SENG691I - Knowledge Representation and The Semantic Web

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My presentation for the class "AI and Software Engineering" I am taking.

My presentation for the class "AI and Software Engineering" I am taking.

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  • 1. Knowledge Representation and the Semantic Web by Daniel D. Shaw
  • 2. Knowledge Defined
    • Expertise and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.
    • What is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information.
    • Awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation.
    Source: Oxford English Dictionary (by way of Wikipedia)
  • 3. Knowledge Representation
    • 5 Roles of Knowledge Representation
    • A surrogate, a substitute for the knowledge itself, used to determine consequences.
    • A set of ontological commitments. The definition of the domain a thing is associated with.
    • One of the aspects of the theory of intelligent reasoning. (Concepts very relevant to AI, but less relevant to what we’re looking at).
    Source: Davis, Shrobe and Szolovits, 1993
  • 4. Knowledge Representation
    • 5 Roles of Knowledge Representation
    • A medium for pragmatically efficient computation. Knowledge management facilitators or expert systems rule.
    • A medium of human expression, such as language.
    Source: Davis, Shrobe and Szolovits, 1993
  • 5. How do we represent knowledge? <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#“ xmlns:foaf=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot; xmlns:rdfs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&quot;> <foaf:Person rdf:about=&quot;#JW&quot;> <foaf:name>Jimmy Wales</foaf:name> <foaf:mbox rdf:resource=&quot;mailto:jwales@bomis.com&quot; /> <foaf:homepage rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.jimmywales.com/&quot; /> <foaf:nick>Jimbo</foaf:nick> <foaf:depiction rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.jimmywales.com/ausimgsmall.jpg&quot;/> <foaf:interest> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.wikimedia.org“ rdfs:label=&quot;Wikipedia&quot; /> </foaf:interest> <foaf:knows> <foaf:Person> <foaf:name>Angela Beesley</foaf:name> </foaf:Person> </foaf:knows> </foaf:Person> </rdf:RDF> Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOAF_(software)
  • 6. Father of the [Semantic] Web
    • Tim Berners-Lee
    • Actually it’s… Sir Timothy Berners-Lee OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA
    • Invented the World Wide Web in 1989.
    • Director of the W3C.
    • Early documents in 1998. Published “The Semantic Web” in Scientific American in 2001.
    • Started formally working on the Semantic Web project at the end of 2004.
    Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
  • 7. Semantic Web
    • Remember:
    • Semantic = “meaning”
  • 8. Semantic Web
    • “ The Semantic Web is a web of data. There is lots of data we all use every day, and its not part of the web. I can see my bank statements on the web, and my photographs, and I can see my appointments in a calendar. But can I see my photos in a calendar to see what I was doing when I took them? Can I see bank statement lines in a calendar? ”
    • - W3C Semantic Web Activity
  • 9. Semantic Web “LayerCake” Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
  • 10. Semantic Web “LayerCake”
    • URI/IRI – links.
    • XML – interchangeable, structured data.
    • Resource Description Framework (RDF)
    • RDF Schema (RDFS)
    • Rule Interchange Format (RIF)
    Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
  • 11. Semantic Web “LayerCake”
    • SPARQL
    • Web Ontology Language (OWL)
    • “ Trust” – the top layer and the key to realizing the full potential of the Semantic Web.
    Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
  • 12. Semantic Web in Practice
    • Network aware devices
    • Interact with other locally aware devices.
    • Example: Phone that notifies local devices with a volume control that there is an incoming call.
  • 13. Semantic Web in Practice
    • Intelligent Agents
    • Conduct trusted actions on behalf of the owner with trusted resources.
    • Example: Intelligent agent book trip for WWW2008.
  • 14. Take-aways for Software Engineers
    • Knowledge Representation
    • Knowledge and the representation of knowledge is multi-faceted and does not necessarily need to be dealt with as a whole.
    • Ontologies are important, but imperfect.
    • Which is more important for you: meaning for computers or meaning for humans?
  • 15. Take-aways for Software Engineers
    • The Semantic Web
    • After 7+ years, it’s still “emerging”.
    • In its purest sense, it may never become a reality.
    • Trust of computer systems, especially the one’s we didn’t create could be a major hurdle.
  • 16. Take-aways for Software Engineers
    • The Semantic Web
    • The core concepts of The Semantic Web can be applied creatively.
    • We can sample and mash-up these concepts.
    • Web 2.0 business have created business value by applying these concepts in simple ways.
  • 17. Knowledge Representation and the Semantic Web by Daniel D. Shaw Thank you!