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  • 1. Progressive Reform Objective: Analyze the effect Progressivism had on American Life
  • 2. Cities Grow Larger
    • By 1900 half of the nation’s people lived in cities
    • Mass transit systems are developed
    • Crowding in cities leads to problems
    • Not enough clean water
    • Garbage, Rats and Diseases spread
    • Lack of police and fire protection
  • 3. Old Immigrants
    • Immigrants prior to 1880 called old immigrants
    • Came mostly from Northwestern Europe England, Scotland, Ireland, and Germany
    • Many knew how to read and write and speak English
    • Most were Protestant
  • 4. New Immigrants
    • Immigrants who arrive after 1880 were called new immigrants
    • Came mostly from Poland, Russia, Greece, Italy, and Austria-Hungary
    • Many could not read or write
    • Most were Catholics or Jews
  • 5. Immigrant Life in America
    • Most immigrants lived in large cities in ethnic neighborhoods were they helped each other
    • Chinese immigrants lived out west and worked on the Central Pacific Railroad
    • Immigrants faced prejudice because they took away jobs from Americans and worked for lower wages
  • 6. The Progressive Movement
    • Use writers called Muckrakers to educate the public on corruption in society
    • Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle” exposed unsanitary conditions in the meat industry
    • Exposure forces Congress to action passing Pure Drug and Food Act and Meat Inspection Act
  • 7. The Progressive Movement
    • Lincoln Steffens book called “Shame of the Cities” exposed government corruption
    • Jacob Riis “ How the other half lives” Used photos to expose living conditions in tenements
  • 8. Causes leading to Labor Unions
    • Work Conditions were extremely poor and dangerous
    • Low Wages few earned more then 16 dollars a week
    • Long hours
    • By 1890 1/5 of children worked 14 hr days
  • 9. Reforms in Government
    • The Civil Service Act (Pendleton Act) requires people to take a test in order to get civil service job
    • William Tweed a corrupt political boss at Tammany Hall
    • Came to power by doing favors for people
    • Stole over 100 million Dollars
    • Thomas Nash drew political cartoons that exposed Tweed and resulted in Tweed being sent to jail
  • 10. Growth of Big Business
    • Oil, Steel, and Railroads become huge industries
    • Were called big business because they controlled many other smaller businesses
    • Try to establish a Monopoly or Trust
    • A monopoly controls an entire industry