EMILY CARR UNIVERSITYOF ART + DESIGNDesign Research Jour nalSpring 2012
Editorial Mandatecurrent is a multi-platform design journal that showcases creative, practice-basedand applied research. It functions as a site for design researchers, academics, students,professional designers, entrepreneurs, and the business community to ref lect oncontemporary design thinking—products and processes.Through a variety of forms and formats— faculty, staff and administration throughinterviews, case-studies, critical essays, reviews publication in print, online and as an iPad appand photo documentation, we challenge To demonstrate to the business communityresearchers to represent their processes as the economic value of managing design asiterative cycles of research and to skillfully a resourcenavigate information-led and practice-ledmethodologies. Current’s affiliation with Emily Carr University of Art + Design is vital to the journal’s functionCurrent is a continually evolving exposition on as a site for on-going dialogue betweenthe people and processes involved in design researchers in and across a variety of local,research. It is a platform for the cross-disciplinary, national, and international contexts—academiccross-sector professional communities of people and professional. The university context iswith educational and professional interests in the crucial to how we understand and illustrate acurrency of design thinking. practice-based design ethos in relation to anCurrent has the following goals that reflect its evolving ecology. Our learning community is aunique location in one of Canada’s most dynamic research space rich in critical and collaborativeArt + Design universities: inquiry and reflective self-practice. Research at Emily Carr is modeled on context-informed To illustrate the context that shapes practice- practice in a teaching/research nexus that isbased research and research-based practice responsive to human and ecological needs. To illustrate new processes and design thinking Current draws its power from a communityfrom project-based collaborations with a diverse of educators, practitioners, students, andrange of educational partners staff engaged in new models and networks To inform about current and future directions of innovation with educational partners fromin teaching, research, and learning in post- diverse sectors. We are explorers of the valuessecondary education and richness of human knowledge and agents of change and cross-disciplinary integration. A To showcase generative tools for co-designing community of thinkers and makers, we seek toand their benefits at the “fuzzy front end” engage with complex ideas, situations and in so To establish a transparent legacy of learning for doing to speak to teams of experts, as well as toundergraduate and graduate students, alumni, the very people who use our research outcomes.
04 16 ethnography & systems 5—8 / on the convergence health & well being 17/ introduction01 / editorial mandate of ethnography and design Rob Inkster David Bogen 18—21 / youth in transition 9—11 / Importing an ethics Jonathan Aitken model into creative research Lois Klassen, Glen Lowry & Julie York 22—25 / the Lions Gate Hospital Foyer project 12—15 / using verticality Jessica Carson Bobbi Kyle & Nick Ng
t arke cM ubli nd P Isla ille2636interactivity27/ introduction Stereoscopic 3D 37/ introduction ew o al vi Aeri anv f GrAlexandra Samuel Maria Lantin 44—45 / contributors28—31 / Interview 38—39/ Changing Views on Research:with alexandra samuel A Dialogue with Maria LantinCeleste Martin Glen Lowry32—35 / Designing The Vignellis: 40—43 / IlluminatingProcesses in ebook production Vancouver’s neonKendra Stalder & Paige LouieVivian Ziereisen
thnography Systems Lois Klassen , Glen Bobb Lowry i Kyle & Julie & Nic York k Ng / / Im using porting verticality into an creative ethics researc model h
05 e. But On The Convergence and of Ethnography rlow Thu een and Design / David Bogen etw et b Stre rgia Geo over the past two decades, designers of all stripes have begun integrating the lessons of est ethnography into their academic research and professional practices. Under the rubrics of on W “ref lexive,”  “participatory,”  “human-centred,”  “contextual,”  and “transformation tion design,”  the relationship between design studies and ethnographic approaches to cultural oca analysis has been progressively deepened and, at the same time, grown more complex. ite l offs During this same period, key developments in of the major professional design associations t an anthropology, sociology, and studies of material in North America—has recently produced an ry a and technological culture have transformed “Ethnography Primer” as a resource for working alle our understanding of both the context and the professionals. In the introduction to this rt G er A subject matter of ethnographic investigations. document, the authors state: “Designers need ouv These developments include: The critique of to understand the relationship between what anc the colonial history of anthropology and the they produce and the meaning their product he V rise of relational and reflexive approaches to has for others” and “ethnography informs by t ethnography; the emergence of studies of design by revealing a deep understanding ayed contemporary work and expert practice as a of people and how they make sense of their ispl distinctive area of ethnographic inquiry; and world.” The cover image for the “Primer” wa d the rise of Science and Technology Studies (image 2) makes a visual argument for a Eza (STS) as an interdisciplinary field that attends, dialogical relationship between ethnography ota among other things, to the complex relations and design. by K between “human” and “non-human actors.” tion At the same time, the version of ethnography alla Given these developments, there are strong and ethnographic methods outlined inInst grounds for claiming that design studies and the “Primer” are necessarily rather thin and ethnographically-informed studies of culture, utilitarian: Designers need to understand human systems and technical practice have, the complex human and cultural contexts, for some time now, been on a steady path of the meanings, and the implications of their convergence, and indeed, are now running on proposed designs, but—faced with the parallel tracks. (image 1) demands of client specifications, project deadlines, limited budgets, etc.