct Market Research – Write Problem Proposal Milestone: Problem Proposal
  • Gantt Chart Plan Timeline • When is the presentation date? • When will milestones be delivered? • What time will you spend? •Time spent during and outside of class •Cushion •What will you need? • Acquiring materials • Scheduling facilities • Expert feedback • Permission
  • Gantt Chart Plan Personnel • Who will help with the project? •Team members •Experts •Instructor Remember, this is an evolving process! Things will change. Be flexible and keep your schedule updated, at least weekly.
  • Rule of Thirds Research and Exploration Design and Construction Testing, Documentation, and Presentation Problem Selection Design Specification Testing Criteria Topic Background Decision Matrix Testing Procedure Problem Statement Concept Testing Physical Testing Statement of Purpose Design Proposal Record Data Cited Validation Gantt Chart (timeline) Critical Design Review Cited Justification Sketching Refinement Redesign and Refine Past & Present Solutions Technical Drawings Re-test Market Research Material List Determine Conclusion Project Proposal Cost Recommendations Tool Selection Multimedia Display Tool Safety Web Page Mock Up & Modeling Research Paper Prototype Build Procedure Electronic Portfolio Prototype Construction Design Proposal Prototype Build Procedure Technical Drawings Prototype Complete POSSILBE MILESTONES
  • Project Life Cycle Execution Completing project tasks Producing deliverables Initiating Closing
  • Project Life Cycle Monitoring and Controlling Measuring project activities Monitoring project variables •Cost •Effort •Scope •Scope Creep Implementing corrective action when needed Initiating Closing
  • Project Life Cycle Closing Finalizing all project activities Archiving files Documenting lessons learned Initiating Closing
  • Project Management •Planning Misconceptions •Planning •Stakeholders •The Project Life Cycle •Initiation •Planning •Project Management Tools •Gantt Chart Plan •Executing •Monitoring and Controlling •Closing
  • Image Resources Microsoft, Inc. (n.d.). Clip art. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from http://office.microsoft.com/en- us/clipart/default.aspx