Hindu and islamic arts


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Hindu and islamic arts

  1. 1. Hinduism and Hindu Art Hindu cosmology Hindu pantheon Hindu iconography Deva and Devi (gods and goddesses) Ashura (demons/anti gods) Brahman Three godheads:  1. Brahma, 2. Vshnu, 3. Shiva  Their vahanas (mounts/vehicles) Their attributes Their gunas (qualities)  
  2. 2. Brahman Unmanifest Brahma Vishnu Narayana Shiva Rudra Indra (king of gods, there will be new Indra at every eon) 330 million gods—agni, varun, vahyu, etc….. Guided by Brihaspati (spiritual counselor) Demonic realm populated by demons (anti gods) King of demons (Bali, it changes according to time) Guided by Sukracharya (spiritual conselor)
  3. 3. Terms to remember Brahma Vishnu Shiva Vedas Deva/Devi Saraswati, Lakshmi, Parvati Shakti (goddess)-Durga, Kali River goddesses: Ganga (River Ganges) Yamuna (River Yamuna/Jamna) Makara (crocodile) Kurma (tortoise)
  4. 4. Terms to remember Bhakti Lingam Sattvic, ragasic, tamasic Shiva as Nataraja Durga killing the buffalo demon Mahisha (not bull as mentioned by Sherman Lee) Mahishamardini Kartikkeya (god of war) Varaha avatar Ardhanariswara Ravana
  5. 5. Terms to remember Mahamallapuram/Mahabalipuram Rath (Ratha) Narrative Naturalism Prana Naga Shiva as Mahesvara (errousniously called tri-murti) Mandala South Indian temple architecture combines   Vestigial model shrine and shikhara Mandapa (large hall)
  6. 6. More terms Rajput Mughal Elephanta Portuguese occupation of the island Target practice Shiva as Mahesha (Great God)—3 aspects    Aghora (left)—wrathful Tatpurusha (center)—calm, beneficent Uma Devi (right)—blissful
  7. 7. Brahma the creator Past Vishnu The maintainer, reserver, sustainer Present Shiva The destroyer Future
  8. 8. Parvati Saraswati Brahma Lakshmi Vishnu Shiva
  9. 9. Hindu pantheon 1000 names of gods and goddesses Deva (male) Devi (female seen in the form of Shakti=energy, the driving power/force behind a god as in electric energy behind an engine. Devi is god’s Shakti (energy, power) w/o which a god has no vitality, innate nature/quality to act as god. Shakti is what gives a god power to act. Goddess (Devi) seen in the form of Shakti (energy) also is creativity behind a poet, a writer, an artist, etc. Shiva w/o his shakti is like Shava (corpse).
  10. 10. Udayagiri/Udaigiri caves in Central India commissioned by the Gupta kings between the 4 th and 5th centuries
  11. 11. •Udayagiri caves near Vidisha were carved when the city was a provincial capital of the Gupta Empire (4th- 6th century CE). •The site consists of a U-shaped plateau immediately next to the River Bes. •It is best known for a series of rock-cut sanctuaries and images excavated into hillside in the early years of the fifth century CE. •The most famous sculpture is the monumental figure of Viṣṇu in his incarnation as the boar-headed Varaha. •The site has important inscriptions of the Gupta dynasty belonging to the reigns of Chandragupta I (c. 375-415) and Kumaragupta I (c. 415-55).
  12. 12. Varaha rescuing Mother Earth, Udaigiri cave, 5th century
  13. 13. Varaha Avatara of Vishnu in Udaigiri cave, Vidisa, Madhya Pradesh (central India)
  14. 14. Varaha Avatar Varaha
  15. 15. Chandragupta I
  16. 16. Sheshashayi Vishnu reclining on the serpent-bed of Shesha from Vishnu temple in Deogarh ca. 6th century CE
  17. 17. Carved Panel relief on the doorway of Dashavata Temple depicting Lakshmi flanked by Gada and Chakra ayudhapurushas (personified Vishnu's weapons) tending to Vishnu's feet. Vishnu as Narayana, sleeping On the coils of Anata Naga, Relief, red sandstone, 10th century
  18. 18. Sleeping Vishnu from Vishnu temple in Deogarh
  19. 19. Krishna killing a demon
  20. 20. Goddess Ambika Shahabad District, Bihar, India 6th-7th century
  21. 21. Hindu Temple Sanctum of a temple Garbha griha (womb chamber)    Dark and small No windows Having only one opening like the womb of a woman Pradkshina (circumambulation)    Clockwise Eastern orientation Why?
  22. 22. Plan of a Hindu temple architecture Designed after the shape of a tall mountain so that it can be seen from far away A temple is an abode of god(s) Stands on a sacred ground Must have presence of water Why? A temple is built on the bank of a river, a sea, an ocean, or a lake. If there is no source of water, water is brought to the temple precinct.