—these It is now commonplace for professional design understandings need to be arrived at in ways associations to advocate for the incorporation that are relatively expedient and tuned to the of ethnographic skills and cultural awareness problems designers are working on directly. As as part of design curricula. So, for example, a practical matter, the recommendation of the the 2009 National Architectural Accrediting “Primer” appears to be that it is worth bringing Board (NAAB) standards for student an ethnographer onto the team at some point, educational outcomes establish criteria for where the role of the designer is to develop a “Critical Thinking and Representation” that brief that focuses the trajectory of ethnographic include the development of skills and applied analysis in ways that advance the project research strategies for “comprehending narrative and have demonstrated relevance to people, place, and context” across a range of the design solution(s). cultures and cultural settings. AIGA—one
Design Studies Games and game structures are a fairly universal feature of human societies. One general thing that can be said about game structures is that they consist minimally in a Ethnographic Studies set of conventions that mark certain actions as part of the game and certain others as peripheral or irrelevant to the state of play. So, for instance, if I am playing chess and I move image 1 / Design studies and My aim in this essay is to demonstrate that this ethnographically-informed my pawn one square forward, that is a move studies of culture have been “thin” version is inadequate for understanding in the game. If, alternatively, I move my coffee on a path of convergence the appropriate place of ethnographic research and now continue to run on cup to my mouth, that is something I am doing in design education as well as the relevance parallel tracks. “while playing chess,” but it is not part of the of cultural analysis to the actual issues and game, at least not directly so. Further, games problems that designers face in their daily have routine ways of beginning and ending, practice. My central argument is that— and within these, typical cycles of play (“moves” whether or not they are academically trained in chess, “innings” in baseball, etc.) Practically in ethnographic research—all designers are speaking, this means that—from a player’s “implicit ethnographers” in the sense that they perspective—a game consists in a kind of routinely employ methods of cultural analysis alternation between periods of intense focus on and documentation in ways that inform the game relevant activities, punctuated by periods design process, often in unseen ways. of more relaxed focus, disengagement, or rest. Rather than conceiving ethnography as a set of And typically these alternations between highlytechnical practice are, in fact, intrinsic to design.” expert methods that are somehow separate from focused and relatively disengaged periods are design, I wish to claim that these methods are well marked and monitored within the overall always already present in the design process. As conduct of the game. ethnographic studies of culture, systems, and a consequence, I want to advocate on behalf of“…there are strong grounds for claiming that Take, for instance, the case of card games, and a fully integrated—or “thick”—conception more specifically the game of bridge. Bridge of the relationship between ethnography and is a game typically played by four people, with design in which the ongoing cultivation of our two people on each team. Team members sit capacities for cultural analysis and ethnographic across from one another on opposite sides of a understanding is a core element in the square table. This physical design eliminates education and practice of all designers. the ability of team members to see each other’s In short, rather than merely being two fields cards, but (interestingly) maximizes their running on parallel tracks, I aim to demonstrate ability to see each other’s bodies and facial that there are strong grounds for claiming that expressions. ethnographic studies of culture, systems, and The play of bridge takes place in cycles, called technical practice are, in fact, intrinsic to design. “hands.” Once a hand begins, it is inappropriate (image 3) for any player to say anything that would allow other players to know what cards they We Are All Ethnographers / are holding or what they are thinking about By saying all designers are “implicit in terms of their strategy of play. And, indeed, ethnographers” I do not mean to imply that players monitor one another to ensure that designers are alone in paying attention to the no one gives away information unfairly, and a cultural context of their work. On the contrary, large part of the game of bridge is about being the argument I am making is that “attending able to figure out what people have in their to cultural context” is a pervasive feature of hands and what strategies they are following any socially organized activity, where what I solely with reference to the bids they make and mean by “cultural context” is the local and the cards they play. immediate conditions of “just what we are up to” in some specific setting. How these local It is in this sense that the mastery of the game analyses and shared understandings are made of bridge consists in a very specific, context- available within the context of their production sensitive form of cultural analysis: You need to is a matter of rather complex, if familiar, understand the rules of the game, but you also ethnographic work. Here, an example will need to understand how those rules play out in perhaps be helpful. specific game situations and specific strategies,
