Art 11-japanese art-spring 14Presentation Transcript
Japan: Shinto and BuddhismJapan: Shinto and Buddhism
Terms to rememberTerms to remember
5.5. Prince ShotokuPrince Shotoku
6.6. Ashuka periodAshuka period
7.7. Hein periodHein period
8.8. Kamakura periodKamakura period
13.13. Amida (Amitabha)Amida (Amitabha)
14.14. Kannon (Kwan Yin)Kannon (Kwan Yin)
16.16. Dotaku (bell)Dotaku (bell)
4. Amaterasu Omikami
6. Shakya triad
7. Three Treasures
Sendai, Miyagi prefecture was hit by a
massive earthquake, followed by a 13 foot
The Jōmon period is
the time in Japanese
prehistory from about
14,000 BC to 300 BCE.
The term jōmon means
This refers to the pottery
style characteristic of
the Jōmon culture,
which has markings
made using sticks with
cords wrapped around
Jomon ceramic tradition is perhaps the oldest in the world. Jomon era (roughly 14,000–400
BCE) produced many clay figurines called dogu. They were not merely decorative but
thought to wield spiritual powers.
Jar/vessel, earthenware. Yayoi period (300 BCE
to 300 CE) preceded by Jōmon period (14,000-
300 BCE) and Yayoi culture flourished in a
geographic area from southern Kyūshū to
Haniwa horse, earthernware
century CE. Yayoi period
Haniwa warrior in armor
Haniwa=circle of clay
Dotaku, bronze, 2nd
Dōtaku are Japanese bells smelted from
relatively thin bronze and richly decorated.
The oldest dōtaku found date from the 2nd or
3rd century (corresponding to the end of the
Yayoi era), and were used as decorations for
Richly decorated with patterns representing
nature and animals (among which the
dragonfly, praying mantis and spider are
featured), historians believe that dōtaku were
used to pray for good harvests.
The animals featured are indeed natural
enemies of insect pests that attack paddy
Any Chinese influence?
Shinto: Beginnings—1000-500 BCEShinto: Beginnings—1000-500 BCE
ShintoShinto is an ancient Japanese religion.is an ancient Japanese religion.
It was originally "an amorphous mix of nature worship,It was originally "an amorphous mix of nature worship,
fertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, andfertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, and
Phallic worshipPhallic worship
Shinto has no real founder, no writtenShinto has no real founder, no written
scriptures, no body of religious law, and only ascriptures, no body of religious law, and only a
very loosely-organized priesthood."very loosely-organized priesthood."
Its name is derived from the Chinese wordsIts name is derived from the Chinese words
""shin taoshin tao" (The Way of the Gods)." (The Way of the Gods).
All inclusiveAll inclusive
What does it include?What does it include?
According to Japanese popular belief, the Ise is
the holiest shrine of Japan. It is located in Ise City
in the Mie Prefecture on the South East coast.
The shrine is composed of two similar
The earliest complex, said to date from the third
century, is called the Naiku, or Inner Shrine.
It is dedicated to the Sun Goddess Amaterasu
The second complex is called Geku, the Outer
It is thought to have been built in the fifth
century for Toyouke no Okami, the Grain
Its simple rectangular design is said to have been
derived from granaries of prehistoric Japan.
Ise shrineIse shrine
Building material for the shrine comes entirely from
white cypress, Hinoki.
The main building of the Inner Shrine is designed in a
special form of architectural style, called shimmei-
This style is prohibited for other shrines.
Ise shrineIse shrine
The sun goddessThe sun goddess Amaterasu OmikamiAmaterasu Omikami is the mythicalis the mythical
ancestor of the Imperial family.ancestor of the Imperial family.
She is represented by the sacred mirror, one of theShe is represented by the sacred mirror, one of the
three objects (three objects (Imperial RegaliaImperial Regalia) symbolic of the divine) symbolic of the divine
authority of the imperial family.authority of the imperial family.
Every twenty years the buildings at Ise are torn downEvery twenty years the buildings at Ise are torn down
and new ones are built on an immediately adjacent site.and new ones are built on an immediately adjacent site.
In this way the site is purified and building materialsIn this way the site is purified and building materials
renewed while preserving the original design fromrenewed while preserving the original design from
the third and fourth centuries.the third and fourth centuries.
