Japan: Shinto and BuddhismJapan: Shinto and Buddhism
Terms to rememberTerms to remember
1.1. JomonJomon
2.2. DoguDogu
3.3....
Sendai, Miyagi prefecture was hit by a
massive earthquake, followed by a 13 foot
tall tsunami
The Jōmon period is
the time in Japanese
prehistory from about
14,000 BC to 300 BCE.
The term jōmon means
"cord-patterned"...
Jomon ceramic tradition is perhaps the oldest in the world. Jomon era (roughly 14,000–400
BCE) produced many clay figurine...
Jar/vessel, earthenware. Yayoi period (300 BCE
to 300 CE) preceded by Jōmon period (14,000-
300 BCE) and Yayoi culture flo...
Haniwa warrior in armor
earthernware, 3rd
-6th
century CE
Haniwa=circle of clay
Yayoi period
Dotaku, bronze, 2nd
-3rd
century CE
Dōtaku are Japanese bells smelted from
relatively thin bronze and richly decorated.
Th...
Shinto: Beginnings—1000-500 BCEShinto: Beginnings—1000-500 BCE
 ShintoShinto is an ancient Japanese religion.is an ancien...
Lollipops—Yummy
 Shinto has no real founder, no writtenShinto has no real founder, no written
scriptures, no body of religious law, and o...
According to Japanese popular belief, the Ise is
the holiest shrine of Japan. It is located in Ise City
in the Mie Prefect...
The second complex is called Geku, the Outer
Shrine.
It is thought to have been built in the fifth
century for Toyouke no ...
Grannery
Grannery
Yayoi period
Ise shrine
Ise shrineIse shrine
 Building material for the shrine comes entirely from
white cypress, Hinoki.
 The main building of ...
Ise shrineIse shrine
 The sun goddessThe sun goddess Amaterasu OmikamiAmaterasu Omikami is the mythicalis the mythical
an...
 In this way the site is purified and building materialsIn this way the site is purified and building materials
renewed w...
Shimenawa
Ise Shinto shrine
Constructed from the cypress wood
Every 20 years, some 61 times,
Next rebuilding will take place in
2013.
Grand Ishe shrine
Rebuilding Ishe shrine
Ishe shrine
Torri (gateway)
Torri, gateway
Tomb of Emperor Nintoku, near Osaka, 5th
century CE
Emperor Nintoku was the 16th emperor of Japan, according to the tradit...
 The Kofun is the biggest tomb in Japan.The Kofun is the biggest tomb in Japan.
 The actual site of Nintoku's grave is n...
Imperial tombs and mausolea are cultural
properties of Japan.
But they are guarded and administered by the
Imperial Househ...
 According to the IHA, the tomb is more than aAccording to the IHA, the tomb is more than a
mere repository of historical...
Introduction of Buddhism to Japan
Buddhism came to Japan from China via
Korea.
The first official presentation of Buddhism...
From Korea it was carried over to Japan by
the Korean and/or Chinese immigrants who
served as vehicles for the introductio...
 Prince Shotoku, at the age of 19, became
regent of the Japanese empire in 593.
 One of the first acts Prince Shotoku di...
Prince Shotoku with younger brother
(left: Prince Eguri) and first son (right:
Prince Yamashiro), by unknown artist.
The p...
Shotoku
Japanese Yen
Prince Shotoku also wrote the first constitution
of Japan consisting of 17 articles, in which
political, moral, and religi...
The Three Treasures are:
1) Buddha
2) Dharma, and
3) Sangha
 Evidently, Shotoku was interested in
applying the principles...
Horyu-ji, Nara Prefecture
Asuka period, 7th
century CE
Temple Kondo
Horyu-ji complex with pagoda and kondo
Horyuji temple, Japan, 607 CE
Golden Hall and Five-storied Pagoda of Hōryū-ji are Japan's National Treasures. Hōryū-ji is a
Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, ...
Close up of the five-storied pagoda at
Horyu-ji
Todai-ji, first half of the 8th
century. Dedicated to Vairochana Buddha
Shaka Triad by Tori Busshi
Horyu-ji, Ashuka period (623),
Bronze, Nara
Asuka period: 538-710Asuka period: 538-710
Good Morning Dr. Shimkhada,

The date and time listed below is correct for you...
Bodhisattva’s sacrifice
Tamamushi shrine, lacquer on wood,
Asuka period, 7th
century
Nara Period (710-794)
 The capital of Nara was modeled after Chang'anThe capital of Nara was modeled after Chang'an
(pres...
