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Citing, referencing and bibliographies

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How to cite and reference sources in an academic assignment. Preparing a bibliography or reference list.

How to cite and reference sources in an academic assignment. Preparing a bibliography or reference list.

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  • The overuse of footnotes will make your work laborious to read: a reader who finds herself constantly directed away from your text to consult footnotes will lose the thread of your writing and possibly lose her place altogether.
  • Remember the most important thing is to make sure that whatever stylistic decisions you make about your footnotes and references, they remain completely uniform and consistent throughout your work.

Transcript

  • 1. Citing, referencing & Bibliographies
  • 2. What is it?
    • Citation – marker in your text to show that you are referring to a source you have quoted from or taken ideas from:
    • In a recent study of Christianity in Jude the Obscure (Thomas, 2011) or;
    • Thomas (2011, pp.30) states that ‘Jude the Obscure deals with issues emerging towards the end of the Victorian era, including access to university education an changing attitudes to women’s roles'.
    • For up to four authors (Smith, Davis, Singh and Green, 2000)
    • Over four authors (Green, et al., 1995)
    • Reference – full bibliographic details of the sources you have cited in your text. References are listed in alphabetical order at the end of your work, before any appendices:
    • Thomas, Margaret., 2011. Victorian Christianity in Jude the Obscure. English Review , 22(1), pp. 30 – 33.
  • 3. Why?
    • To demonstrate you have read widely and deeply;
    • To support specific facts and claims you have made in your text;
    • To enable the reader to locate where you obtained each quote or idea;
    • To acknowledge an intellectual debt to another author where you have drawn from his or her published work or ideas, either explicitly or implicitly.
    • Referencing is an essential part of academic scholarship, and ethical values demand that you identify the sources used in your work.
  • 4.
    • A footnote is a piece of explanatory text which, for some reason, cannot be accommodated within the main body of the document.
    • Two prohibitive rules for footnotes:
    • 1 Don't use footnotes if you can avoid them.
    • 2 Don’t use footnotes merely to introduce a reference to a work you are citing.
    • Inclusive rules for footnotes
    • 1 Brevity.
    • 2 Keep their use to a minimum.
    Footnotes
  • 5. Checking Bibliographic details?
    • Title page
    • British Library Integrated Catalogue
    • Library of Congress Online Catalogue
    • Copac Catalogue
    • M25 Consortium Catalogue
  • 6. The Harvard System
    • One of a number of citation styles – be uniform and consistent throughout your work.
    • Author – Date system
    • Authors surname and the year of publication are citied in the text of your work
    • General reference to authors work in you text:
    • In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).
    • When mentioning a specific part of the work, and making direct reference to this:
    • Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that 'when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works'.
  • 7. Reference list or Bibliography?
    • Terms Reference list and bibliography often used interchangeably. BUT there is a subtle difference
    • Reference list
    • Bibliographic details for everything that you cite in your assignment. It should be in alphabetical order by author with all the different types of material in one sequence.
    • Bibliography
    • This is a list of relevant items that you have used to help you prepare for the assignment but which are not necessarily cited in your text e.g. general background reading to familiarise yourself with the topic.
    • Make sure that you as your teacher/tutor what is required from you before you complete your assignment.
  • 8. Common Document Types: Books 1
    • 1 author:
    • Hawtin, Stefan., 2002. Robert Browning . Oxford: Routledge.
    • 2,3 or 4 authors:
    • Barker, R., Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988. Narrative analysis. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    • For books with two, three or four authors of equal status the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.
    • More than 4 authors:
    • Grace, B. et al., 1988. A history of the world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    • Edited books:
    • Bruccoli, Matthew. ed., 1985. New essays on The Great Gatsby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. .
    • For books with more than one authors use eds .
  • 9. Common Document Types: Books 2
    • Chapter in edited book:
    • Berman, Ronald., 1975. The Great Gatsby and the twenties. In: Prigozy, Ruth, ed. 2000. The Cambridge Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2.
    • E-books and pdfs:
    • e-books
    • Twain, Mark., 1885. [e-book] Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Charles L Webster and Company. Available at: http:// www.gutenberg.org/files/76/76-h/76-h/76-h.htm
    • [Accessed 28 November 2011]
    • pdfs
    • Kellett, Mary and Dar, Aqsa. Children researching links between poverty and literacy [pdf] Available at: http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2094-literacy-poverty-children.pdf [Accessed 28 November 2011]
  • 10. Common Document Types: Journals
    • Journal articles:
    • Hutchings, Kevin., 2010. Pastoral poetics – Blake’s Songs of Innocence and experience. emagazine , 48, pp. 6 - 8. Journals available on the internet:
    • Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan’s new dawn, Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available at: http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html
    • [Accessed 22 June 2009].
    • Newspapers:
    • Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times , 3 Sep. p.4b.
    • [ the b in this entry refers to the second column of print] Newspapers available on the internet:
    • Lambert, Tom., 2011. Alan Moore – meet the man behind the protest mask, [online] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/nov/27/alan-moore - v- vendetta-mask-protest [A ccessed on 28 November 2011]
  • 11. Common Document Types: Other
    • Reports by organisations:
    • Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at: http :// www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets /@dh/@ e n/documents/digitalasset/dh_4071283.pdf [ Accessed 12 September 2011]. Websites:
    • NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [ online] Available at: http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder .htm
    • [Accessed 10 October 2009 ].
    • Blogs:
    • Whitton, Felix., 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservation- extinction-open-ground [Accessed 23 June 2009].
    • ]
  • 12. Useful Websites
    • Harvard System of Referencing Guide
    • Collect, organise and cite research sources
    • Academic phrasebank
    • Using English for Academic Purposes