Network Architecture of the  Long-Distance Pathways in the Macaque Brain Modha, D. S. & Singh, R. (July 12, 2010)  Proc. N...
Consensus dendrogram of a network of species Clauset, Moore, Newman, Nature, 2008 Topological modules in  E. coli  metabol...
The human brain is the most complex mass of  protoplasm on earth-perhaps even in our galaxy.   Marian C. Diamond, Arnold B...
Gray and White Matter
Multiple Scales of The Brain Network   Brainbow Livet et al, Nature 2007 Denk, Seung, et al, 2007 Hagman et al, PLoS Biolo...
Nicolaus Steno, 1669 “ white matter is nature’s finest masterpiece”
CoCoMac 413 literature reports 7007 brain sites 8003 mapping details 2508 tracer injections 39748 connection details   Rol...
Divergent Nomenclature and Abundant Conflicts FV91-V1 AP84-TE PG91b-IT BP82-46 SP89a-46 FV91-V4 FV91-TF RV99-TF RV99-CA1 B...
 
Occipital Lobe: 23 Brain Regions
Temporal Lobe: 88 Brain Regions
Insula & Cingulate Cortex: 12 & 18 Brain Regions
Parietal Lobe: 41 Brain Regions
Frontal Lobe: 81 Brain Regions
Thalamus: 75 Brain Regions
Basal Ganglia: 41 Brain Regions
383 Brain Regions
1 connection
6,602 Connections
Bundling Algorithm by Holten, 2006
 
 
 
Notable Collations 1,500 95 Scannell et al., 99 1,139 65 Scannell et al., 95 Cat 2,402 95 Kaiser, Hilgetag, 06 700 70 Youn...
Notable Collations 1,500 95 Scannell et al., 99 6,602 383 This Collection Monkey 1,139 65 Scannell et al., 95 Cat 2,402 95...
Kaiser, Hilgetag, 2006
Felleman, Van Essen, 1991
Ungerleider, Mishkin, 1982
 
Arcuate Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Cingulum Bundle Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Extreme Capsule Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Fronto-occipital Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Middle Longitudinal Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Uncinate Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
Connectivity between Cortex and Thalamus
Connectivity between Cortex and Amygdala
Connectivity between Cortex and Striatum/Claustrum
Connectivity between Amygdala and Diencephalon
Comprehensive Includes every study in CoCoMac Consistent Every connection can be tracked back Concise 6,877 areas to 383 C...
Brain is small-world SCC: 351 brain regions, 6,491 projections; Sparse: 4.5% 0.0528 0.33 Average Clustering Coefficient 5....
“ Organized Complexity” – Weaver, 1948 27.45 24.64 20.71 19.16 20.45 15.85 14.25 14.16 Out-Degree  (avg) 14.27 21.94 30.16...
 
 
Degree Distribution Consistent with Exponential
302 Neuron Network in  C. Elegans  is Exponential Watts and Strogatz; Amaral et al, 2000
Metrics for Topologically Centrality 11 12l 23c 24 12o PIT 36r 46 MD 32 PageRank PS 13 PIT TF 32 MD 13a LIP 46 24 Betweene...
Prefrontal Cortex is Topologically Central Yellow = PfC 11 12l 23c 24 12o PIT 36r 46 MD 32 PageRank PS 13 PIT TF 32 MD 13a...
 
 
Brain is small-world, Core is “tiny”-world! Core contains only 32% of vertices  yet 88% of all edges originate or terminat...
Core contains correlated-anti-correlated networks and may be a key to higher cognition & consciousness Fox, Snyder, Vincen...
 
Rachel Jones,  Nature Rev. Neurosci.,   2002
Sherbondy, Ananthanrayanan, Dougherty, Wandell, and Modha, HBM, 2009
Binzegger, Douglas, Martin, J. Neurosci., 2004
 
 
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Network architecture of the long-distance pathways in the macaque brain

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We have successfully uncovered and mapped the most comprehensive long-distance network of the Macaque monkey brain, which is essential for understanding the brain’s behavior, complexity, dynamics and computation.

