Art11 chinese art
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Art11 chinese art Art11 chinese art Presentation Transcript

  • Terms to RememberTerms to Remember 1.1. Shang (1700-1027 BCE)Shang (1700-1027 BCE) 2.2. Chou—Eastern and Western (1027-771Chou—Eastern and Western (1027-771 BCE )BCE ) 3.3. Warring States (770-221 BCE)Warring States (770-221 BCE) 4.4. Chin (221-207 BCE)Chin (221-207 BCE) 5.5. Han (25-220 CE)Han (25-220 CE) 6.6. Three Kingdoms (220-280 CE)Three Kingdoms (220-280 CE) 7.7. Tang (618-907 CE )Tang (618-907 CE ) 8.8. Wei (907-960)Wei (907-960) 9.9. Sung/Song (960-1279 CE)Sung/Song (960-1279 CE)
  • Ancient China
  • Map of ancient China
  • Oracle Bones
  • Confucius (K'ung-tzuConfucius (K'ung-tzu (Master Kung)(Master Kung) 551 BC– 479 BC551 BC– 479 BC Lao Tzu; also Lao Tse, contemporary to ConfuciusLao Tzu; also Lao Tse, contemporary to Confucius
  • Taoism/Daoism Yin Yang symbol. Yin=male principle (white). Yang=female principle (Black) Complementary opposites
  • The Terracotta armies of Qin Shi Huang The Terracotta armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. The figures, dating from 210 BC, were discovered in 1974 by some local farmers in Shaanxi province, near the Mausoleum of the First Qin The figures vary in height, according to their roles, the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots, horses, officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians. Current estimates are that in the three pits containing the terracotta army there were over 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which are still buried in the pits.
  • Chinese bronzeware is categorized according to use:Chinese bronzeware is categorized according to use: 1.1. Sacrificial vesselsSacrificial vessels 2.2. Wine vesselsWine vessels 3.3. Food vesselsFood vessels 4.4. Water vesselsWater vessels 5.5. Musical instrumentsMusical instruments 6.6. WeaponsWeapons 7.7. Measuring containersMeasuring containers 8.8. Ancient moneyAncient money
  • Types of Chinese Ritual Vessels—BronzeTypes of Chinese Ritual Vessels—Bronze Divided according to typesDivided according to types  With legs/lids/handlesWith legs/lids/handles  Without legs/lids/handlesWithout legs/lids/handles  With different types of shapes/purposesWith different types of shapes/purposes  AA DingDing ((ting) is an ancient vessel with legs, a lid and a handle onting) is an ancient vessel with legs, a lid and a handle on either side.either side.  A Ding is made in two shapes with round vessels having threeA Ding is made in two shapes with round vessels having three legs.legs.  A Ding, originally made of ceramic, was cast in bronze during theA Ding, originally made of ceramic, was cast in bronze during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE).Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE).  Used for cooking, storage and storage of ritual offerings toUsed for cooking, storage and storage of ritual offerings to ancestors.ancestors.
  • Chinese pronunciation systemChinese pronunciation system  PinyinPinyin isis Mandarin pronunciation systemMandarin pronunciation system  It’s now the official system to transcribe Chinese characters toIt’s now the official system to transcribe Chinese characters to teach Mandarin Chinese in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia,teach Mandarin Chinese in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan.Singapore and Taiwan.  It is also often used to spell Chinese names in foreignIt is also often used to spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinesepublications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers.characters into computers.  The system was developed by Zhou Youguang (b. 1906), whoThe system was developed by Zhou Youguang (b. 1906), who led a government committee in developing the system in Chinaled a government committee in developing the system in China (PRC) in the 1950s.(PRC) in the 1950s.  The system was published by the Chinese government in 1958The system was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and adopted as official pronunciation system.and adopted as official pronunciation system.
