6.2 The Civil War

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  • 1. The Civil War Objective: Analyze the out break of hostilities between the states and its effect on the nation
  • 2. Election of 1860
    • Abraham Lincoln runs for President
    • Very unpopular in the south for stance on slavery and tariffs
    • South threatens to secede if he wins
    • Lincoln wins by receiving majority vote none are from the south
  • 3. The South Secedes
    • Dec. 1860 South Carolina leaves the Union
    • By March six other states join South Carolina
    • These States become the Confederate States of America
    • They elect Jefferson Davis as President
  • 4. Fort Sumter
    • Fort Sumter S.C. is held by the Union
    • Confederates ask Lincoln to surrender the fort
    • Lincoln says no and sends ships to resupply the fort.
    • Confederates consider that and act of war and attack Fort Sumter
  • 5. North and South Advantages
    • 4 to 1 soldiers
    • Larger population
    • More food, money, factories, railroads
    • South had few advantages
    • Smaller population, less money, food, factories, railroads
    • Had Great Generals
  • 6. First Battle of Bull Run
    • First major battle
    • Over 30,000 union soldiers fight 22,000 Confederate soldiers
    • Thomas J. Jackson becomes a hero and wins the battle for the Confederacy
  • 7. Battle of Antietam
    • Bloodiest Day of the War
    • Thousands die on both sides in just one day
    • Union claims victory as Lee retreats to Virginia
    • McClellan foolishly waited 19 days before pursuing Lee
    • Europe decides not to back the confederacy
    • Lincoln fires McClellan
    • Lincoln now feels the time is right to act against slavery
  • 8. Emancipation Proclamation
    • Lincoln always thought slavery was wrong
    • After Antietam he took action
    • Granted Emancipation to all slaves in states that were in rebellion only
    • Slavery was still allowed in the union
  • 9. Battle of Gettysburg
    • Lincoln picks Mead to replace McClellan
    • Gettysburg is Lee’s last attempt at invading the north
    • 75,000 confederates and 90,000 Union soldiers fight for three days
    • Union wins but at a heavy price
    • Mead waits too long and Lee’s Army escapes
  • 10. Battle of Vicksburg
    • Turning point of the war
    • Grant’s Army laid siege to city
    • Union wins full control of Mississippi River
    • Confederate Army now to weak to win war
    • Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union forces
    • Sherman starts March to the Sea
  • 11. Sherman’s March to the Sea
    • Sherman’s Army uses total war on south (scorched earth policy)
    • Destroys everything in his path
    • Burn Atlanta to the ground and continue toward Savannah, GA on the coast
    • Sherman’s March breaks the back of the Confederacy
  • 12. The War is over
    • Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
    • 5 days after Lee surrenders Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
    • Over 620,000 Americans were killed
    • Slavery was ended
    • The idea of secession was answered