User-centered design versus Design thinking

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Delivered at UXSofia 2013: http://www.uxsofia.com/. Co-presented with with https://twitter.com/iiivanova.

Design thinking brings together methods from engineering and design with ideas from the arts, tools from the social sciences, and insights from the business world. User-centered design is a process for designing interactive systems that balances the needs of users with the needs of the business.

Design thinking is about inspiration and ideation in a non-conventional environment that leads to innovation. It focuses on:
- Human values (desirability & usability): create something that fits your users’ needs;
- Technology (feasibility): otherwise it is just science fiction;
- Business (viability): we want to earn money with it.

User-centered design is about shaping the product around user abilities, needs, desires, and skills, instead of forcing users to adapt to the product by changing their behavior. It focuses on:
- Explicit understanding of users,
- Involving users in design and development,
- Driving design by user-centered evaluation,
- Iterative process,
- Holistic view of the user experience,
- Multidisciplinary design team.

Can design thinking lead us to a user-centered result? Ina and Jimmy will try to show how design thinking fits into the overall concept of user-centeredness.

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  • All DAGUPs begin with user research. The idea is to first explore the problem space. By knowing more about the users, you have a broader perspective
  • This is the step following the research.The important thing here is to base your decisions on the research facts – not on wishful thinking
  • Health care might be the last place where you expect design thinking to make a significant impact, but that’s just what happened at Kaiser Permanente. The company’s National Facilities Services group began the process, from medicine administration to the color of the carpets in their offices. Early on, N.F.S. team members began touring several of Kaiser’s facilities… They visited both competing institutions and analogous places (like cafés, hotels and retail establishments). They interviewed all relevant stakeholders, from orderlies to patients’ family members, about their experiences, and anyone who has ever visited doctors’ offices and hospitals would nod in agreement with many of the Kaiser team’s findings. The upshot of all this research and feedback was identifying a patient’s “22 Key Experiences” (the primary moments of a patient’s care when going through the Kaiser system) and finding ways to provide an organic improvement to those areas. The design solutions that emerged include things as seemingly obvious as clearly marked signage; stairwells that might actually encourage people to take the stairs (and remove the fear that anyone who does so might end up locked in between floors); the creation of outdoor spaces that provide escape and respite, not to mention natural light; transforming typically unwelcoming cafeterias to more people-friendly cafés; and an exam room that emphasizes comfort, privacy and personal control. Key Experience #13, for example, addressed the waiting room, which traditionally features linear seating arrangements. Kaiser eschews the typical “bus station seating” for comfortable chairs, with brighter color palettes, and the more flexible seating allows for situation- or needs-based configurations.Though hospitals will end up looking better, these efforts aren’t about decorating, they’re about outcomes. Numerous studies point to the benefits of the design strategies and environmental interventions KP has proposed and implemented. Factors like the quality and intensity of light, access to natural light, the noise level in a room, the privacy afforded by single-patient rooms — all of these affect patient health, satisfaction, soundness of sleep and speed of healing. Views of nature have been shown to decrease depression, pain, stress and even length of hospital stays. Floor plans that are designed to help health care workers do their work more effectively (as well as increase privacy and comfort of patients) can reduce falls, improve patient communication and lessen stress for all.http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/13/a-breath-of-fresh-air-for-health-care/
  • Oral B asked IDEO to create a new toothbrush for kids- they want it to be distinctive. Oral B expected IDEO to start creating new designs from Day1. But IDEO wanted to do anthropology, on day 1 they discovered that kids need a big toothbrush because they hold it in their fist, to begin with they thought that because kids have tiny hand they would need slim toothbrushes. It became the best selling toothbrush for 18 months until all the other competitors began doing the same.
  • “BUILDING SOMETHING NOBODY WANTS IS THE ULTIMATE FORM OF WASTE.” – ERIC RIES“Design thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” —Tim Brown, president and CEOWhen we talk about business value we don’t focus only on corporate interest and moneyhttp://ithinkidesign.wordpress.com/2012/06/08/a-brief-history-of-design-thinking-how-design-thinking-came-to-be/How to create innovative products. Ideal solutions and successful products always have three things in common: they’re equally feasible from a technical point of view, they’re viable from a business point of view but they are also desirable and attractive from a human point of view. Even the greatest technology doesn’t help if it doesn’t sell and generate revenue. And it is not enough if you’ve developed great software and sold it to the customer if it ultimately sits on the shelf because the people don’t use it in their workFEASABILITY Otherwise it is just science fictionVIABILITY Because we would like to make money with it.DESIRABILITY Create something which fits to your users need. Roger L. Martin, in his book, The Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage, articulates the problem as executives relying too heavily on analytical thinking, which only reinforces current knowledge and produces small improvements to the status quo. Design thinking, in contrast, provides the ideas that allow a company to innovate and win; it’s more of a collaborative process where creativity is welcomed, no idea is ridiculed, and the designer’s input is welcomed to help match a consumer need with what is technically feasible and a viable business strategy. A fresh, out-of-the-box attitude is brought to bear on problem-solving, rather than a strict engineering or financial perspective.And if you only think this kind of approach works at “sexy” companies like Apple and Google, think again.
  • http://changingminds.org/explanations/decision/divergence_convergence.htmProblem spaceNormally we use only converge approach. We extend it with diverge – create choiceshttp://vimeo.com/14138667Design Thinking is a method for solving complex problems and creating new ideas.* Design Thinking brings a holistic, outside-in perspective into the game that helps to understand the goals and the needs of your end-users as well as of your customers and other stakeholders. From this understanding you can draw inspiration and insights that help you to see new opportunities and to drive solutions, innovations and strategies. Solution space DT has initially a strong focus on the desirability aspect. One of the characteristics of DT is to rapidly come up with non-coded prototypes that illustrate ideas and drive conversation. These prototypes are used to validate solution concepts with end-users as well as with technical experts. So the solution iteratively gets to this optimum that balances the 3 aspects equally.http://www.fastcompany.com/919258/design-thinking-what
  • User-centered design versus Design thinking