The new shrines, however identical with the old ones,The new shrines, however identical with the old ones,
are not considered a replica of Ise, but are "Ise re-are not considered a replica of Ise, but are "Ise re-
That is, the re-creation process reveals Shinto'sThat is, the re-creation process reveals Shinto's
understanding of nature which does not makeunderstanding of nature which does not make
monuments, but "lives and dies, always renewed andmonuments, but "lives and dies, always renewed and
Ise Shinto shrine
Constructed from the cypress wood
Every 20 years, some 61 times,
Next rebuilding will take place in
Grand Ishe shrine
Rebuilding Ishe shrine
Tomb of Emperor Nintoku, near Osaka, 5th
Emperor Nintoku was the 16th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional
order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this emperor's life or reign,
but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 313–399.
The Kofun is the biggest tomb in Japan.The Kofun is the biggest tomb in Japan.
The actual site of Nintoku's grave is not known.The actual site of Nintoku's grave is not known.
The Kofun is characterized by a keyhole-shapedThe Kofun is characterized by a keyhole-shaped
island located within a wide, water-filled moat.island located within a wide, water-filled moat.
Imperial tombs and mausolea are cultural
properties of Japan.
But they are guarded and administered by the
Imperial Household Agency (IHA), which is
the government department responsible for all
matters relating to the emperor and his family.
According to the IHA, the tomb is more than aAccording to the IHA, the tomb is more than a
mere repository of historical artifacts; it is sacredmere repository of historical artifacts; it is sacred
religious site.religious site.
It is supposed to house the spirit of the ancestorsIt is supposed to house the spirit of the ancestors
of the Imperial House.of the Imperial House.
Nintoku is traditionally venerated at a memorialNintoku is traditionally venerated at a memorial
Shinto shrine at Osaka.Shinto shrine at Osaka.
Introduction of Buddhism to Japan
Buddhism came to Japan from China via
The first official presentation of Buddhism
took place in 538 when a delegation of
Buddhist monks, carrying Buddhist sutras and
Buddha statues, was sent to the Japanese court
by the Korean prince of Kudara.
From Korea it was carried over to Japan by
the Korean and/or Chinese immigrants who
served as vehicles for the introduction of
various elements of Chinese civilization to
Kami took human form to welcome Buddha.
Prince Shotoku, at the age of 19, became
regent of the Japanese empire in 593.
One of the first acts Prince Shotoku did was
to proclaim Buddhism as state religion.
Then he established four institutions:
Prince Shotoku with younger brother
(left: Prince Eguri) and first son (right:
Prince Yamashiro), by unknown artist.
The prince never became a monk.
But in modern popular belief he is
revered as a Buddhist saint, and in
some traditions he is considered the
reincarnation of Kannon.
He also is closely associated with
Daruma, the founder of Zen
Prince Shotoku also wrote the first constitution
of Japan consisting of 17 articles, in which
political, moral, and religious ideals were
In the second article, Prince Shotoku wrote,
“Sincerely revere the Three Treasures.”
The Three Treasures are:
2) Dharma, and
Evidently, Shotoku was interested in
applying the principles of Buddhism to all
phases of national and private lives.
Horyu-ji, Nara Prefecture
Asuka period, 7th
Horyu-ji complex with pagoda and kondo
Horyuji temple, Japan, 607 CE
Golden Hall and Five-storied Pagoda of Hōryū-ji are Japan's National Treasures. Hōryū-ji is a
Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, Nara prefecture.
Close up of the five-storied pagoda at
Todai-ji, first half of the 8th
century. Dedicated to Vairochana Buddha
Shaka Triad by Tori Busshi
Horyu-ji, Ashuka period (623),
Asuka period: 538-710Asuka period: 538-710
Good Morning Dr. Shimkhada,
The date and time listed below is correct for your final examination. The information
can also be found published in our Schedule of Classes here: http
://www.chaffey.edu/schedule/sched_13-14sp_final.pdf in column 2, row 3 of the grid.
If the student is experiencing a conflict, it is likely the conflicting class is conducting a
final exam outside of their appropriate time/day slot set by the Office of Instruction, or
that a misunderstanding has occurred by the student. If you have any other questions or
concerns, don’t hesitate to contact me.
