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Step One Support and develop leaders who are educated and able to convince people to be involved to change the government Example : Nelson Mandela Oliver Tambo Steve Biko Bishop Tutu
Step Two Form an organization because you can’t change a government alone Examples : ANC - Organized protests PAC – Also organized protest including Sharpeville, this lead to UN issuing a condemnation of the government of South Africa
Step Three Organize peaceful demonstrations that do not include violence Example : ANC peaceful demonstration on June 26, 1952.
Step Four Find nearby country allies who also oppose the government. Example : Nelson Mandela asked the white’s communist party for help to create the separate group called MK. The ANC group that Mandela was in made an alliance with the PAC (Pan African Congress) Nelson Mandela’s alliance with Botha
Step Five Have leaders give speeches in many places to get people to support the change. Example : Bishop Tutu’s speech in 1986 about apartheid Nelson Mandela’s 4 hour speech in the treason trial Nelson’s speech after his release from jail
ANC (African National Congress) This group was create by educated lawyers who opposed the government of Africa. They organized a lot of peaceful non-violent demonstrations to change or stop apartheid. They were a huge part of the End of Apartheid because of their leader Nelson Mandela who organized everything. Lesson : All causes need a good leader and a good organization.
Namibia Namibia was the same as South Africa, the whites had power over the blacks there. When Namibia did many things like demonstrations to stop the white people from overpowering the blacks, they achieved their freedom. Namibia showed South Africa that if they can do it, South Africa can do it too. Lesson : Never give up even though you are in a grave situation.
Pieter Willem Botha Botha legalized interracial marriage and also released the land that non-whites were not allowed to stay in. He gave limited political rights to some of the black people, however, he was not helping to change or stop apartheid, he was just doing what he thought it was right. Lesson : Dialogue is necessary between opponents.
Bishop Tutu He was a big help to stop apartheid because he had moral authority, he was the bishop of the Anglican Church. He encouraged the demonstrators to demonstrate more powerfully. The noble piece prize allowed him to inform the whole world with his speech about apartheid. Lesson : Try to get the whole world to listen to what you want, and why you want to change the government
PAC (Pan African Congress) This group showed the people around the world how brutal apartheid was. They accepted human life as part of their strategy. They organized the Sharpeville demonstration in which 69 protestors were killed and about 180 were wounded. Lesson : Sometimes violence is the only option.
Sanctions & Economic Pressure Through the UN economic pressure was put on South Africa to stop apartheid. Sanctions against imports and exports were put in place by many countries opposed to apartheid. Lesson : Help and pressure from outside countries is needed for success.
Nelson Mandela in Prison People who supported Mandela organized demonstrations to get him released. Spokesmen asked Mandela he could be released if he stops the rebellion, but he refused. Lesson : Even in prison martyrs have power.
De Klerk He saw apartheid was not working. He opened dialogue with ANC and Mandela. Later, De Klerk changed the apartheid laws. He was awarded the Nobel Piece Prize which gave him higher status. Lesson : It takes a man of character to say what was going on was wrong.
Steve Biko Steve was a martyr at that time. He organized groups called BPC ( Black People’s Convention )and SASO ( South African Student’s Organization. When Steve died by brain damage, It impacted the whole world which Steve’s family sued the states. Lesson : Martyrs are have the will to die which martyrs are destined to die.
Sharpeville On 1960 the ANC protest refused to carry passbooks. The police panicked and open fire, killing 69 demonstrators This event caused a shift from passive resistance to armed resistance Lesson : There may come a time when rebels must take up arms.
Soweto Johannesburg township where much of the important events of apartheid happened Such as Soweto uprising on 1976 over education for blacks; killing of blacks by blacks for supporting the white government Popular resistance to apartheid began: student boycotts, student organization, street committees, civic organization formed as alternatives to government structure. Lesson : Rebels must organize themselves to help themselves and not rely on the government.
MK (Umkhonto We Sizwe) Military wing of ANC MK carried out sabotage on government installations Later car bombings, land mines, executions Trained freedom fighters Supported by Mandela in his famous speech, “I am prepared to die.” Lesson : Sometimes rebels must use force.
Treason Trial Treason Trial was of almost the entire ANC leadership. It charged with plotting to use violence to overthrow the white government and replace it with communism. Lesson : Martyrs are necessary for a revolution.
Inkatha and the Third Force Tribal extremist who wanted to break away from ANC dominated rebellion Wanted to establish their own tribal regions White government encouraged the black against black massacres. Lesson : Sometimes different rebel organizations can’t get along and fight among themselves.
CODESA CODESA stands for Convention for a Democratic South Africa CODESA made new laws for the government which most of them were the same laws as the past but repeated in a different way Some of the laws that they made helped end apartheid but some made it worse Lesson : Sometimes there is not only bad, there is good too.
The Election of 1994 This is when the IEC demanded a election to mark apartheids end For this election, 16 million black people were allowed to vote and take place All races were allowed to participate in this election Lesson : The more people you have supporting the change, the higher the chance of change.