Todai-ji
 Tōdai-jiTōdai-ji is a Buddhist temple complex locatedis a Buddhist temple complex located
in the city of Nara, ...
The temple also serves as the Japanese
headquarters of the Kegon school of Buddhism.
The temple is a listed UNESCO World H...
Shakya triad by Tori Busshi, 623, bronze, Nara, Ashuka period
Ashuka Period
Shukongojin (vajrapani) from Todai-ji, 8th
century, Nara
Ganjin from Toshodai-ji
764, Ashuka period, dry
lacquer, appx. 32 in high
Miroku, wood,
from Horyu-ji,
Ashuka period,
Nara
Yakushi Buddha from Yakushi-ji
bronze, 686-697 (Ashuka period)
Amida by Jocho, 1053, gilded, late Hein
Fudo Myo-ou
Kamakura period
early 13th
century
color, gold, and kirikane
inlaid with crystal
height 51 . 5 cm
Priest/monk Chogen, wood, Todao-ji, Kamakura
Sho Kannon by Jokei II, 1226, wood, Kamakura period
Misshaku (open mouth) pronounces "Ah," the
first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet. Naraen
pronounces "Um," the final letter...
Statue of Kongo Rikishi (Guardian),
1203 by Unkei, wood, South Gate of
Todai-ji, Kamakura period
Buddha Shakyamuni
Kamakura period
1185–1333
Amida Buddha (Daibutsu), 1253
Kamakura period
The image expresses idealized realism
That emanatessweetness, benignity, and...
Zen BuddhismZen Buddhism
 Bodhidharma is associated with several other names, and is also known byBodhidharma is associat...
Bodhidharma
Daruma dolls
Zen BuddhismZen Buddhism
 Zen was introduced to Japan in around 850Zen was introduced to Japan in around 850
 The school...
 Another famous legend involving Bodhidharma is his meetingAnother famous legend involving Bodhidharma is his meeting
wit...
Asian brush painting requires the artist to make the maximum
commitment using the minimum touch. There's no room for
mista...
Suiô Genro (Japanese, 1716-1789),
Japanese, Edo period, 18th century,
Seated Bodhidharma, Hanging scroll;
ink on paper, Mu...
Daruma
(Bodhidharma)
Painted originally
by Jiun Onko,
18th-century
Great Zen master
Hakuin (1685-1768 ) painted pictures of Daruma
(Bodhidharma) throughout his life as a teacher.
His style ...
The figures in Zen paintings are simple and Zen- like. They are
considered to be "escapist works". Simple brush strokes we...
Hakuin Ekaku
(1686-1768). Rush
leaf Daruma
(Bodhidharma)
Isshi
(1608-1649)
Daruma
Meditating
Ink on paper
Private
Collecti...
Ryoan-ji and rock and sand garden are
the quintessence of Zen art, and perhaps
the single greatest masterpiece of
Japanese...
Zen garden
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
Art 11-japanese art-spring 14
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Art 11-japanese art-spring 14

  1. 1. Japan: Shinto and BuddhismJapan: Shinto and Buddhism Terms to rememberTerms to remember 1.1. JomonJomon 2.2. DoguDogu 3.3. ShintoShinto 4.4. KamiKami 5.5. Prince ShotokuPrince Shotoku 6.6. Ashuka periodAshuka period 7.7. Hein periodHein period 8.8. Kamakura periodKamakura period 9.9. NaraNara 10.10. Todai-jiTodai-ji 11.11. Horyu-jiHoryu-ji 12.12. KondoKondo 13.13. Amida (Amitabha)Amida (Amitabha) 14.14. Kannon (Kwan Yin)Kannon (Kwan Yin) 15.15. HaniwaHaniwa 16.16. Dotaku (bell)Dotaku (bell) 1. Kongo 2. Torri 3. Ise 4. Amaterasu Omikami 5. Simenawa 6. Shakya triad 7. Three Treasures
  2. 2. Sendai, Miyagi prefecture was hit by a massive earthquake, followed by a 13 foot tall tsunami
  3. 3. The Jōmon period is the time in Japanese prehistory from about 14,000 BC to 300 BCE. The term jōmon means "cord-patterned" in Japanese. This refers to the pottery style characteristic of the Jōmon culture, which has markings made using sticks with cords wrapped around them.
  4. 4. Jomon ceramic tradition is perhaps the oldest in the world. Jomon era (roughly 14,000–400 BCE) produced many clay figurines called dogu. They were not merely decorative but thought to wield spiritual powers.