  23. 23. Temple It may be dedicated to one god, but a devotee would find other gods as well since many Hindu gods are the manifestation of one God, i.e. Brahman. A devotee announces his arrival by ringing the bell hung in front of the temple door. Why ring a bell?
  24. 24. Elevation of the Khandesvara temple in Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, Central India
  25. 25. Kailashnath, a famous temple on the west coast of India, is one of the 34 monasteries and temples, known collectively as the Ellora Caves. The Kailasa (cave 16) is a remarkable example of Dravidian architecture on account of its striking proportion; elaborate workmanship architectural content and sculptural ornamentation of rock-cut architecture. It is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva.
  26. 26. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock. It was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I. The Kailash Temple is notable for its vertical excavation—carvers started at the top of the original rock, and excavated downward. The traditional methods were rigidly followed by the master architect which could not have been achieved by excavating from the front.
  27. 27. It is estimated that about 400,000 tons of rocks was scooped out over hundreds of years to carve this monolithic structure. From the chisel marks on walls of this temple, archeologists have concluded that three types of chisels were used to carve the temple.
  28. 28. Within the courtyard are two structures. As is traditional in Shiva temples, an image of the sacred bull Nandi fronts the central temple housing the lingam.
  29. 29. In Cave 16, the Nandi Mandap and main Shiva temple are each 23 feet high, and built on two storeys. The lower stories of the Nandi Mandap are both solid structures, decorated with elaborate illustrative carvings. The base of the temple has been carved to suggest that elephants are holding the structure aloft.
  30. 30. A cat-walk (bridge) connects the Nandi Mandap to the porch of the temple. The temple itself is tall. The pyramidic structure is reminiscent of a South Indian temple.
  31. 31. The shrine – complete with pillars, windows, inner and outer rooms, gathering halls, and an enormous lingam at its heart – carved from stone, is carved with niches, pilasters, windows as well as images of deities, mithunas and other figures. Most of the deities at the left of the entrance are Shaivaite (followers of Shiva) while on the right hand side the deities are Vaishnavaites (followers of Vishnu).
  32. 32. Kailasha (rock cut) temple in Ellora, Maharastra—8th century
  33. 33. Kailasha (rock cut) temple in Ellora, Maharastra—8th century
  34. 34. The view of the Kailash Temple from the top. The photo is taken at the cave temples clusters of Ellora, Maharastra
  35. 35. God Shiva with Parvatii attended by his bodyguards (retinue) in Kailash temple, ca. 8 th century
  36. 36. Shiva and Parvati seated on Mt. Kailasha with their attendants, Ellora Ravana below doing a penance to Shiva. He is a devotee of Shiva.
  37. 37. Nataraja Ravana
  38. 38. Goddess Durga in Lalitasasa (the posture of ease) Kailash temple, ca. 8th century CE
  39. 39. Shiva Linga
  40. 40. The shrine has        Pillars Windows Inner and outer rooms Gathering halls An enormous lingam at its heart Has niches, windows as well as images of deities, mithunas and other figures. Most of the deities at the left of the entrance are Shaivaite while on the right hand side the deities are Vaishnavaites.
  41. 41. There are two Dhwajasthambha (pillars with the flagstaff) in the courtyard. The grand sculpture of Ravana attempting to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva, with his full might is a landmark in Indian art.
  42. 42. 6 miles from the Gateway of India, Mainland Bombay (Mumbai)
  43. 43. Gateway of India was built to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to India in 1911.
  44. 44. Arabian Sea
  45. 45. Elephanta caves
  46. 46. 3 mental/emotional states 1. Karuna 2. Shanta 3. Aghora Elephanta consists of two groups of caves—the first is a large group of five Hindu caves, the second, a smaller group of two Buddhist caves. The Hindu caves contain rock cut stone sculptures, representing the Shaiva Hindu sect, dedicated to the god Shiva.
  47. 47. Ardhanarisvara
  48. 48. Dancing Shiva Ardhanarisvara, androgynous form of Shiva
  49. 49. Marriage of Shiva and Parvati
  50. 50. Sun temple at Konarak Orissa, 13th century
  51. 51. Bhutanatha temple complex at Badami, 7th century, with the open hall (11th century) extending to the lake
  52. 52. Jagmohan temple at Konarak Sun Temple (Pidha Deula)
  53. 53. Seen as a chariot Sun temple, 13th century
  54. 54. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I (1238-1250 CE) of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. Legend has it that the temple was constructed by Samba, the son of Lord Krishna.
  55. 55. It is said that Samba was afflicted by leprosy, brought about by his father’s curse on him. After 12 years of penance, he was cured by Surya, the Sun God, in whose honor he built the magnificent Konark Sun temple.
