19 The Mass Media


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19 The Mass Media

  1. 1. Objective: Analyze how mass media affects the government and politics
  2. 2. <ul><li>Mass Media includes all the means of communication that brings messages to the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media has been called the fourth branch of government </li></ul><ul><li>The flow of information has always played a vital part in our democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Media is composed of four groups Print, T.V., Radio, and Internet </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Newspapers in the 1800s few people subscribed but many people shared their papers </li></ul><ul><li>Early newspapers provided a sense of a national community </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900 an average of one paper for every household was printed </li></ul><ul><li>Many people believe the decline of the newspaper was started by T.V. in the 1960’s </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Radio brought Americans closer to their government </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 99.9% of all Americans have a radio </li></ul><ul><li>Radio communicates political messages through programming and advertisers </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1980’s talk radio emerged as a forum for opinion and candidates </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>In one generation T.V. replaced the newspaper as Americans’ main source of news </li></ul><ul><li>The first televised presidential debate occurred between Kennedy and Nixon in 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1960’s there were only three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC </li></ul><ul><li>These networks dominated until the advent of Cable T.V. and the 24hr news cycle </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 1995 research reported that only 11 percent of Americans used the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009 nearly 3/4 (72%) use the internet for news and information </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all businesses and most political candidates recognize the importance of having an online presence to spread their message </li></ul><ul><li>Internet is starting to replace T.V. as the main source of information for Americans </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>80% of all U.S. television coverage of government officials focuses on the President </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to master broadcast media </li></ul><ul><li>He used radio to speak directly to the American people during fireside chats </li></ul><ul><li>The government and President use a variety of ways to communicate </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>News Release- ready made stories for the media to distribute </li></ul><ul><li>News Briefing- an official makes a statement and reports get to ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Press Conference- Reporters get to ask questions of high ranking government officials after they make a statement </li></ul><ul><li>Backgrounders- givers officials a means to test new ideas or send unofficial messages </li></ul><ul><li>Leaks- are the release of secret information by anonymous government officials to the media </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Free Press Guaranteed- First Amendment media is free from prior restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Libel- Media is liable if they report false statements intended to damage a person’s reputation </li></ul><ul><li>The Right of Access- Media doesn’t get special access by law but they generally get more access than the public </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Sources- Most states have shield laws so reporters don’t have to name their sources in court </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>FCC- Federal Communication Commission regulates all broadcasts and their stations </li></ul><ul><li>Including over-the-air and cable T.V., A.M. and F.M. radio, telephones, satellites, telegraphs, and CB radios </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Time Doctrine- requires stations to give equal time to all candidates running for office </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness Doctrine- requires stations to give reasonable opportunities for expression of opposing views </li></ul>