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19 The Mass Media

19 The Mass Media






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    19 The Mass Media 19 The Mass Media Presentation Transcript

    • Objective: Analyze how mass media affects the government and politics
      • Mass Media includes all the means of communication that brings messages to the general public
      • Mass media has been called the fourth branch of government
      • The flow of information has always played a vital part in our democracy
      • Mass Media is composed of four groups Print, T.V., Radio, and Internet
      • Newspapers in the 1800s few people subscribed but many people shared their papers
      • Early newspapers provided a sense of a national community
      • By 1900 an average of one paper for every household was printed
      • Many people believe the decline of the newspaper was started by T.V. in the 1960’s
      • Radio brought Americans closer to their government
      • Nearly 99.9% of all Americans have a radio
      • Radio communicates political messages through programming and advertisers
      • During the 1980’s talk radio emerged as a forum for opinion and candidates
      • In one generation T.V. replaced the newspaper as Americans’ main source of news
      • The first televised presidential debate occurred between Kennedy and Nixon in 1960
      • During the 1960’s there were only three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC
      • These networks dominated until the advent of Cable T.V. and the 24hr news cycle
      • In 1995 research reported that only 11 percent of Americans used the Internet
      • In 2009 nearly 3/4 (72%) use the internet for news and information
      • Nearly all businesses and most political candidates recognize the importance of having an online presence to spread their message
      • Internet is starting to replace T.V. as the main source of information for Americans
      • 80% of all U.S. television coverage of government officials focuses on the President
      • Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to master broadcast media
      • He used radio to speak directly to the American people during fireside chats
      • The government and President use a variety of ways to communicate
      • News Release- ready made stories for the media to distribute
      • News Briefing- an official makes a statement and reports get to ask questions
      • Press Conference- Reporters get to ask questions of high ranking government officials after they make a statement
      • Backgrounders- givers officials a means to test new ideas or send unofficial messages
      • Leaks- are the release of secret information by anonymous government officials to the media
      • Free Press Guaranteed- First Amendment media is free from prior restraint
      • Libel- Media is liable if they report false statements intended to damage a person’s reputation
      • The Right of Access- Media doesn’t get special access by law but they generally get more access than the public
      • Protection of Sources- Most states have shield laws so reporters don’t have to name their sources in court
      • FCC- Federal Communication Commission regulates all broadcasts and their stations
      • Including over-the-air and cable T.V., A.M. and F.M. radio, telephones, satellites, telegraphs, and CB radios
      • Equal Time Doctrine- requires stations to give equal time to all candidates running for office
      • Fairness Doctrine- requires stations to give reasonable opportunities for expression of opposing views