  56. 56. Temples at Khajuraho Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval temples of Hindu and Jain religions. There is a perfect fusion of architecture and sculpture at this temple complex, famous for their erotic images.
  57. 57. The temples of Khajuraho are a UNESCO world Heritage Site. At the Temple of Kandariya, there is a profusion of decorated sculptures considered as one of the greatest masterpieces of Indian art. Built by Chandela dynasty, the temples exhibit stunningly explicit sexual sculptures which were created by the artists’ imagination of lovemaking positions prevalent at the time, or based on the rules outlined in the Kamasutra.
  58. 58. Kandarya or Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khujuraho, 11th century
  59. 59. Deep space No form/formless The region of atmosphere Physical world/the world of forms Brahman Gods/Devas Human beings/animals
  60. 60. The Khajuraho temples were built over a span of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. The Chandela capital was moved to Mahoba after this time, but Khajuraho continued to flourish for some time.
  61. 61. Lakshmana temple at Khajuraho. Two of the four secondary shrines can be seen.
  62. 62. Shiva w/Parvati, Khajuraho, 11th century
  63. 63. Lakshman temple
  64. 64. Mahabalipuram was a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas in South India. The name Mamallapuram is believed to have been given after the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, who took on the epithet Maha-malla (great wrestler), as the favorite sport of the Pallavas was wrestling.
  65. 65. Mamallapuram/Mahabalipuram, ca. 7th century
  66. 66. Thanks to the tourist for leaving the water bottle From Mamallapuram
  67. 67. River goddess Ganga Celestial couple
  68. 68. Lost-wax casting (also called by its French name, cire perdue) is the process by which a metal (such as silver, gold, brass or bronze) sculpture is cast from an artist's sculpture. Intricate works can be achieved by this method, primarily depending on the carver's skills. In industrial uses, the modern process is called investment casting.
  69. 69. Krishna as a vanquisher of Kaliya, the snake
  70. 70. Nataraja
  71. 71. Shiva as Nataraja, bronze, Chola period, ca. 12th century Krishna as Kalidamana
  72. 72. Parvati, 11th century Chola bronzes combine dignity, gentleness and the sensuousness of flesh in a beautiful manner. Mother and child
  73. 73. Siva, The bronze was made in fine detail and with great devotion. The achievement of art is in the response it awakens within one. There is a warmth and humanity in this image of Siva that one can immediately relate to. The quality of tangible flesh is evident in the rear view of this masterpiece. 11th century Saint Karaikkal Ammaiyar, bronze, 12th century
  74. 74. Shiva and Parvati, 12th century
  75. 75. Shiva as ascetic, Chola period, 10th-11 th century
  76. 76. Krishna and the Gopis from the Gitagovinda MS, Rajput (Mewar), watercolor on paper, 1550
  77. 77. Kukubha Ragini, c. 1680 Rajasthan, north-west India
  78. 78. Lalita Ragini (from a Ragamala), painted by Sahibdin. Mewar School, Udaipur 1628. (15 x 21.5 cm) Khajanchi Collection, Bikaner
  79. 79. Krishna as Govardhan, Garhwal School, 18th century. It was most likely painted by Mola Ram who carved a niche for himself in the history of Uttaranchal for his contribution to miniature painting. He laid the foundation for the 'Garhwal School of Painting'. Mola Ram, born in 1743 near Srinagar, was also a poet, philosopher and a statesman. Mola Ram worked during the rules of Maharaja Pradeep Shah, Maharaja Lalit Shah, Jaikrit Singh and Maharaja Pradyuman Shah from 1777 to 1804.
  80. 80. Mewar Gitagovinda MS. Krishna as Govardhana from Garhwal
  81. 81. Mughal art Architecture Painting   Album (miniature) Illustrated (illuminated) manuscript No sculpture
  82. 82. Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan.The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653, employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen. The construction of the Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer.
  83. 83. Fatehpur Sikri
  84. 84. Akbar-Nama Ca. 1600 Tuti nama, ca. 1560
  85. 85. Akbar Ruled from 1556-1605
  86. 86. Painting of flower by Ustad Mansur, died after 1621 Arghan Div Brings the Chest of Armor to Hamza, showing the cloth backing, painted during Akbar’s time
  87. 87. A rare life-size portrait of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir holding a globe, by Abu'l Hasan, Nadir alZaman (dated 1617 AD Ruled 1605-1627
  88. 88. A manuscript depicting the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and the Safavid Shah Abbas I of Persia (now Iran). It represents the qualities of Mughal-Safavid Relations . Allegorical
  89. 89. JG
  90. 90. Dying Inayat Khan, school of Jahangir Early 17th century Painting by Ustad Mansur Employed by emperor Akbar in his Royal atelier, ca. 1600
  91. 91. Emperor Shah Jahan on horse and on globe, ruled from 1628 until 1658