Cardiovascular system procedures


Published on

A report on cardiac enzymes, Holter monitor, and Vein Ligation and Stripping

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cardiovascular system procedures

  1. 1. Cardiovascular System Procedures Deanna Shippee
  2. 2. Cardiac Procedures <ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holter Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligation and Stripping </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cardiac Enzymes Testing <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood test to determine the levels of various cardiac enzymes circulating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is done? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venipuncture (blood draw) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory analysis of enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To detect elevated levels of cardiac enzymes, symptoms of cardiac muscle injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ie: myocardial infarction, injury from surgical procedures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Cardiac Enzymes Testing <ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes such as creatine phosphkinase (CPK, CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and proteins like troponin (TnT, Tnl) are found within cardiac muscle cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low levels are found naturally in the blood stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to the heart muscle releases higher levels of these enzymes into the blood </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cardiac Enzymes Testing <ul><li>When is it ordered? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern over heart attack or threatened heart attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, abnormal EKG, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After cardiac procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bypass surgery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure there is no injury to the heart </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percutaneous coronary intervention or thrombolytic medicine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine that therapy has successfully restored blood flow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May take 2-24 hours after MI for elevated levels of some enzymes and proteins to be detected in the blood stream </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Holter Monitor <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A portable ECG monitor worn continuously for a few hours to days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is done? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three to eight electrodes are attached to the patient in various locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical activity is recorded in a monitor from input of these electrodes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the heart and pulse activity during routine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify problematic heart activity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Holter Monitor <ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes detect the electrical activity of the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This activity is recorded in the monitor box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient is often able to push a button and mark the record when in situations of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sickness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going to bed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record is analyzed by software and doctors are able to identify periods of irregular activity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Holter Monitor <ul><li>When is it ordered? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of arrhythmias or myocardial ischemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After cardiac surgery or MI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of therapy or pacemaker dependency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of complete heart block, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachychardia, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of changes in ST or QT intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history of cardiac problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic disease that could impact the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discomfort may prevent patient from participating in usual activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to hours that monitor is on (infrequent arrhythmias may not be detected) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot detect blockages in arteries or strength of cardiac muscles </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ligation and Stripping <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A minor surgery involving tying-off (ligation) and removal of (stripping) damaged veins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is done? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small incisions are made over damaged vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vein and small veins feeding into it are tied off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An instrument is threaded up through the vein and used to grasp and remove it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the procedure cuts off the faulty valve in the vein and the remainder of the vein and valves are healthy, the vein may not be removed </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Ligation and Stripping <ul><li>What is the purpose? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get rid of vericose veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To remove veins that are dysfunctional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ie: not draining properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligation stops the blood flow to prevent internal bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripping removes the problematic part of the vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged valves and distended vein walls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood is re-routed to other veins for transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of damaged parts of large veins reduces the pressure on the smaller veins in the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ie: Greater saphenous vein </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ligation and Stripping <ul><li>When is it ordered? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discomfort from damaged veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmetic varicose vein treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins are damaged and blood does not drain properly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varicose veins may return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scars, seromas, artery damage or nerve damage may result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of deep venous thrombosis </li></ul></ul>