  5. 5. Jar/vessel, earthenware. Yayoi period (300 BCE to 300 CE) preceded by Jōmon period (14,000- 300 BCE) and Yayoi culture flourished in a geographic area from southern Kyūshū to northern Honshū. Haniwa horse, earthernware 3rd -6th century CE. Yayoi period
  6. 6. Haniwa warrior in armor earthernware, 3rd -6th century CE Haniwa=circle of clay Yayoi period
  7. 7. Dotaku, bronze, 2nd -3rd century CE Dōtaku are Japanese bells smelted from relatively thin bronze and richly decorated. The oldest dōtaku found date from the 2nd or 3rd century (corresponding to the end of the Yayoi era), and were used as decorations for rituals. Richly decorated with patterns representing nature and animals (among which the dragonfly, praying mantis and spider are featured), historians believe that dōtaku were used to pray for good harvests. The animals featured are indeed natural enemies of insect pests that attack paddy fields. Any Chinese influence?
  8. 8. Shinto: Beginnings—1000-500 BCEShinto: Beginnings—1000-500 BCE  ShintoShinto is an ancient Japanese religion.is an ancient Japanese religion.  It was originally "an amorphous mix of nature worship,It was originally "an amorphous mix of nature worship, fertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, andfertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, and shamanism.shamanism.  Phallic worshipPhallic worship
  9. 9. Lollipops—Yummy
  10. 10.  Shinto has no real founder, no writtenShinto has no real founder, no written scriptures, no body of religious law, and only ascriptures, no body of religious law, and only a very loosely-organized priesthood."very loosely-organized priesthood."  Its name is derived from the Chinese wordsIts name is derived from the Chinese words ""shin taoshin tao" (The Way of the Gods)." (The Way of the Gods).  All inclusiveAll inclusive  What does it include?What does it include?
  11. 11. According to Japanese popular belief, the Ise is the holiest shrine of Japan. It is located in Ise City in the Mie Prefecture on the South East coast. The shrine is composed of two similar complexes. The earliest complex, said to date from the third century, is called the Naiku, or Inner Shrine. It is dedicated to the Sun Goddess Amaterasu Omikami. .
  12. 12. The second complex is called Geku, the Outer Shrine. It is thought to have been built in the fifth century for Toyouke no Okami, the Grain Goddess. Its simple rectangular design is said to have been derived from granaries of prehistoric Japan.
  13. 13. Grannery
  14. 14. Grannery Yayoi period
  15. 15. Ise shrine
  16. 16. Ise shrineIse shrine  Building material for the shrine comes entirely from white cypress, Hinoki.  The main building of the Inner Shrine is designed in a special form of architectural style, called shimmei- zukuri.  This style is prohibited for other shrines.
  17. 17. Ise shrineIse shrine  The sun goddessThe sun goddess Amaterasu OmikamiAmaterasu Omikami is the mythicalis the mythical ancestor of the Imperial family.ancestor of the Imperial family.  She is represented by the sacred mirror, one of theShe is represented by the sacred mirror, one of the three objects (three objects (Imperial RegaliaImperial Regalia) symbolic of the divine) symbolic of the divine authority of the imperial family.authority of the imperial family.  Every twenty years the buildings at Ise are torn downEvery twenty years the buildings at Ise are torn down and new ones are built on an immediately adjacent site.and new ones are built on an immediately adjacent site.
  18. 18.  In this way the site is purified and building materialsIn this way the site is purified and building materials renewed while preserving the original design fromrenewed while preserving the original design from the third and fourth centuries.the third and fourth centuries.  The new shrines, however identical with the old ones,The new shrines, however identical with the old ones, are not considered a replica of Ise, but are "Ise re-are not considered a replica of Ise, but are "Ise re- created."created."  That is, the re-creation process reveals Shinto'sThat is, the re-creation process reveals Shinto's understanding of nature which does not makeunderstanding of nature which does not make monuments, but "lives and dies, always renewed andmonuments, but "lives and dies, always renewed and reborn."reborn."
  19. 19. Shimenawa
  20. 20. Ise Shinto shrine Constructed from the cypress wood Every 20 years, some 61 times, Next rebuilding will take place in 2013.
  21. 21. Grand Ishe shrine
  22. 22. Rebuilding Ishe shrine
  23. 23. Ishe shrine
  24. 24. Torri (gateway)
  25. 25. Torri, gateway
  26. 26. Tomb of Emperor Nintoku, near Osaka, 5th century CE Emperor Nintoku was the 16th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 313–399.
