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Session: 2 Maurya

Session: 2 Maurya

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  • 1. Terms to remember 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Mauryas (indigenous) and Kushans (foreigner) King Chandragupta Maurya Emperor Ashoka King Kanishka Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Tenets of Buddhism or Buddha Dharma Propagation
  • 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Animals Humans—male and female, but predominantly female Beauty—aesthetic principles Tribhanga posture (S-curve of the body) Salabhangika Parts were taken from nature Mathura Theravada and Mahayana Arhat and Bodhisattva Nirvana Yaksha and Yakshi Rock-cut caves Bharhut, Karle and Ajanta Stupas Sanchi The battle of Kalinga 84000 stupas Ashokan pillars (stambhas)
  • 3. Chaitya 2. Vihara 3. Chakra 4. Abhaya 5. Dhyana 6. Varada 7. Dharmachakra pravartana 8. Vyakhyana 9. Prana 10. Mithuna (amorous couple, often in embrace or in sexual position) 11. Mara 12. Greco-Roman style (Gandhara) 1.
  • 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ushanisha Urna Srivatsa Bhumisparsa (earth touching) Mudra (hand gesture) Padmasana (lotus posture/position)
  • 5. Art of the Maurya Period (321-185 BCE) ► The Maurya Empire ► One of the largest ► Capital—Pataliputra in Magadha ► Founder—Chandragupta Maurya, who overthrew the powerful Nanda Dynasty by the help of his advisor Chanakya.
  • 6. ► Capital: Pataliputra (modern Patna) in Bihar, north India ► Founded in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, the empire was one of the world's largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent. ► Chandragupta expanded his power westward taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal by Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. ► By 320 BCE the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander.
  • 7. Area ruled by the Maurya Empire
  • 8. Bull capital from Rampurva, Bihar, 3rd century BC sandstone
  • 9. Ashoka pillar/Ashokan pillar
  • 10. Parkham Yaksha Besnagar Yakshi
  • 11. Parkham Yaksha
  • 12. Lomas Rishi cave 3rd century BC Imitation of wooden architecture
  • 13. Kushan Dynasty: King Kaniska (127-151)
  • 14. King Kaniska
  • 15. Kanishka
  • 16. Vima Kadphisis, Kanishka’s father
  • 17. Woman's Shringhar, Kushana period, scene on a pillar railing (Government Museum, Mathura). The grace and delicacy of the human form is sensitively expressed in this scene, which meets the worshipper's eye as he goes around the stupa.
  • 18. ► Kanishka's reputation in Buddhist tradition is based mainly that he convened the 4th Buddhist Council in Kashmir. ► He provided encouragement to both the Gandhara school of Greco-Buddhist Art and the Mathura school of Hindu art. ► His greatest contribution to Buddhist architecture was the Kanishka stupa at Peshawar, Pakistan. ► It was believed to be the largest Buddhist structure during the time it was built.
  • 19. Art of Kushana period Yakshi, Mathura. Kushan Period sandstone, 2nd century A.D. Yakshas and yakshis are male and female nature deities. Both Buddhist and Hindu temples have included representations of these beings in their imagery.
  • 20. Vrikshadevi, Kushana period, Jaina stupa railing, Kankali Tila (Government Museum, Lucknow). The vitality and exuberance of nature is beautifully expressed in all monuments of this period that survived in north India as well as in the rock-cut caves of western India, such as at Karle
  • 21. Parashuramesvara lingam Andhra Pradesh 1st century CE Ek Mukhi Siva Linga, Kushana period (Government Museum, Lucknow). The Siva Linga is one of the most profound symbols of humankind. It is the "mark" of the unmanifest eternal manifesting itself in innumerable forms of the world. Simultaneously, it embodies the vital forces of nature in the manifest world.
  • 22. The End