Medicine 5th year, 5th lecture (Dr. Rasool)


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The lecture has been given on Nov. 6th, 2010 by Dr. Rasool.

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  • This is due to the differences in the anatomy of the urinary tract between men and women. A woman's urethra (which is the urinary tubing that connects the bladder and the outside world) is much shorter and very close to the opening of the vagina.
  • Medicine 5th year, 5th lecture (Dr. Rasool)

    1. 1. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) • Disease of the urinary tract – Infection occurs when microorganisms attach themselves to the urethra and begins to multiply. • May lead to infection of the kidneys (pyelonephritis) and cause permanent kidney damage, if left untreated. • Women are especially prone to get urinary tract infection.
    2. 2. • Most common m.organisms: • E. coli. • Staph saprophyticus • Proteus • Klebsiella. • Ureaplasma. • …..
    3. 3. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) • Conditions that increases risk of UTI – Diabetes – Situations where a urine catheter is needed – Abnormalities of the urinary tract – Obstructed urine flow (large prostate or stone) – Being pregnant
    4. 4. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Signs and Symptoms • Painful urination (burning sensation) • Hot and foul smelling urine • Blood in urine • Fever (sometimes with chills) • Painful lower abdomen • Increased urgency/frequency of wanting to pass urine • Nausea and/or vomiting
    5. 5. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Treatment • Appropriate antibiotics • Drink plenty of water
    6. 6. Kidney Stones • Start as salt/chemical crystals that precipitate out from urine • Occurs when substance in urine that prevents crystalisation are ineffective
    7. 7. Kidney Stones • Various forms of kidney stones - the most common is calcium in combination with either phosphate or oxalate • More common in – Males – 20-40 yo
    8. 8. Kidney Stones Signs and Symptoms • Extreme pain at the site where the stone is causing the irritation • Blood in the urine (abrasion along the urinary tract as the stone travels) • Painful and/or difficult urination • Unable to pass urine if the stone is large enough to obstruct the outlet completely
    9. 9. Kidney Stones Treatment • With plenty of water, most stones can pass through if small • Pain-killers (as prescribed by the doctor) • Some medications may help 'breakdown' larger stone • Shockwave therapy (SWL) to break the stone • Surgical intervention - cystoscopy or open surgery
    10. 10. Diabetic Kidney Disease • Common in chronic and poorly controlled diabetics • Diabetes damages blood vessels in the kidneys • Occurs in both types of diabetes • Occurrence of high blood pressure in diabetics is a strong predictor for diabetic nephropathy • Most common cause of ESRD in many developed countries
    11. 11. Diabetic Kidney Disease Signs and Symptoms • Frothy urine (signifying protein in urine) • Leg swelling (worse after walking/standing) • High blood pressure • Itching • Nausea and/or vomiting • Losing weight • Lethargy • Increased need to urinate at night
    12. 12. Diabetic Kidney Disease Treatment • Good control of diabetes • Good control of blood pressure (aiming for < 130/85 or lower in younger patients) • Medications to decrease protein excretion and preserve the function of kidneys • Lower protein diet • Treat any urine tract infection (which is common in diabetics)
    13. 13. Analgesic Nephropathy • Chronic kidney disease that occurs when there is a long period of painkiller/s ingestion (usually years) • Associated with conditions which require constant need for painkiller medications • May lead to ESRD
    14. 14. Analgesic Nephropathy Signs and Symptoms • Blood in the urine • Protein in the urine • Signs and symptoms related to kidney failure such as nausea, vomiting, lethargy, swelling, and poor appetite.
    15. 15. Analgesic Nephropathy Treatment • Avoid long-term consumption of analgesics • Those already with kidney disease of other kinds should certainly refrain from harmful analgesics as much as possible.