  • Vessels…..continuedVessels…..continued  Originally there were Nine Dings which were believed to haveOriginally there were Nine Dings which were believed to have been cast by King Yu of the Xia Dynasty when he divided hisbeen cast by King Yu of the Xia Dynasty when he divided his territory into Nine Provinces calledterritory into Nine Provinces called JiuzhouJiuzhou..  Later on, possession of all nine was considered a sign ofLater on, possession of all nine was considered a sign of rightful authority over all.rightful authority over all.  Owning even a few Dings was a symbol of power and socialOwning even a few Dings was a symbol of power and social status.status.  The whereabouts of the nine dings are presently unknown, butThe whereabouts of the nine dings are presently unknown, but are said to have been lost during the imperial Qin Dynastyare said to have been lost during the imperial Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE).(221-206 BCE).
  • Vessels, continuedVessels, continued  LiLi  GuGu  Used for three purposes: to hold millet wine, food and water.Used for three purposes: to hold millet wine, food and water.  Vessels with their long feet were used for cookingVessels with their long feet were used for cooking Decoration and InscriptionsDecoration and Inscriptions Display typicalDisplay typical TaotieTaotie pattern with a dragon motif (Taotie mask).pattern with a dragon motif (Taotie mask). The first inscriptions of the bronze vessels are clan insignia,The first inscriptions of the bronze vessels are clan insignia, or names of persons (dead ancestors).or names of persons (dead ancestors). Ancestor veneration/worshipAncestor veneration/worship
  • VesselsVessels  LiLi - a round-bellied food container with three hollow- a round-bellied food container with three hollow legs from early Shang times to late Warring States.legs from early Shang times to late Warring States.  Typical for this vessel type is the seamless, smoothTypical for this vessel type is the seamless, smooth transition from the legs into the body that makes thetransition from the legs into the body that makes the lili optically more slim than theoptically more slim than the dingding type.type.  There are mixed forms calledThere are mixed forms called li-dingli-ding oror ding-li.ding-li.
  • VesselsVessels YanYan - combination of- combination of lili and a pot (and a pot (zengzeng) from early Shang to) from early Shang to Spring and Autumn period.Spring and Autumn period. TheThe yanyan was a kind of metal steamer.was a kind of metal steamer. The food was put in theThe food was put in the zengzeng, the water in the, the water in the lili was heatedwas heated by a fire between the three legs.by a fire between the three legs. The water vapor rose through holes or a grid in the bottom ofThe water vapor rose through holes or a grid in the bottom of the upper pot.the upper pot. There exist objects with one long stove-likeThere exist objects with one long stove-like lili and three potsand three pots upon. From Western Zhou on, we also find squareupon. From Western Zhou on, we also find square yanyan vessels.vessels. The character indicates that the vessel had a ceramic origin.The character indicates that the vessel had a ceramic origin.
  • VesselsVessels  JueJue - one of the oldest wine mugs, the earliest dates- one of the oldest wine mugs, the earliest dates from the Erlitou culture.from the Erlitou culture.  TheThe jue'sjue's typical features are long, canal-like beaktypical features are long, canal-like beak and shorter counterpart on the other side.and shorter counterpart on the other side.  On both sides, small handles (On both sides, small handles (panpan) are fitted. From) are fitted. From the Shang dynasty on,the Shang dynasty on, juejue beaks are crowned by onebeaks are crowned by one or twoor two zhuzhu buttons.buttons.  This vessel type has been very popular and wasThis vessel type has been very popular and was copied often. It has been in use until the introductioncopied often. It has been in use until the introduction of bowls and cups during Song dynasty.of bowls and cups during Song dynasty.
  • A standard vessel used for food sacrifice to ancestors. Although a ding is three legged, there are examples of four legged vessels, especially in ancient times. The four-legged is called fangding (square ding).
  • Gefuding Gui, Late Shang, Shanghai Museum
  • A late Shang, ritual bronze wine vessel (zun) in the unusual shape of an owl with a domed head for its lid
  • A late Shang dynasty bronze ding vessel with taotie motif
  • Zun vessel
  • Quang, ritual wine pouring vessel from Shang dynasty, Anyang period, about 12th–11th century BCE. Used for sacrificial purposes. It is said that a person who did offend against the etiquette had to drink to the health of his host until he was drunk.
