Enlightenment thinkers hoped to produce an ideal society by applying scientific method to all problems
John Locke’s theory of knowledge had great impact
Made discoveries in Math and Astronomy
Showed evidence that the universe followed natural laws
Enlightenment thinkers wanted to apply Newton’s natural laws to society
John Locke He believed that: > Humans have always existed in equality and freedom > All humans had inalienable rights to life, liberty, and property. > Government was established to protect their rights. > If the government failed, the people could form a new government. > Locke believed governments fundamental duty was to protect citizens rights > Locke’s ideas can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
VOLTAIRE > Came from the Middle Class in Paris > Believed in Free Speech His book was entitled Treatise on Toleration . > He criticized religious intoleration in France. > He championed the idea of Deism: the world is like a machine. God created it, wound it up, and let it go. God is not active in the world.
Montesquieu > From French nobility. > His views were published in his book The Spirit of the Law . > He used scientific law to come up with his contribution to democratic ideas: Separation of powers Checks and balances in government > Framers of the U.S. Constitution incorporated his ideas into the American Constitution.
ROUSSEAU > He believed that the entire society agreed to be governed by its general will. > The general good will did what was best for each individual in society. > His views were published in The Social Contract .
Toward a new Science
Enlightenment belief and the Scientific Revolution led to the birth of the Social Sciences
Adam Smith developed modern economics
Wrote a book called Wealth of Nations
If people were free to pursue their economic self-interest, all society would benefit
To let people do what they want
The Spread of the Enlightenment
Best known among the upper class and literate elite
Books where becoming increasing available to the lower classes
Magazines and Newspapers where being developed for the first time
Enlightenment had a powerful effect in American colonies
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison liked John Locke’s ideas on government