07and you need to be able to analyze the behavior “discourse on practice that is built into practice”of other players, as well as your own, relative to provides an indefinitely large resource foran understanding of both the rules of play and persons—such as ethnographers and otherthe social rules that constitute the larger social novices—who are trying to understand whatand material ecology of the game. the experts are up to in any given cultural group. Indeed, were it not the case thatThe Problem of Other Cultures / these kinds of resources are built into ourFrom this example it can be seen that bridge ordinary structures of social activity it wouldplayers invoke close-order cultural analyses as be impossible for us to accomplish one ofpart of their demonstrated mastery of the game. the central tasks of any culture: To transmitThis notion can be extended to other games local knowledge and cultural practice to a nextand other kinds of socially organized activities generation of members.such that, we are all, in a sense, engaged inpractices of cultural analysis all of the time as Distributed Cognition /participants in the ongoing constitution and My aim in the foregoing has been to point outcoordination of our lives together. The issue for that the so-called “problem of other cultures”designers—and, by extension, for all of us—is is not just an issue for ethnographers, it is anthat each of us possesses different kinds of issue we all face as persons who, at differentexpertise and different areas of cultural mastery, points in our lives, need to learn the language,and while it is interesting to deepen our practices, rules and sensibilities of unfamiliarunderstanding of those areas with which we are cultural groups. We learn these things notalready familiar, our concern is also—perhaps just by asking people to tell us what they arepredominantly—to understand the workings of up to, but by immersing ourselves in coursescultures, settings and ecologies of action that of practical activity—by doing things—and byare, in specific ways, different from our own. engaging with others in constructing reflective accounts and understandings of what we haveThe so-called “problem of other cultures” done. Although ethnographers have builtis perhaps the defining problematic of important specialized knowledge around theseprofessional ethnography. In simplest form, practices of learning, in the end, these methodsit consists in the idea that cultures are represent amplifications and refinementsrelatively bounded systems and that the job of of practical methods of communication andethnography is to assist members of one culture analysis that are part of the rich and complexto interpret and understand the practices and fabric of ordinary social life.their meanings of another culture throughthe application of professional methods of A further issue concerns the fact that notethnographic inquiry and analysis. all members of a specific cultural or expert group share the same perspective, position,However, as Bourdieu has pointed out, cultures knowledge, etc., vis-à-vis the system ofdo not just sit there waiting to be understood, knowledge and practice we, as implicitthey come to the table with ready-made practices image 2 / AIGA’s Ethnography Primer. ethnographers, are seeking to comprehend.for self-representation. What he discusses This cover creates a visual argument The issue here is more than the simple fact between ethnography and design.as the special position of the “informant”—a that different members of a culture or areaperson who is engaged by the ethnographer as of expertise have different versions of whatrepresentative of the larger cultural group—is they are up to. In complex societies andone example of how conditions for cultural organizations, different people occupy differentpermeability and cross-cultural understanding roles or positions that require different sorts ofare built into the local orders of practice that specialized knowledge and practice. Ethnography Designethnographers are seeking to understand in thefirst place.  The notion of expert “informants” In his book Cognition in the Wild, Edwinis, of course, notoriously problematic insofar as Hutchins provides a lengthy account of thedifferent members of a cultural group occupy steering of large ocean vessels (navy ships)different positions and will have different as a highly complex achievement involving An Ethnography Primerversions of what they are up to, the meaning of the coordination of many different peopletheir actions, and so on. The important point with very different kinds of technicalhere, however, is that, in addition to what they expertise.  Critical here is that no oneare doing, people are all the time reflecting on person actually possesses all of the knowledgeand talking about what they are doing, and this it takes to maneuver a ship. Rather, the ship