  27. 27.  The Kofun is the biggest tomb in Japan.The Kofun is the biggest tomb in Japan.  The actual site of Nintoku's grave is not known.The actual site of Nintoku's grave is not known.  The Kofun is characterized by a keyhole-shapedThe Kofun is characterized by a keyhole-shaped island located within a wide, water-filled moat.island located within a wide, water-filled moat.
  28. 28. Imperial tombs and mausolea are cultural properties of Japan. But they are guarded and administered by the Imperial Household Agency (IHA), which is the government department responsible for all matters relating to the emperor and his family.
  29. 29.  According to the IHA, the tomb is more than aAccording to the IHA, the tomb is more than a mere repository of historical artifacts; it is sacredmere repository of historical artifacts; it is sacred religious site.religious site.  It is supposed to house the spirit of the ancestorsIt is supposed to house the spirit of the ancestors of the Imperial House.of the Imperial House.  Nintoku is traditionally venerated at a memorialNintoku is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Osaka.Shinto shrine at Osaka.
  30. 30. Introduction of Buddhism to Japan Buddhism came to Japan from China via Korea. The first official presentation of Buddhism took place in 538 when a delegation of Buddhist monks, carrying Buddhist sutras and Buddha statues, was sent to the Japanese court by the Korean prince of Kudara.
  31. 31. From Korea it was carried over to Japan by the Korean and/or Chinese immigrants who served as vehicles for the introduction of various elements of Chinese civilization to Japan. Kami took human form to welcome Buddha.
  32. 32.  Prince Shotoku, at the age of 19, became regent of the Japanese empire in 593.  One of the first acts Prince Shotoku did was to proclaim Buddhism as state religion. Then he established four institutions: 1. Temple 2. Asylum 3. Hospital 4. Dispensary
  33. 33. Prince Shotoku with younger brother (left: Prince Eguri) and first son (right: Prince Yamashiro), by unknown artist. The prince never became a monk. But in modern popular belief he is revered as a Buddhist saint, and in some traditions he is considered the reincarnation of Kannon. He also is closely associated with Daruma, the founder of Zen Buddhism.
  34. 34. Shotoku
  35. 35. Japanese Yen
  36. 36. Prince Shotoku also wrote the first constitution of Japan consisting of 17 articles, in which political, moral, and religious ideals were closely interwoven. In the second article, Prince Shotoku wrote, “Sincerely revere the Three Treasures.”
  37. 37. The Three Treasures are: 1) Buddha 2) Dharma, and 3) Sangha  Evidently, Shotoku was interested in applying the principles of Buddhism to all phases of national and private lives.
  38. 38. Horyu-ji, Nara Prefecture Asuka period, 7th century CE Temple Kondo
  39. 39. Horyu-ji complex with pagoda and kondo
  40. 40. Horyuji temple, Japan, 607 CE
  41. 41. Golden Hall and Five-storied Pagoda of Hōryū-ji are Japan's National Treasures. Hōryū-ji is a Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, Nara prefecture.
  42. 42. Close up of the five-storied pagoda at Horyu-ji
  43. 43. Todai-ji, first half of the 8th century. Dedicated to Vairochana Buddha
  44. 44. Shaka Triad by Tori Busshi Horyu-ji, Ashuka period (623), Bronze, Nara
  45. 45. Asuka period: 538-710Asuka period: 538-710 Good Morning Dr. Shimkhada,  The date and time listed below is correct for your final examination. The information can also be found published in our Schedule of Classes here: http ://www.chaffey.edu/schedule/sched_13-14sp_final.pdf in column 2, row 3 of the grid. If the student is experiencing a conflict, it is likely the conflicting class is conducting a final exam outside of their appropriate time/day slot set by the Office of Instruction, or that a misunderstanding has occurred by the student. If you have any other questions or concerns, don’t hesitate to contact me.  Jim Chandler Visual and Performing Arts Chaffey College 5885 Haven Ave Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91737 909-652-6058 Voice | 909-652-6060 Fax
  46. 46. Bodhisattva’s sacrifice Tamamushi shrine, lacquer on wood, Asuka period, 7th century
  47. 47. Nara Period (710-794)  The capital of Nara was modeled after Chang'anThe capital of Nara was modeled after Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), the capital city of Tang(present-day Xi'an), the capital city of Tang China.China.  In many other ways, the Japanese upper classesIn many other ways, the Japanese upper classes patterned themselves after the Chinese,patterned themselves after the Chinese, including adopting Chinese written charactersincluding adopting Chinese written characters (Japanese:(Japanese: kanjikanji), fashion, and the religion of), fashion, and the religion of Buddhism.Buddhism.