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Network architecture of the long-distance pathways in the macaque brain

  1. 1. Network Architecture of the Long-Distance Pathways in the Macaque Brain Modha, D. S. & Singh, R. (July 12, 2010)  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,   10.1073/pnas.1008054107 Dharmendra S Modha IBM Research – Almaden Raghavendra Singh IBM Research – India
  2. 2. Consensus dendrogram of a network of species Clauset, Moore, Newman, Nature, 2008 Topological modules in E. coli metabolism Ravasz, Somera, Mongru, Oltvai, Barabasi Science, 2002 Cartographic representation of the metabolic network of E. Coli Guimera, Amaral, Nature 2005 Map of protein–protein interactions Jeong, Mason, Barabasi, Oltvai, Nature 2001 Networks are Everywhere
  3. 3. The human brain is the most complex mass of protoplasm on earth-perhaps even in our galaxy. Marian C. Diamond, Arnold B. Scheibel
  4. 4. Gray and White Matter
  5. 5. Multiple Scales of The Brain Network Brainbow Livet et al, Nature 2007 Denk, Seung, et al, 2007 Hagman et al, PLoS Biology 2008 Binzeggar, Douglas, Martin, J. Neurosci. 2004
  6. 6. Nicolaus Steno, 1669 “ white matter is nature’s finest masterpiece”
  7. 7. CoCoMac 413 literature reports 7007 brain sites 8003 mapping details 2508 tracer injections 39748 connection details Rolf Kotter, Klass Stephen, 2000
  8. 8. Divergent Nomenclature and Abundant Conflicts FV91-V1 AP84-TE PG91b-IT BP82-46 SP89a-46 FV91-V4 FV91-TF RV99-TF RV99-CA1 BR98-CA1 FV91-TH BR98-TH = כ כ PFCd 9 = PCi IPL PF#1 7b = = CCa 24 24d 24c CMAr 24c כ כ = = = = =
  9. 10. Occipital Lobe: 23 Brain Regions
  10. 11. Temporal Lobe: 88 Brain Regions
  11. 12. Insula & Cingulate Cortex: 12 & 18 Brain Regions
  12. 13. Parietal Lobe: 41 Brain Regions
  13. 14. Frontal Lobe: 81 Brain Regions
  14. 15. Thalamus: 75 Brain Regions
  15. 16. Basal Ganglia: 41 Brain Regions
  16. 17. 383 Brain Regions
  17. 18. 1 connection
  18. 19. 6,602 Connections
  19. 20. Bundling Algorithm by Holten, 2006
  20. 24. Notable Collations 1,500 95 Scannell et al., 99 1,139 65 Scannell et al., 95 Cat 2,402 95 Kaiser, Hilgetag, 06 700 70 Young, 93 305 32 Felleman, Van Essen, 91 Monkey Connections Brain Regions Study Species
  21. 25. Notable Collations 1,500 95 Scannell et al., 99 6,602 383 This Collection Monkey 1,139 65 Scannell et al., 95 Cat 2,402 95 Kaiser, Hilgetag, 06 700 70 Young, 93 305 32 Felleman, Van Essen, 91 Monkey Connections Brain Regions Study Species
  22. 26. Kaiser, Hilgetag, 2006
  23. 27. Felleman, Van Essen, 1991
  24. 28. Ungerleider, Mishkin, 1982
  25. 30. Arcuate Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  26. 31. Cingulum Bundle Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  27. 32. Extreme Capsule Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  28. 33. Fronto-occipital Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  29. 34. Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  30. 35. Middle Longitudinal Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  31. 36. Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  32. 37. Uncinate Fasciculus Schmahmann & Pandya, 2006