Design Studies pre-existing resources for learning and cultural understanding that are always already present in the social settings and cultural practices ethnographers are seeking to comprehend. Ethnographic Studies Further, I have argued that the relevance of ethnography for design consists at the very least in the ability of cultural analysis toimage 3 / Ethnographic works as a kind of technological apparatusstudies of culture, systems, draw attention to the depth and complexity of for coordinating and communicating theand technical practice are, socially distributed knowledge and expertise inin fact, a core element in distributed knowledge and expertise of thethe education and practice contemporary organizations, and, one might crew such that they can collectively accomplishof all designers. say, in contemporary social and cultural life. the tasks of steering and navigation. As I was writing this essay, I attended a The situation with a ship is not unlike other gathering organized by the City of Vancouver kinds of human organizations. Corporations, called the “Cities Summit,” where the hospitals, universities, laboratories, municipal mayor of Calgary, Naheed Nenshi, told a governments, and the rest, represent complex story about what he described as the “best organizations that bring together persons of investment in open technology” ever made by massively different skill sets and experience his administration. As one of their initiatives around common projects, physical and in open information government, the City of technological environments, and institutional Calgary equipped every snow-plow truck with identities. It is in this sense that any specific GPS and developed an application that would design—whether of a building, an artifact, provide the locational data of all the plows a communication system, or a process— to the city’s public website. Not only did this needs to address the conditions of its own almost eliminate phone calls to the City to embeddedness within this larger context of find out when the streets would be plowed, it culturally distributed knowledge and expertise. changed the way that people organized their days and their traffic patterns in the aftermath Conclusion / of snowstorms. My aim in this brief essay has been to give some initial sense of how cultural analysis is Although not world-changing, it is an excellent embedded in our routine social activities and to example of how a specific technological begin to imagine the implications this holds for intervention can be used to mobilize the ethnography, as well as for our understanding massively distributed intelligence of a city and of the relationship between ethnography and its citizens. It is well worth noting that this design. My central argument has been that “design solution” did not come from the city professional ethnography is, in its own right, a planners or the IT people, it came from the culturally embedded practice that draws upon maintenance department.citations Donald A. Schön, The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in  Lucy Suchman, Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem or Human-MachineAction (New York: Basic Books, 1983). Communication (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Graham Douglas Schuler and Aki Namioka (eds.), Participatory Design: Principles Button (ed.), Technology in Working Order: Studies of Work, Interaction, andand Practices (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993). Technology (London: Routledge, 1993) Donald A. Norman and Stephen W. Draper, User Centered System Design  Michel Callon, “Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation:(New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986); Terry Winograd and Domestication of the Scallops and the Fisherman of St. Brieuc Bay,” in JohnFernando Flores, Understanding Computers and Cognition (New Jersey: Law (ed.) Power, Action, and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge? (London:Ablex Publishers, 1986); Brenda Laurel (ed.), Design Research: Method and Routledge, 1986), pp. 196-229; Bruno Latour, Science in Action (MiltonPerspectives (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003); Bill Moggridge, Designing Keynes: Open University Press, 1987).Interactions (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007).  “2009 Conditions for Accreditation,” National Architectural Accrediting Hugh Beyer and Karen Holtzblatt, Contextual Design: Defining Customer- Board, pp. 20-22 (http://www.naab.org/accreditation/2009_Conditions.aspx)Centered Systems (San Francisco: Morgan Kauffman Publishers, 1998).  http://www.aiga.org/ethnography-primer/ Colin Burns, Hilary Cottam, Chris Vanstone, and Jennie  This is an allusion to Geertz’s concept of “thick” descriptions, orWinhall, “Red Paper 02: Transformation Design,” Design Council, ethnographic accounts that attend to the local contextual conditions ofFebruary 2006 (www.designcouncil.cino/wt/RED/tranformation/ human social behavior. See Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures:TransformationDesignFinalDraft.pdf ) Selected Essays (New York: Basic books, 1973). Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice, Richard Nice (trans.)  Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice, p. 18.(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).  Edwin Hutchins, Cognition in the Wild (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995).  http://www.vancouvercitiessummit.org/
