Psychiatry 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Hazhar)

624 views

Published on

The lecture has been given on May 10th, 2011 by Dr. Hazhar.

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
624
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
26
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Psychiatry 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Hazhar)

  1. 1. Substance(drug) abuse disorders- general part I<br />Substance(drug) abuse disorders- general part I<br />
  2. 2. Substance abuse: It is a persistent use of one or more psychoactive substance.<br />Dependence (addiction): untreated, persists and progresses, it ends in dependence: craving, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, social and personal decline.medical complications .<br />
  3. 3. Craving: a strong and an irresistible desire.<br />Tolerance: more amount of the drug to obtain the same effect (dose escalation).<br />Physical dependence: withdrawal syndrome.<br />Psychological dependence: urge to use the drug, thinks about it, likes it and he can not abstain.<br />
  4. 4. Personality factors: Predisposition to experiment with both licit and illicit drugs is more likely in those with sensation-seeking or impulsive behaviour traits, and in extroverts rather than in introverts.<br />Herditary factors: alcoholic father.<br />Age: Adolescence and puberty<br />
  5. 5. How abused drugs affect the brain?<br />primary neurotransmitter:glutamatestimulatory ,gamma amino butyric acid(GABA) inhibitory, appropriate balance .<br />Secondary transmitters:dopamine, serotonin, noradrenalin, acetylcholine, endogenous opiates, emotion to the primary processes.<br />All drugs act by interfering with these neurotransmitters.<br />
  6. 6. Types according to the ICD-10: Alcohol, opiates, cannabinoids, sedatives (benzodiazepines and barbiturate), Stimulants (caffeine, amphetamine),cocaine, hallucinogens, nicotine , volatile substances (adhesives, aerosols, fuel gases, paints,multiple<br />
  7. 7. 1.Risk route of use: infection (hepatitis ,HIV), increased rate of brain entry,opiateintox. respiratory depression<br />2.Risk of the drug itself.<br />3.Addictiveness : opiates,cocaine. A. pleasure.b. physical suffering of abstinence.c.the psychological suffering, drug to relieve symotoms.<br />4. Ease of stopping.<br />
  8. 8. Management <br />1. precontemplation stage: there is no recognition of a need for treatment.<br />2. contemplation stage: treatment is being considered, the patient is helped to clarify his views and to build his motivation to change. <br />3 .Decision and action stage<br />
  9. 9.  <br />Therapy<br />1. medical complications:<br />2. Treatment primary psychiatric disease if present. <br />3. Psychotherapy, motivational interviewing, psycho education client-centered therapy, cognitive behavior therapy.<br />4. Pharmacological , detoxification maintenance Therapy: aversion , anti-craving<br />
  10. 10. 4.Sociotherapy, family and marital therapy.<br />5. Occupational therapy.<br />6. Stress management and relaxation treatment.<br />7.Relapse prevention.<br />8. Self-help group<br /> <br />

×