Visual and Performing Arts
5885 Haven Ave
Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91737
909-652-6058 Voice | 909-652-6060 Fax
Tamamushi shrine, lacquer on wood,
Asuka period, 7th
Nara Period (710-794)
The capital of Nara was modeled after Chang'anThe capital of Nara was modeled after Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an), the capital city of Tang(present-day Xi'an), the capital city of Tang
In many other ways, the Japanese upper classesIn many other ways, the Japanese upper classes
patterned themselves after the Chinese,patterned themselves after the Chinese,
including adopting Chinese written charactersincluding adopting Chinese written characters
(Japanese:(Japanese: kanjikanji), fashion, and the religion of), fashion, and the religion of
Tōdai-jiTōdai-ji is a Buddhist temple complex locatedis a Buddhist temple complex located
in the city of Nara, Japan.in the city of Nara, Japan.
Its Great Buddha HallIts Great Buddha Hall DaibutsudenDaibutsuden, the largest, the largest
wooden building in the world, houses thewooden building in the world, houses the
world's largest bronze statue of the Buddhaworld's largest bronze statue of the Buddha
Vairocana, known in Japanese simply asVairocana, known in Japanese simply as
The temple also serves as the Japanese
headquarters of the Kegon school of Buddhism.
The temple is a listed UNESCO World Heritage
Site as "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara",
together with seven other sites including
temples, shrines and palaces in the city of Nara.
Sika deer, regarded as messengers of the gods in
the Shinto religion, roam the grounds freely.
Shakya triad by Tori Busshi, 623, bronze, Nara, Ashuka period
Shukongojin (vajrapani) from Todai-ji, 8th
Ganjin from Toshodai-ji
764, Ashuka period, dry
lacquer, appx. 32 in high
Yakushi Buddha from Yakushi-ji
bronze, 686-697 (Ashuka period)
Amida by Jocho, 1053, gilded, late Hein
color, gold, and kirikane
inlaid with crystal
height 51 . 5 cm
Priest/monk Chogen, wood, Todao-ji, Kamakura
Sho Kannon by Jokei II, 1226, wood, Kamakura period
Misshaku (open mouth) pronounces "Ah," the
first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet. Naraen
pronounces "Um," the final letter. The two
combine to express the mantra of existence
Statue of Kongo Rikishi (Guardian),
1203 by Unkei, wood, South Gate of
Todai-ji, Kamakura period
Amida Buddha (Daibutsu), 1253
The image expresses idealized realism
That emanatessweetness, benignity, and
Grace rather than strength.
Zen BuddhismZen Buddhism
Bodhidharma is associated with several other names, and is also known byBodhidharma is associated with several other names, and is also known by
the namethe name BodhitaraBodhitara..
He was given the name Bodhidharma by his teacher known variously asHe was given the name Bodhidharma by his teacher known variously as
Panyatara. He is said to have been the son of a southern Indian king, thoughPanyatara. He is said to have been the son of a southern Indian king, though
there is some controversy regarding his origins.there is some controversy regarding his origins.
Bodhidharma arrived in China and visitedBodhidharma arrived in China and visited CantonCanton andand LuoyangLuoyang. In. In
Luoyang, he is reputed to have engaged in nine years of silent meditation,Luoyang, he is reputed to have engaged in nine years of silent meditation,
coming to be known as "the wall-gazing Brahman".This epithet is referringcoming to be known as "the wall-gazing Brahman".This epithet is referring
to him as an Indian holy man.to him as an Indian holy man.
Bodhidharma settled in theBodhidharma settled in the kingdom of Weikingdom of Wei where he took his disciples.where he took his disciples.
Shortly before his death, Bodhidharma appointed Huike to succeed him,Shortly before his death, Bodhidharma appointed Huike to succeed him,
making Huike the first Chinese born patriarch and the second patriarch ofmaking Huike the first Chinese born patriarch and the second patriarch of
Chán in China. Bodhidharma is said to have passed three items to Huike as aChán in China. Bodhidharma is said to have passed three items to Huike as a
sign of transmission of the Dharma: a robe, a bowl, and a copy of thesign of transmission of the Dharma: a robe, a bowl, and a copy of the
La kāvatāra SūtraṅLa kāvatāra Sūtraṅ ..
Zen BuddhismZen Buddhism
Zen was introduced to Japan in around 850Zen was introduced to Japan in around 850
The schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the SōtōThe schools of Zen that currently exist in Japan are the Sōtō, Rinzai, and Ōbaku., Rinzai, and Ōbaku.
Of these, Sōtō is the largest and Ōbaku the smallest.Of these, Sōtō is the largest and Ōbaku the smallest.
Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation,Rinzai is itself divided into several subschools based on temple affiliation,
Zen was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when MyōanZen was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myōan
Eisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is knownEisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which is known
in Japan as Rinzai.in Japan as Rinzai.