    1. 1. Design thinkingversusUser-centered design
    2. 2. compare Design Thinking to User-centeredDesignsee whether they differ and how they look alikegive you something practical to take homeour goal today
    3. 3. who’s talking?Dimiter Simov –JimmyusabilityprofessionalUX mentor andtrainerfounder of the 1stBG usabilityconsultancylikes to raiseusabilityawarenessbelieves that IT canbe usableIna IvanovasoftwaredeveloperDesign Thinkingcoachinspiration seekerlikes to find newways to do her jobbetterbelieves that youhave to love whatyou do
    4. 4. WHAT IS UCD?
    5. 5. … designUser-centered… Usage-centered…Activity-centered… Human-centered…Empathic … User-driven …Usage-driven … Task-based …Contextual … Participatory …Cooperative … …
    6. 6. DAGUPDesignApproachGuaranteeingUsableProducts
    7. 7. HOW DO WE KNOW SOMEONE ISFOLLOWING A DAGUP?
    8. 8. sticky notes
    9. 9. whiteboards
    10. 10. sketches
    11. 11. personas
    12. 12. canvases
    13. 13. ux “stuff”
    14. 14. job titles
    15. 15. trendyness
    16. 16. SOME COMMON FEATURES THATACTUALLY MATTERnow seriously
    17. 17. user focusresearch and data collection based on userinterviews and observations, usually contextual
    18. 18. analysisresults-based identification ofproblems, patterns, and processes as well asopportunities
    19. 19. designiterative cycle of prototyping-reviewing-testing
    20. 20. user involvementusers participate as consultants, testers,reviewers, co-designers
    21. 21. trained designerspeople building UIs and interactions trained inhuman factors and human-computer interaction
    22. 22. the essencealternative to feature-driven approaches ofdeveloping products (services, sites, apps…)deliver useful and usable products that fit theintended use and usersshape the product around users, not force usersto adapt to the product
    23. 23. does Design Thinkingbelong to the DAGUPfamily?
    24. 24. TESCO: RE-FRAMING THE SHOPPINGEXPERIENCE
    25. 25. TESCO’s solution
    26. 26. KAISER PERMANENTE: RE-DESIGNTHE HEALTHCARE
    27. 27. healthcare
    28. 28. Kaiser Permanente’s patient room
    29. 29. IDEO: TOOTHBRUSH FOR KIDS
    30. 30. IDEO’s design
    31. 31. THE COMMON SUCCESSFUL PRODUCTS
    32. 32. what is a successful product?BusinessTechnologyPeopleInnovation
    33. 33. “Design thinking is a human-centeredapproach to innovation that draws fromthe designers toolkit to integrate theneeds of people, the possibilities oftechnology, and the requirements forbusiness success.”Tim Brown, president and CEO of IDEO
    34. 34. THE RIGHT COMBINATION
    35. 35. a way of thinking?
    36. 36. T-shaped people
    37. 37. creative space
    38. 38. iterative processUNDERSTANDOBSERVEDEFINEPOINT-OF-VIEWPROTOTYPETESTIDEATE
    39. 39. DESIGN THINKING STEPS
    40. 40. understand
    41. 41. observe
    42. 42. define a point of view
    43. 43. ideate
    44. 44. prototype
    45. 45. test
    46. 46. is DT a DAGUP?user focused research and data collection:contextual interviews and observationsresults-based identification ofproblems, patterns, processes, andopportunitiesiterative design through prototyping-reviewing-testingusers involved asconsultants, testers, reviewers, co-designersdesigners trained in human factors andhuman-computer interaction
    47. 47. WE ARE FAMILYDT is a DAGUPhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNAQ8LLptUo
    48. 48. our DAGUPTestTestTest
    49. 49. take home1. get out of the office, your users are not there2. once a month watch people use your product3. get a UX mindset4. find your own DAGUPuser focus | results-based analysisiterative design | user involvementtrained designers
    50. 50. YOU ARE WELCOME

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