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Enlightenment  R H S

Enlightenment R H S






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    Enlightenment  R H S Enlightenment R H S Presentation Transcript

    • Enlightenment
      • 18 th Century Philosophical movement
      • Applied scientific method to social problems
      • Enlightenment thinkers hoped to produce an ideal society by applying scientific method to all problems
      • John Locke’s theory of knowledge had great impact
    • Isaac Newton
      • Made discoveries in Math and Astronomy
      • Discovered gravity
      • Showed evidence that the universe followed natural laws
      • Enlightenment thinkers wanted to apply Newton’s natural laws to society
    • John Locke He believed that: > Humans have always existed in equality and freedom > All humans had inalienable rights to life, liberty, and property. > Government was established to protect their rights. > If the government failed, the people could form a new government. > Locke believed governments fundamental duty was to protect citizens rights > Locke’s ideas can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
    • VOLTAIRE > Came from the Middle Class in Paris > Believed in Free Speech His book was entitled Treatise on Toleration . > He criticized religious intoleration in France. > He championed the idea of Deism: the world is like a machine. God created it, wound it up, and let it go. God is not active in the world.
    • Montesquieu > From French nobility. > His views were published in his book The Spirit of the Law . > He used scientific law to come up with his contribution to democratic ideas: Separation of powers Checks and balances in government > Framers of the U.S. Constitution incorporated his ideas into the American Constitution.
    • ROUSSEAU > He believed that the entire society agreed to be governed by its general will. > The general good will did what was best for each individual in society. > His views were published in The Social Contract .
    • Toward a new Science
      • Enlightenment belief and the Scientific Revolution led to the birth of the Social Sciences
      • Adam Smith developed modern economics
      • Wrote a book called Wealth of Nations
      • Laissez-Faire
        • If people were free to pursue their economic self-interest, all society would benefit
          • To let people do what they want
    • The Spread of the Enlightenment
      • Best known among the upper class and literate elite
      • Books where becoming increasing available to the lower classes
      • Magazines and Newspapers where being developed for the first time
      • Enlightenment had a powerful effect in American colonies
      • Thomas Jefferson and James Madison liked John Locke’s ideas on government