• Like
Psychiatry 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Hazhar)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Psychiatry 5th year, 2nd lecture (Dr. Hazhar)


The lecture has been given on May 10th, 2011 by Dr. Hazhar.

The lecture has been given on May 10th, 2011 by Dr. Hazhar.

Published in Health & Medicine
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Substance(drug) abuse disorders- general part I
    Substance(drug) abuse disorders- general part I
  • 2. Substance abuse: It is a persistent use of one or more psychoactive substance.
    Dependence (addiction): untreated, persists and progresses, it ends in dependence: craving, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, social and personal decline.medical complications .
  • 3. Craving: a strong and an irresistible desire.
    Tolerance: more amount of the drug to obtain the same effect (dose escalation).
    Physical dependence: withdrawal syndrome.
    Psychological dependence: urge to use the drug, thinks about it, likes it and he can not abstain.
  • 4. Personality factors: Predisposition to experiment with both licit and illicit drugs is more likely in those with sensation-seeking or impulsive behaviour traits, and in extroverts rather than in introverts.
    Herditary factors: alcoholic father.
    Age: Adolescence and puberty
  • 5. How abused drugs affect the brain?
    primary neurotransmitter:glutamatestimulatory ,gamma amino butyric acid(GABA) inhibitory, appropriate balance .
    Secondary transmitters:dopamine, serotonin, noradrenalin, acetylcholine, endogenous opiates, emotion to the primary processes.
    All drugs act by interfering with these neurotransmitters.
  • 6. Types according to the ICD-10: Alcohol, opiates, cannabinoids, sedatives (benzodiazepines and barbiturate), Stimulants (caffeine, amphetamine),cocaine, hallucinogens, nicotine , volatile substances (adhesives, aerosols, fuel gases, paints,multiple
  • 7. 1.Risk route of use: infection (hepatitis ,HIV), increased rate of brain entry,opiateintox. respiratory depression
    2.Risk of the drug itself.
    3.Addictiveness : opiates,cocaine. A. pleasure.b. physical suffering of abstinence.c.the psychological suffering, drug to relieve symotoms.
    4. Ease of stopping.
  • 8. Management
    1. precontemplation stage: there is no recognition of a need for treatment.
    2. contemplation stage: treatment is being considered, the patient is helped to clarify his views and to build his motivation to change.
    3 .Decision and action stage
  • 9.  
    1. medical complications:
    2. Treatment primary psychiatric disease if present.
    3. Psychotherapy, motivational interviewing, psycho education client-centered therapy, cognitive behavior therapy.
    4. Pharmacological , detoxification maintenance Therapy: aversion , anti-craving
  • 10. 4.Sociotherapy, family and marital therapy.
    5. Occupational therapy.
    6. Stress management and relaxation treatment.
    7.Relapse prevention.
    8. Self-help group