Decades later, (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China beforeDecades later, (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China before
founding the Japanese lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215,founding the Japanese lineage, the most influential branch of Rinzai. In 1215,
Dōgen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where heDōgen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where he
became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return,became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return,
Dōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The ŌbakuDōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The Ōbaku
lineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen hadlineage was introduced in the 17th century by Ingen, a Chinese monk. Ingen had
been a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which hadbeen a member of the Linji school, the Chinese equivalent of Rinzai, which had
developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus,developed separately from the Japanese branch for hundreds of years. Thus,
when Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to thewhen Ingen journeyed to Japan following the fall of the Ming Dynasty to the
Manchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The Ōbaku school wasManchus, his teachings were seen as a separate school. The Ōbaku school was
named for Mount Ōbaku;named for Mount Ōbaku; Huángbò ShānHuángbò Shān), which had been Ingen's home in), which had been Ingen's home in
Another famous legend involving Bodhidharma is his meetingAnother famous legend involving Bodhidharma is his meeting
with Emperor Wu of Liang.with Emperor Wu of Liang.
Emperor Wu took an interest in Buddhism and spent a great dealEmperor Wu took an interest in Buddhism and spent a great deal
of public wealth on funding Buddhist monasteries in China. Whenof public wealth on funding Buddhist monasteries in China. When
he had heard that a great Buddhist teacher, Bodhidharma, hadhe had heard that a great Buddhist teacher, Bodhidharma, had
come to China, he sought an audience with him. When they met,come to China, he sought an audience with him. When they met,
Emperor Wu asked how much karmic merit he had gained fromEmperor Wu asked how much karmic merit he had gained from
his noble support of Buddhism.his noble support of Buddhism.
Bodhidharma replied "None at all." The Emperor asked "ThenBodhidharma replied "None at all." The Emperor asked "Then
what is the truth of the teachings?" Bodhidharma replied, "Vastwhat is the truth of the teachings?" Bodhidharma replied, "Vast
emptiness, nothing holy." So the emperor asked "Then who areemptiness, nothing holy." So the emperor asked "Then who are
you standing in front of me?" Bodhidharma replied "I amyou standing in front of me?" Bodhidharma replied "I am
nothing," and walked out.nothing," and walked out.
Another legend involving Bodhidharma is that he visited theAnother legend involving Bodhidharma is that he visited the
Shaolin Temple in the kingdom of Wei, at some point, and taughtShaolin Temple in the kingdom of Wei, at some point, and taught
them a series of exercises which became the basis for the Shaolinthem a series of exercises which became the basis for the Shaolin
martial arts.martial arts.
Asian brush painting requires the artist to make the maximum
commitment using the minimum touch. There's no room for
mistakes; the hard labor of eliminating extraneous details and
exploring alternative approaches is worked out in the mind of
the artist rather than on the paper.
Six Persimmons by Mu Ch‘i, a Chinese
monk artist of the 13th
century better known
in China as Fa-Chang. It was painted
during the Song dynasty. Mu Qi was one of
the two great exponents of the of chinese
painting (the other being Liang Kai). It
features six persimmons floating on an
undefined, but skillfully mottled background.
It is painted in blue-black ink on paper.
Suiô Genro (Japanese, 1716-1789),
Japanese, Edo period, 18th century,
Seated Bodhidharma, Hanging scroll;
ink on paper, Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston, Gitter-Yelen Collection,
Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts,
by Jiun Onko,
Great Zen master
Hakuin (1685-1768 ) painted pictures of Daruma
(Bodhidharma) throughout his life as a teacher.
His style developed over these years becoming
more individual in expression and bolder in setting
up the 28th Patriarch as a foil for our efforts at
Daruma appears in Hakuin’s paintings as formal,
stern, piercing, and simply a brushstroke.
Each in turn gives us a taste of our practice and
challenges us to push the edge.
“I have painted several thousand Darumas, yet
have never depicted his face. This is only
natural, for the moment I spread the paper to
draw it, the original form disappears. All of you,
what is this Daruma that cannot be drawn?”
The figures in Zen paintings are simple and Zen- like. They are
considered to be "escapist works". Simple brush strokes were used
instead of the ordinary delicate and subtle ones.
Ink on paper
Nobutada (1565-1614), Meditating Daruma
Ink on paper
Ryoan-ji and rock and sand garden are
the quintessence of Zen art, and perhaps
the single greatest masterpiece of