Radiology 5th year, 4th lecture (Dr. Salah Mohammad Fatih)
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Radiology 5th year, 4th lecture (Dr. Salah Mohammad Fatih)

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The lecture has been given on May 24th, 2011 by Dr. Salah Mohammad Fatih.

The lecture has been given on May 24th, 2011 by Dr. Salah Mohammad Fatih.

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    Radiology 5th year, 4th lecture (Dr. Salah Mohammad Fatih) Radiology 5th year, 4th lecture (Dr. Salah Mohammad Fatih) Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture no 4
      joints
      Prepared by Dr.Salah Mohammad Fatih
      MBChB,DMRD,FIBMS(radiology)
    • Gout
    • Radiological features of gout
    • Joint infection
    • Most often due to pyogenic bacterial infection or TB.
      Usually only one joint affected.
      Synovial biopsy or exam. of the joint fluid is necessary for identification of infecting organism
    • Usually due to staph. Aureus.
      Rapid destruction of the articular cartilage followed by destruction of the subchondral bone & cause periarticual soft tissue swelling.
      Earliest radiological finding is joint effusion, do US, you can do US guided aspiration of the joint fluid.
      If Dx is still in doubt , then MRI advisable
      Pyogenic infection
    • Radiological features of pyogenic joint infection
    • There is decrease in cartilage width in the left hip, and cortical indistinctness in the left acetabulum with subarticular cyst formation.
    • Hip& knee are the most commonly affected peripheral joints.
      Spine involved in 50% of cases.
      TB arthritis
    • Localized osteoporosis.
      Cartilage erosion usually occur late for that resion , at 1st joint space is preserved.
      Margionalerrosion.
      At late stage there may be gross disorganization of the joint with calcified debris near the joint.
      Radiological features
    • Neuropathic joint (Charcot joint)
    • Common causes;
      DM
      Spinal cord injury
      Myelomeningocele/ syringomyelia.
      Alcohol abuse.
    • Radiological features
      classic picture of a Charcot joint. It demonstrates the five Ds:
      increased or normal density,
      joint distension (effusion),
      bony debris.
      joint disorganization
      joint disassociation.
      • lateral translation of the tibia relative to the femur;
      • a destructive arthropathy with loss of cartilage width and fragmentation, especially of the medial tibial plateau;
      • large effusion containing bony debris.
    • Changes seen in the feet in the pt with diabetic neuropathy.
      Prominent feature is Resorption of the bone ends & calcification of the arteries in the feet often present
    • complete obliteration of the cartilage width and destruction with very abundant fragmentation at this joint.
    • Avascular(aseptic) necrosis
    • Also known as osteonecrosis, is where there is death of bone due to interruption of the blood supply.
      It occur most commonly in the intra-articular portions of bones & is associated with numerous underlying condition including.
      Steroid therapy.
      Collagen vascular diseases.
      Radiation therapy.
      Sickle cell disease.
      Exposure to the high pressure environment e.g. deep- see divers
    • X-ray finding
      Increased density of the subchondral bone with irregularity of the articular contour or even fragmentation
      A charactristic lucent line may be seen just beneath the articular cortex.
      The cartilage space may be preserved until secondary OA changes occur.
    • left hip joint;
      increased density centrally and flattening of the femoral head in the weight-bearing region, as well as the crescent sign or subchondral fracture.
    • MRI
      Is imaging modality of choice.
      It can show abnormality when the X-ray is normal & signal pattern allow specific Dx to be made.
    • The MR, shows that this patient has bilateral avascular necrosis of the hip joints, with a low-signal rim surrounding the necrotic segments
    • osteochondritis
    • Is a group of condition in which no associated cause for avascular necrosis can be found.
      Osteochondritis now regarded as being due to impaired blood supply associated with repeated trauma.
    • Perthe’s disease
      Is avascular necrosis of the femoral head in children.
      seen generally between ages 4 and 8, when the vascular supply to the femoral head is most at risk.
      Males are affected more than females.
      Bilateral in 10 percent of patients.
    • X-ray finding
      The first radiographic sign may be effusion.
      Later, increased density, fragmentation and flattening of the ossification center & lucent areas within it
      Metaphysealirregularity & short wide femoral neck.
    • The left femoral capital epiphysis is dense, has lucent areas within it, and is flattened. This left hip is laterally subluxated,
    • Other forms of osteochondritis
    • Kienbock’s disease = avascular necrosis of lunate bone.
      Freiberg’s disease = avascular necrosis of metatarsal head.
      Kohler’s disease = avascular necrosis of navicular bone of the foot.
    • There is increased density and collapse of the lunate
      Kienbock's disease
    • Freiberg’s disease
    • Osgood-schlatter’s disease = avascular necrosis of tibial tuberosity .
      Fragmentation of tibial tuberosity
    • Kohler’s disease = avascular necrosis of navicular bone of the foot.
      Increased density with irregularity in the out line
    • Slipped femoral epiphysis
    • .
      age range (10 to 16 years of age)
      Males are more commonly affected than females.
      bilateral 20 percent of the time, but rarely symmetric.
      Slipped epiphyses almost always are directed posteromedially.
    • Radiological finding
      The epiphysis itself appears shorter due to the posterior slippage.
      The epiphyseal plate itself appears wider, with less distinct margins
      The epiphysis is also slightly more medially placed, it can be demonstrated by drawing a line along the lateral femoral neck. This line should intersect a portion of the femoral head in the normal individual. In a slipped epiphysis, the line will either not intersect the femoral head, or will intersect a smaller portion of it.
      The slip is best appreciated in lateral film of the hip
    • The left femoral capital epiphysis appears slightly shorter than does the right, with an apparent widening of the epiphyseal plate
    • Developmental dysplasia of the hips (DDH or CDH)
    • developmental dysplasia of the hips (CDH or DDH)
      female: male = 6:1
      70% occur on the left side, Bilateral involvement occur in 5%
    • Radiographic finding
    • Thank you