  48. 48. Todai-ji  Tōdai-jiTōdai-ji is a Buddhist temple complex locatedis a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan.in the city of Nara, Japan.  Its Great Buddha HallIts Great Buddha Hall DaibutsudenDaibutsuden, the largest, the largest wooden building in the world, houses thewooden building in the world, houses the world's largest bronze statue of the Buddhaworld's largest bronze statue of the Buddha Vairocana, known in Japanese simply asVairocana, known in Japanese simply as DaibutsuDaibutsu..
  49. 49. The temple also serves as the Japanese headquarters of the Kegon school of Buddhism. The temple is a listed UNESCO World Heritage Site as "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara", together with seven other sites including temples, shrines and palaces in the city of Nara. Sika deer, regarded as messengers of the gods in the Shinto religion, roam the grounds freely.
  50. 50. Shakya triad by Tori Busshi, 623, bronze, Nara, Ashuka period
  51. 51. Ashuka Period
  52. 52. Shukongojin (vajrapani) from Todai-ji, 8th century, Nara
  53. 53. Ganjin from Toshodai-ji 764, Ashuka period, dry lacquer, appx. 32 in high
  54. 54. Miroku, wood, from Horyu-ji, Ashuka period, Nara
  55. 55. Yakushi Buddha from Yakushi-ji bronze, 686-697 (Ashuka period)
  56. 56. Amida by Jocho, 1053, gilded, late Hein
  57. 57. Fudo Myo-ou Kamakura period early 13th century color, gold, and kirikane inlaid with crystal height 51 . 5 cm
  58. 58. Priest/monk Chogen, wood, Todao-ji, Kamakura
  59. 59. Sho Kannon by Jokei II, 1226, wood, Kamakura period
  60. 60. Misshaku (open mouth) pronounces "Ah," the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet. Naraen pronounces "Um," the final letter. The two combine to express the mantra of existence ("Om.")
  61. 61. Statue of Kongo Rikishi (Guardian), 1203 by Unkei, wood, South Gate of Todai-ji, Kamakura period
  62. 62. Buddha Shakyamuni Kamakura period 1185–1333
  63. 63. Amida Buddha (Daibutsu), 1253 Kamakura period The image expresses idealized realism That emanatessweetness, benignity, and Grace rather than strength.
  64. 64. Zen BuddhismZen Buddhism  Bodhidharma is associated with several other names, and is also known byBodhidharma is associated with several other names, and is also known by the namethe name BodhitaraBodhitara..  He was given the name Bodhidharma by his teacher known variously asHe was given the name Bodhidharma by his teacher known variously as Panyatara. He is said to have been the son of a southern Indian king, thoughPanyatara. He is said to have been the son of a southern Indian king, though there is some controversy regarding his origins.there is some controversy regarding his origins.  Bodhidharma arrived in China and visitedBodhidharma arrived in China and visited CantonCanton andand LuoyangLuoyang. In. In Luoyang, he is reputed to have engaged in nine years of silent meditation,Luoyang, he is reputed to have engaged in nine years of silent meditation, coming to be known as "the wall-gazing Brahman".This epithet is referringcoming to be known as "the wall-gazing Brahman".This epithet is referring to him as an Indian holy man.to him as an Indian holy man.  Bodhidharma settled in theBodhidharma settled in the kingdom of Weikingdom of Wei where he took his disciples.where he took his disciples. Shortly before his death, Bodhidharma appointed Huike to succeed him,Shortly before his death, Bodhidharma appointed Huike to succeed him, making Huike the first Chinese born patriarch and the second patriarch ofmaking Huike the first Chinese born patriarch and the second patriarch of Chán in China. Bodhidharma is said to have passed three items to Huike as aChán in China. Bodhidharma is said to have passed three items to Huike as a sign of transmission of the Dharma: a robe, a bowl, and a copy of thesign of transmission of the Dharma: a robe, a bowl, and a copy of the La kāvatāra SūtraṅLa kāvatāra Sūtraṅ ..