  • A Gong bronze vessel with animalistic motif 13-11 century B.C., late Shang Dynasty
  • A gū ritual wine vessel, 12-11th century BCE, Shang Dynasty
  • Bronze vessel, Shang Dynasty ( 1700 B.C.-1027 BCE.) Wine Vessel (Fanglei), Shang dynasty (c. 1600-c. 1050 B.C.), 12th/11th c. B.C.
  • Tripod Ritual Wine Cup (Jue) Western Zhou, circa: 11th century-771 BCE
  • A Western Zhou bronze gui vessel, c. 1000 BCE. In the Chinese historical tradition, the Zhou defeated the Shang and oriented the Shang system of ancestor worship towards a universalized worship, away from the worship of Shangdi and to that of Tian or "heaven". They legitimized their rule by invoking the "Mandate of Heaven," the notion that the ruler (the "Son of Heaven") governed by divine right and that his dethronement would prove that he had lost the Mandate. Disasters and successful rebellions would thus show that the ruling family had lost this Mandate.
  • you Yǒu with zigzag thunder pattern, Early Zhou
  • Stone rubbings from Han Dynasty
  • Han Dynasty
  • Han nobles, a Chinese painting on a ceramic tile from a tomb near Luoyang, Henan province. Dated Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 CE).
  • Detail of a painting by HAN KAN a celebrated painter of the court, c.742-756.  "Night-Shining White"  is described as the favorite mount of the Tang Emperor Ming-huang.  The work is a hand scroll, in ink on paper. Metropolitan Museum of Art 
  • Court official on an outing by an anonymous painter, Han Dynasty
  • Court ladies at work, Han Dynasty, inspired by Confucius teaching
  • Spring Outing of the Tang Court by Zhang Xuan, Tang Dynasty, c. 8th century
  • The Sung/Song DynastyThe Sung/Song Dynasty TheThe Song DynastySong Dynasty (960–1279)(960–1279)  It’sIt’s divided into two distinct periods: thedivided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song.Northern Song and Southern Song.  During theDuring the Northern SongNorthern Song the capital was inthe capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng)the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of innerand the dynasty controlled most of inner China.China.
  • Art of Northern Song DynastyArt of Northern Song Dynasty  The Song dynasty (960–1279) was culturally the mostThe Song dynasty (960–1279) was culturally the most brilliant era in later imperial Chinese history.brilliant era in later imperial Chinese history.  A time of great social and economic change, the period inA time of great social and economic change, the period in large measure shaped the intellectual and political climatelarge measure shaped the intellectual and political climate of China down to the twentieth century.of China down to the twentieth century.  The first half of this era, when the capital was located atThe first half of this era, when the capital was located at Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), is known as the NorthernBianliang (modern Kaifeng), is known as the Northern Song period (960-1126).Song period (960-1126).  The early Northern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) witnessedThe early Northern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) witnessed the flowering of one of the supreme artistic expressions ofthe flowering of one of the supreme artistic expressions of Chinese civilization: monumental landscape painting.Chinese civilization: monumental landscape painting.
