Surgery 5th year, 1st lecture/part one (Dr. Ari Sami)
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Surgery 5th year, 1st lecture/part one (Dr. Ari Sami)



The lecture has been given on Dec. 2nd, 2010 by Dr. Ari Sami.

The lecture has been given on Dec. 2nd, 2010 by Dr. Ari Sami.



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    Surgery 5th year, 1st lecture/part one (Dr. Ari Sami) Surgery 5th year, 1st lecture/part one (Dr. Ari Sami) Presentation Transcript

    • Neurosurgery Dr. Ari Sami Neurosurgeon College of Medicine University of Sulaimani
    • Surgery of neurological diseases
    • History Neolithic period of the stone: Although the great majority of neurosurgical procedures have been developed recently, the history of trepanation dates back to this period
    • Edwin Smith Papyrus: Seventeenth century B.C.
      • Contains the first description of the cranial sutures, meninges, external surface of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, intracranial pulsations, brain injuries, and hemiplegic contractures (trepanation was not mentioned)
    • Egyptian physicians
      • Hippocrates
        • Trepanation
        • Epilepsy
        • Spinal deformity and pulmonary
        • Spinal cord compression
        • Devised a method for reducing vertebral dislocations
        • Described permanent and transient facial paralysis, sciatica, and the complex of headache , visual disturbances, and vomiting
    • Modern neurosurgery (Nineteenth century)
      • Asepsis
      • Anasthesia
      • Cerebral localization
      • Bouillard, Broca, Fritsch, Hitzig, Ferrier & others
      • Osteoplastic craniotomy by Wagner
    • Pioneers
      • William Macewen Of Glasgow
      • Rickman Godlee (1884)(Resect an intracranial tumor)
      • Bennett (1888) (Posterior rhizotomy)
      • Victor Horsley of London (1887) (Spinal cord tumor)(1890)(retrogasserian neurotomy)
      • Otfrid Foerster in Germany (Cordotomy)
    • Harvey Cushing
    • Harvey Cushing
      • Advanced Neurosurgery from its infancy through its childhood
      • Reduction of operative morbidity and mortality
      • Hemostasis and electrocautary
      • Tumor classification (Bailey and Eisenhardt)
      • Formulation of tumor surgical treatment
      • Cushing is credited with creating the field of Brain surgery as a surgical discipline. He was a pioneering neurosurgeon and developed many of the tools, basic techniques and procedures used in neurosurgery to this day. The endocrine disorder named after him is obviously Cushing's Disease.
    • Walter Dandy
      • Modern concept of hydrocephalus
        • Choroid plexectomy and third ventriculostomy
      • Pneumoventriculography (1918)
      • Pneumoencephalography (1919)
    • Antonio Egas Moniz portuguese neurologist
      • More than 300 medical publication
      • Carotid arteriography, 1927 (Pedro de Almedia Lima)
      • Prefrontal lobotomy (1936) Noble prize in 1949
      • As of today, Neurosurgery is in a stage of rapid development and discovery .  It is an exciting field of constant technological and methodical advances that make possible to correct problems that, a scant few decades ago, would have been considered untreatable