  33. 38. Connectivity between Cortex and Thalamus
  34. 39. Connectivity between Cortex and Amygdala
  35. 40. Connectivity between Cortex and Striatum/Claustrum
  36. 41. Connectivity between Amygdala and Diencephalon
  37. 42. Comprehensive Includes every study in CoCoMac Consistent Every connection can be tracked back Concise 6,877 areas to 383 Coherent Unified hierarchical parcellation Colossal 3 times larger than previous network C, C, C, C, and C
  38. 43. Brain is small-world SCC: 351 brain regions, 6,491 projections; Sparse: 4.5% 0.0528 0.33 Average Clustering Coefficient 5.34% 42% Reciprocity 2.30 2.62 Characteristic Path Length 3.93 6 Diameter Random (100 trials) Brain
  39. 44. “ Organized Complexity” – Weaver, 1948 27.45 24.64 20.71 19.16 20.45 15.85 14.25 14.16 Out-Degree (avg) 14.27 21.94 30.16 17.67 20.67 11.09 15.83 8.5 In-Degree (avg) 12 18 81 88 41 23 41 75 #Areas 14 13 101 78 41 0 44 15 Insula 10 39 202 63 48 0 22 37 CgG#2 32 151 695 238 178 12 145 197 FL#2 28 70 388 684 99 60 172 92 TL#2 21 55 251 83 178 38 47 103 Pl#6 0 6 46 77 53 77 16 61 OC#2 24 14 95 140 8 8 186 37 BG 26 25 600 105 160 37 10 10 DiE Insula CgG#2 FL#2 TL#2 Pl#6 OC#2 BG DiE
  40. 47. Degree Distribution Consistent with Exponential
  41. 48. 302 Neuron Network in C. Elegans is Exponential Watts and Strogatz; Amaral et al, 2000
  42. 49. Metrics for Topologically Centrality 11 12l 23c 24 12o PIT 36r 46 MD 32 PageRank PS 13 PIT TF 32 MD 13a LIP 46 24 Betweeness Intermediary PM#3 23 32 13 TH TE TF 9 24 46 Hubs 12 45,23 PGm LIP TH 9 TE TF 24 46 Out-Closeness V2 PGm TE,LIP TH 13a 13 9 TF 24 46 Out-Degree Distributor 9 MD F7 14 24 12l 11 46 12o 32 Authorities LIP,F7 8B 23c 8A MD 12l 24 32,11 12o 46 In-Closeness LIP 8A 14 F7 24 11 12l 12o 46 32 In-Degree Integrator 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Rank Characteristic
  43. 50. Prefrontal Cortex is Topologically Central Yellow = PfC 11 12l 23c 24 12o PIT 36r 46 MD 32 PageRank PS 13 PIT TF 32 MD 13a LIP 46 24 Betweeness Intermediary PM#3 23 32 13 TH TE TF 9 24 46 Hubs 12 45,23 PGm LIP TH 9 TE TF 24 46 Out-Closeness V2 PGm TE,LIP TH 13a 13 9 TF 24 46 Out-Degree Distributor 9 MD F7 14 24 12l 11 46 12o 32 Authorities LIP,F7 8B 23c 8A MD 12l 24 32,11 12o 46 In-Closeness LIP 8A 14 F7 24 11 12l 12o 46 32 In-Degree Integrator 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Rank Characteristic
  44. 53. Brain is small-world, Core is “tiny”-world! Core contains only 32% of vertices yet 88% of all edges originate or terminate in the core 0.39 0.33 Average Clustering Coefficient 1.95 2.62 Characteristic Path Lengh 4 6 Diameter Core Brain
  45. 54. Core contains correlated-anti-correlated networks and may be a key to higher cognition & consciousness Fox, Snyder, Vincent, Corbetta, Van Essen, and Raichle, 2005
  46. 56. Rachel Jones, Nature Rev. Neurosci., 2002
  47. 57. Sherbondy, Ananthanrayanan, Dougherty, Wandell, and Modha, HBM, 2009
  48. 58. Binzegger, Douglas, Martin, J. Neurosci., 2004

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