  • Paintings during Song Dynasty 960-1279Paintings during Song Dynasty 960-1279  Towering achievements in intellectual, artistic and materialTowering achievements in intellectual, artistic and material culture took placeculture took place  Values and patterns of culture were planted during the TangValues and patterns of culture were planted during the Tang Dynasty in an embryonic formDynasty in an embryonic form  During the Song it flourished but with an emphasis on society,During the Song it flourished but with an emphasis on society, rather than on military might, in spite of recurring threats fromrather than on military might, in spite of recurring threats from the neighbors of the steppesthe neighbors of the steppes  Focus on effective administration, arts, literature, culture wereFocus on effective administration, arts, literature, culture were encouragedencouraged  Artists, musicians, poets, calligraphers and writers wereArtists, musicians, poets, calligraphers and writers were patronized by the courtspatronized by the courts  Learning was the key to successLearning was the key to success
  •  Literati SchoolLiterati School  Paintings often contained poemsPaintings often contained poems  Calligraphy gained a status of art, rather than just a form ofCalligraphy gained a status of art, rather than just a form of writingwriting  Artistic and intellectual output increased vastlyArtistic and intellectual output increased vastly  Harking back to the Confucius ideals—Neo-Confucianism—Harking back to the Confucius ideals—Neo-Confucianism— that were concerned with good government, hierarchical butthat were concerned with good government, hierarchical but benevolent ordering of societybenevolent ordering of society  Buddhist/Daoist ideals of compassion and kinship with allBuddhist/Daoist ideals of compassion and kinship with all sentient beings were reflected in all aspects of life, includingsentient beings were reflected in all aspects of life, including arts and governmentarts and government
  •  The flowering of art (painting in the case of Song Dynasty) isThe flowering of art (painting in the case of Song Dynasty) is possible only when it is provided sufficient patronage by thepossible only when it is provided sufficient patronage by the rich and wealthyrich and wealthy  In the case of Song paintings, it was the imperial house thatIn the case of Song paintings, it was the imperial house that provided the impetusprovided the impetus  Patronage implies abundant wealth and leisurePatronage implies abundant wealth and leisure  It was during the Song period that an academy of painting wasIt was during the Song period that an academy of painting was createdcreated  Connoisseurship of art was developedConnoisseurship of art was developed  Landscape painting was favorite subject of many artistsLandscape painting was favorite subject of many artists  Two formatsTwo formats  Hanging scrollHanging scroll  Hand scrollHand scroll
  •  Monumental modeMonumental mode  Attention to detailsAttention to details  Creating a visual pathCreating a visual path  Capturing ch’i, rather than justCapturing ch’i, rather than just the physical form of the objectthe physical form of the object
  • "Early Spring," by Guo Xi, 1072 CE (Northern Song (Sung) Dynasty.  Hanging Scroll, ink and slight color on silk. 60" Long. National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
  • Chinese hand scroll painting
  • Early Spring by Guo Xi Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk. Northern Song Dynasty. 1072
  • Art of the Literati school: landscape painting. Summer Mountains, Northern Song dynasty, 11th century, Attributed to Qu Ding, Hand scroll; ink and pale color on silk.
  • Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys by Kuo Hsi, Northern Song Dynasty c. 1070, detail from a horizontal scroll
  •  Chinese artists of the Song period were concernedChinese artists of the Song period were concerned with aesthetic devices, not necessarily Western ideawith aesthetic devices, not necessarily Western idea of reality, including perspectiveof reality, including perspective  Some of the Chinese conventional devises include:Some of the Chinese conventional devises include:  Tilting of the foregroundTilting of the foreground  Flatting of the backgroundFlatting of the background  The Chinese artists speak about a landscape that is good toThe Chinese artists speak about a landscape that is good to walk inwalk in  They also talk about walking through the painting andThey also talk about walking through the painting and seeing this and thatseeing this and that  This leads to detailing in the landscapeThis leads to detailing in the landscape
  •  The path needs to be visually importantThe path needs to be visually important  One of the tests of authenticity for a Song painting is theOne of the tests of authenticity for a Song painting is the believability of the landscape as a place to walk inbelievability of the landscape as a place to walk in  One must not climb a rock and find nothing behind itOne must not climb a rock and find nothing behind it  Each part of the painting is a separate part, but each partEach part of the painting is a separate part, but each part fits into the whole and the whole is the sum of the partsfits into the whole and the whole is the sum of the parts with nothing left overwith nothing left over  Creating balance and harmony was importantCreating balance and harmony was important  Awe inspiring of the mountainAwe inspiring of the mountain  Solidity of the mountain expresses old age, time, wisdom,Solidity of the mountain expresses old age, time, wisdom, power, authority, indestructibility, immobility (i.e.power, authority, indestructibility, immobility (i.e. permanence)permanence)
  • Travelers among Mountains and Streams by Fan Kuan Song Dynasty, 11th century, hanging scroll