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Knowledge Representation and the Semantic Web by Daniel D. Shaw
Knowledge Defined <ul><li>Expertise and skills acquired  through experience or  education; the theoretical or  practical u...
Knowledge Representation <ul><li>5 Roles of Knowledge Representation </li></ul><ul><li>A surrogate, a substitute for the k...
Knowledge Representation <ul><li>5 Roles of Knowledge Representation </li></ul><ul><li>A medium for pragmatically efficien...
How do we represent knowledge? <rdf:RDF    xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#“   xmlns:foaf=&quot...
Father of the [Semantic] Web <ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Actually it’s… Sir Timothy Berners-Lee OM,  KBE, FR...
Semantic Web <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic = “meaning” </li></ul>
Semantic Web <ul><li>“ The Semantic Web is a web of data.  There is lots of data we all use every day, and its not part of...
Semantic Web “LayerCake” Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
Semantic Web “LayerCake” <ul><li>URI/IRI – links. </li></ul><ul><li>XML – interchangeable, structured data. </li></ul><ul>...
Semantic Web “LayerCake” <ul><li>SPARQL </li></ul><ul><li>Web Ontology Language (OWL)  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trust” – the to...
Semantic Web in Practice <ul><li>Network aware devices </li></ul><ul><li>Interact with other locally aware devices. </li><...
Semantic Web in Practice <ul><li>Intelligent Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct trusted actions on behalf of the owner with ...
Take-aways for  Software Engineers <ul><li>Knowledge Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and the representation  of...
Take-aways for  Software Engineers <ul><li>The Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>After 7+ years, it’s still “emerging”. </li>...
Take-aways for  Software Engineers <ul><li>The Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>The core concepts of The Semantic Web can be...
Knowledge Representation and the Semantic Web by Daniel D. Shaw Thank you!
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SENG691I - Knowledge Representation and The Semantic Web

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My presentation for the class "AI and Software Engineering" I am taking.

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  • Transcript of "SENG691I - Knowledge Representation and The Semantic Web"

    1. 1. Knowledge Representation and the Semantic Web by Daniel D. Shaw
    2. 2. Knowledge Defined <ul><li>Expertise and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>What is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. </li></ul>Source: Oxford English Dictionary (by way of Wikipedia)
    3. 3. Knowledge Representation <ul><li>5 Roles of Knowledge Representation </li></ul><ul><li>A surrogate, a substitute for the knowledge itself, used to determine consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>A set of ontological commitments. The definition of the domain a thing is associated with. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the aspects of the theory of intelligent reasoning. (Concepts very relevant to AI, but less relevant to what we’re looking at). </li></ul>Source: Davis, Shrobe and Szolovits, 1993
    4. 4. Knowledge Representation <ul><li>5 Roles of Knowledge Representation </li></ul><ul><li>A medium for pragmatically efficient computation. Knowledge management facilitators or expert systems rule. </li></ul><ul><li>A medium of human expression, such as language. </li></ul>Source: Davis, Shrobe and Szolovits, 1993
    5. 5. How do we represent knowledge? <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#“ xmlns:foaf=&quot;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/&quot; xmlns:rdfs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&quot;> <foaf:Person rdf:about=&quot;#JW&quot;> <foaf:name>Jimmy Wales</foaf:name> <foaf:mbox rdf:resource=&quot;mailto:jwales@bomis.com&quot; /> <foaf:homepage rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.jimmywales.com/&quot; /> <foaf:nick>Jimbo</foaf:nick> <foaf:depiction rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.jimmywales.com/ausimgsmall.jpg&quot;/> <foaf:interest> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.wikimedia.org“ rdfs:label=&quot;Wikipedia&quot; /> </foaf:interest> <foaf:knows> <foaf:Person> <foaf:name>Angela Beesley</foaf:name> </foaf:Person> </foaf:knows> </foaf:Person> </rdf:RDF> Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOAF_(software)
    6. 6. Father of the [Semantic] Web <ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Actually it’s… Sir Timothy Berners-Lee OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the World Wide Web in 1989. </li></ul><ul><li>Director of the W3C. </li></ul><ul><li>Early documents in 1998. Published “The Semantic Web” in Scientific American in 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Started formally working on the Semantic Web project at the end of 2004. </li></ul>Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
    7. 7. Semantic Web <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic = “meaning” </li></ul>
    8. 8. Semantic Web <ul><li>“ The Semantic Web is a web of data. There is lots of data we all use every day, and its not part of the web. I can see my bank statements on the web, and my photographs, and I can see my appointments in a calendar. But can I see my photos in a calendar to see what I was doing when I took them? Can I see bank statement lines in a calendar? ” </li></ul><ul><li> - W3C Semantic Web Activity </li></ul>
    9. 9. Semantic Web “LayerCake” Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
    10. 10. Semantic Web “LayerCake” <ul><li>URI/IRI – links. </li></ul><ul><li>XML – interchangeable, structured data. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Description Framework (RDF) </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema (RDFS) </li></ul><ul><li>Rule Interchange Format (RIF) </li></ul>Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
    11. 11. Semantic Web “LayerCake” <ul><li>SPARQL </li></ul><ul><li>Web Ontology Language (OWL) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trust” – the top layer and the key to realizing the full potential of the Semantic Web. </li></ul>Image Source: W3C Semantic Web Activity
    12. 12. Semantic Web in Practice <ul><li>Network aware devices </li></ul><ul><li>Interact with other locally aware devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Phone that notifies local devices with a volume control that there is an incoming call. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Semantic Web in Practice <ul><li>Intelligent Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct trusted actions on behalf of the owner with trusted resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Intelligent agent book trip for WWW2008. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Take-aways for Software Engineers <ul><li>Knowledge Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and the representation of knowledge is multi-faceted and does not necessarily need to be dealt with as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies are important, but imperfect. </li></ul><ul><li>Which is more important for you: meaning for computers or meaning for humans? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Take-aways for Software Engineers <ul><li>The Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>After 7+ years, it’s still “emerging”. </li></ul><ul><li>In its purest sense, it may never become a reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust of computer systems, especially the one’s we didn’t create could be a major hurdle. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Take-aways for Software Engineers <ul><li>The Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>The core concepts of The Semantic Web can be applied creatively. </li></ul><ul><li>We can sample and mash-up these concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 business have created business value by applying these concepts in simple ways. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Knowledge Representation and the Semantic Web by Daniel D. Shaw Thank you!
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