  65. 65. Bodhidharma Daruma dolls
  66. 66. Zen BuddhismZen Buddhism  Zen was introduced to Japan in around 850Zen was introduced to Japan in around 850  The schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the SōtōThe schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the Sōtō, Rinzai, and Ōbaku., Rinzai, and Ōbaku. Of these, Sōtō is the largest and Ōbaku the smallest.Of these, Sōtō is the largest and Ōbaku the smallest.  Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation,Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation, including.including.  Zen was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when MyōanZen was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myōan Eisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is knownEisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is known in Japan as Rinzai.in Japan as Rinzai.  Decades later, (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China beforeDecades later, (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215,founding the Japanese lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215, Dōgen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where heDōgen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return,became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return, Dōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The ŌbakuDōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The Ōbaku lineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen hadlineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen had been a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which hadbeen a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which had developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus,developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus, when Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to thewhen Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to the Manchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The Ōbaku school wasManchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The Ōbaku school was named for Mount Ōbaku;named for Mount Ōbaku; Huángbò ShānHuángbò Shān), which had been Ingen's home in), which had been Ingen's home in China.China.
  67. 67.  Another famous legend involving Bodhidharma is his meetingAnother famous legend involving Bodhidharma is his meeting with Emperor Wu of Liang.with Emperor Wu of Liang.  Emperor Wu took an interest in Buddhism and spent a great dealEmperor Wu took an interest in Buddhism and spent a great deal of public wealth on funding Buddhist monasteries in China. Whenof public wealth on funding Buddhist monasteries in China. When he had heard that a great Buddhist teacher, Bodhidharma, hadhe had heard that a great Buddhist teacher, Bodhidharma, had come to China, he sought an audience with him. When they met,come to China, he sought an audience with him. When they met, Emperor Wu asked how much karmic merit he had gained fromEmperor Wu asked how much karmic merit he had gained from his noble support of Buddhism.his noble support of Buddhism.  Bodhidharma replied "None at all." The Emperor asked "ThenBodhidharma replied "None at all." The Emperor asked "Then what is the truth of the teachings?" Bodhidharma replied, "Vastwhat is the truth of the teachings?" Bodhidharma replied, "Vast emptiness, nothing holy." So the emperor asked "Then who areemptiness, nothing holy." So the emperor asked "Then who are you standing in front of me?" Bodhidharma replied "I amyou standing in front of me?" Bodhidharma replied "I am nothing," and walked out.nothing," and walked out.  Another legend involving Bodhidharma is that he visited theAnother legend involving Bodhidharma is that he visited the Shaolin Temple in the kingdom of Wei, at some point, and taughtShaolin Temple in the kingdom of Wei, at some point, and taught them a series of exercises which became the basis for the Shaolinthem a series of exercises which became the basis for the Shaolin martial arts.martial arts.
  68. 68. Asian brush painting requires the artist to make the maximum commitment using the minimum touch. There's no room for mistakes; the hard labor of eliminating extraneous details and exploring alternative approaches is worked out in the mind of the artist rather than on the paper. Six Persimmons by Mu Ch‘i, a Chinese monk artist of the 13th century better known in China as Fa-Chang. It was painted during the Song dynasty. Mu Qi was one of the two great exponents of the of chinese painting (the other being Liang Kai). It features six persimmons floating on an undefined, but skillfully mottled background. It is painted in blue-black ink on paper.
  69. 69. Suiô Genro (Japanese, 1716-1789), Japanese, Edo period, 18th century, Seated Bodhidharma, Hanging scroll; ink on paper, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Gitter-Yelen Collection, Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  70. 70. Daruma (Bodhidharma) Painted originally by Jiun Onko, 18th-century
  71. 71. Great Zen master Hakuin (1685-1768 ) painted pictures of Daruma (Bodhidharma) throughout his life as a teacher. His style developed over these years becoming more individual in expression and bolder in setting up the 28th Patriarch as a foil for our efforts at attaining enlightenment. Daruma appears in Hakuin’s paintings as formal, stern, piercing, and simply a brushstroke. Each in turn gives us a taste of our practice and challenges us to push the edge. “I have painted several thousand Darumas, yet have never depicted his face. This is only natural, for the moment I spread the paper to draw it, the original form disappears. All of you, what is this Daruma that cannot be drawn?”
  72. 72. The figures in Zen paintings are simple and Zen- like. They are considered to be "escapist works". Simple brush strokes were used instead of the ordinary delicate and subtle ones.
  73. 73. Hakuin Ekaku (1686-1768). Rush leaf Daruma (Bodhidharma) Isshi (1608-1649) Daruma Meditating Ink on paper Private Collection Nobutada (1565-1614), Meditating Daruma Ink on paper Private collection
  74. 74. Ryoan-ji and rock and sand garden are the quintessence of Zen art, and perhaps the single greatest masterpiece of Japanese culture.
  75. 75. Zen garden

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