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Yellow Packet Notes

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Yellow Packet Notes Yellow Packet Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Plant Responses
  • Factors
    • Plant growth depends on INTERNAL factors, such as HORMONES, and external factors such as…
      • LIGHT INTENSITY
      • GRAVITY
      • TEMPERATURE
      • MOISTURE
      • LENGTH OF DAY
  • Hormones
    • Any chemical produced in one part of the body that has a target elsewhere in the body
    • Affect GROWTH, FLOWER, and FRUIT development
  • Hormones
    • Examples
      • Auxin
      • Gibberellins
      • Cytokinins
      • Abscisic Acid
      • Ethylene
  • Hormone - Auxin
    • Produced in APICAL MERISTEMS
    • Regulates growth
    • Promotes cell elongation
    • Also known as IAA (Indoleacetic acid)
  • Hormone - Auxin
    • Tissue response depends on hormone CONCENTRATION
    • ROOT cells are more sensitive than STEM cells
  • Hormone - Auxin
    • Causes cells on darker side of the plant to grow larger than corresponding cells on the lighter side of the plant
    • Involved in plant movement ( TROPISM )
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  • Hormone - Auxin
    • Synthetic auxins can stimulate fruit development without fertilization ( SEEDLESS fruit)
  • Hormone - Gibberellins
    • Produced in YOUNG tissue
    • Causes elongation of STEM cells and growth of LEAVES
    • Focus on stem growth
    • Stimulates SEED germination
  • Hormone – Cytokinins
    • Produced in the ENTIRE plant
    • Promotes MITOSIS
    • Involved in the closure of STOMATA during dry periods
    • Promotes DELAY OF AGING
  • Hormones – Abscisic Acid
    • Produced in LEAVES
    • Mediates the adaptation of the plant to stress
    • Promotes DORMANCY (helpful during drought season) by inhibiting growth of BUDS and germination of SEEDS
    • Promotes abscission of leaves & fruit
  • Hormones - Ethylene
    • A GAS that promotes ripening of fruit
    • Produced in the ENTIRE plant
    • Causes RIPENING of fruit by softening cell walls and converting starches into sugar
    • Promotes SENESCENCE (causes nearby fruit to ripen)
  • Plant Movements
    • Tropism
    • Nastic Movements
  • Tropism
    • Growth movement towards the direction from which the stimulus strikes the plant.
    • Takes the name of the STIMULUS
    • Positive
      • Growth in the direction of the stimulus
    • Negative
      • Growth away from the stimulus
  • Phototropism
    • Response to light
    • Stems are positively phototropic
    • Roots are negatively phototropic
  • Phototropism
    • Caused by unequal distribution of AUXIN
      • Auxin is transported away from light therefore, there is a [ HIGHER ] away from the light, which causes CELL elongation.
      • This “bends” the plant toward the sun.
      • Solar Tracking Clip
  • More Auxin Less Auxin Animation
  •  
  • Phototropism
  • Thigmotropism
    • Response to touch
    • Climbing vines
    • Wraps around a solid object
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  • Gravitropism
    • Response to gravity
    • Roots are POSITIVELY gravitropic
    • Stems are NEGATIVELY gravitropic
  •  
  • Chemotropism
    • Response to a chemical
      • Pollen tube growth toward the ovule
  • Hydrotropism
    • Response to water
      • Willow tree roots are notorious from ruining underground pipelines
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  • Nastic Movements
    • Movement that is independent of the direction of the stimulus
    • Movement is regulated by changes in the WATER pressure of cells
    • Animation
    • Examples
      • Venus Fly Trap
      • Sun Dew
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  • Photoperiodism
    • Response to DAY LENGTH
    • Involves a hormone called PHYTOCHROME
      • Two forms
        • Phytochrome Red (P r )
        • Phytochrome Far Red (P fr )
  • Photoperiodism
    • Ratio of P r and P fr is thought to explain how a plant can CALCULATE THE LENGTH of the day (or night)
  • LONG Day Plants
    • Flower when…
      • Days are long
      • Nights are short
    • Occurs during the SUMMER .
    • Examples
      • Radishes, petunias, wheat
  • SHORT Day Plants
    • Flower when…
      • Days are short
      • Nights are long
    • Occurs during the SPRING & FALL
    • Examples
      • Goldenrods, poinsettias, soybeans
  • DAY-NEUTRAL Plants
    • Do not have a critical period of day length
    • Flower during SPRING through FALL
    • Examples
      • Dandelions, tomatoes, corn
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  • Photoperiodism of Short-Day Plant
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  • Phytochrome
    • Phytochrome RED (P r )
      • Converts RED wavelengths of light into FAR RED wavelengths during the day
    • Phytochrome FAR RED (P fr )
      • Converts FAR RED wavelengths of light into RED wavelengths of light at night
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