09importing aresearch ethics modelinto creative research / Lois Klassen, Glen Lowry & Julie yorkdeveloping a university research agenda requires significant changes to the structure and specializationof an Art and Design institution; it also involves a radical transformation to the “art school” culture andoverall mandate. When Emily Carr set out to establish a Research Ethics Board (REB) in 2006, it wasresponding to a condition of eligibility for funding from the tri-council of federal research agencies—theSocial Sciences Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), Canadian Institutes of HealthResearch (CIHR), and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Morethan this, the development of an in-house REB has demonstrated how determined this eighty-seven year oldinstitution has been at prioritizing a top-f light “research enterprise.” In a very short time, Emily Carr has had the practice and the exact meaning or definitionenviable distinction of receiving research of human participant research. Paintingfunding from each of SSHRC, CIHR, and or photographing a portrait, creating anNSERC. This has meant that the Emily Carr animation of harm reduction for drug useREB has had to work quickly and effectively and addiction, or designing an open sourceto develop policies and approaches that website to share information from an NGO—are consistent with Emily Carr’s relatively all necessarily involve human subjects, butunique multi-disciplinary, practice-driven and do they require REB review and approval?creativity-focused research culture. As a result, There is no simple answer to this question.a key facet of the quasi-independent Emily The appropriate response has to do with theCarr REB office has involved educating and designation of “research” and the type ofsupporting a new research culture. As faculty knowledge the project hopes to produce. Whilemembers have come to secure tri-council creative practitioners have learned to adoptfunding with increasing frequency, they often the language of research and methodology tofind themselves in the position of rethinking or describe their own practice, the terminologyrevising creative practice to fit the exigencies may actually cause as much confusion as notof scholarly endeavour. Thus, the Emily Carr when it comes to the definition of humanREB is tasked with building a structure for subject research and the ethical responsibilitiesresearchers and instructors that supports involved for academics.emergent as well as established participant Published in December of 2010, the secondresearch projects. The following principles edition of the Tri-Council Policy Statement:have so far guided the work of the Emily Ethical Conduct for Research Involving HumansCarr REB: “At the University, the purpose of (TCPS2) emphasizes a broad approachethics review of research involving human to research ethics that articulates uniqueparticipants is guided by three principles: opportunities for practitioners and researchersthe protection of research participants, the in creative disciplines. Integrating theseprotection of the Emily Carr of Art + Design guidelines into Emily Carr’s research policiescommunity, and the education of those and practices has produced a vital context forinvolved in research.” the discussion and exploration of researchWithin the context of the art and design ethics, across disciplines and faculties atuniversity, these three principles have come to the university. It could be argued that thistake on something of a specialized meaning, productive dialogue results in part from theparticularly around questions of creative dialogic nature of the TCPS2. Distinct from
its 1998 predecessor, the TCPS2 attempts to minimal risk to their participants. Both theemphasize the importance of flexibility and consolidated principles and the proportionateon-going review in a newly consolidated set approach require that the REB processes haveof core principles and in its insistence on on-going discussions with researchers andthe “proportionate approach to research ethics those who teach research methodologies. Thatreview.” By consolidating the eight core communication needs to reach beyond regularprinciples of TCPS1 into three comprehensive reports and formal reviews.statements–namely, the respect for persons, In keeping with this spirit of dialogue, the Emilya concern for welfare, and the principle of Carr REB has been working with the differentjustice—TCPS2 clearly outlines approaches faculties and faculty members to help articulateto the ethical treatment of participants during the unique requirements of creative practiceresearch that are dynamic and adaptable. research involving the participation of others.The revised guidelines are less dependent on This involves an on-going consideration ofthe categories and classifications that have the environment of creative research and keybeen the used to guide research practices and questions about ethics in participant research.terminology in the past. “Respect for vulnerable We are invited to think about and debate how thepersons,” for instance is no longer a unique Emily Carr REB process might be integrated intoprincipal but is now expected to be produced media practices like film, video, photography—as a result of all three core principles. In other areas of research and production with well-words, the TCPS2 appears to recognize the developed professional standards and practicesfluidity of power relations and the fact that all of consent and permission, that may or may notpersons hold vulnerabilities; it suggests that coincide with other academic standards.concern for the welfare of others requires thatresearchers carefully assess the unique needs of Industry standards and professional practiceparticipants within the context of their research conventions exist to guide and sometimesgoals and conditions. The inclusion of people govern how consent is negotiated in disciplinesin the research enterprise, regardless of their like filmmaking, journalism, photography,social vulnerabilities or institutional status—in community art, and others. Emily Carr, like mostsuch a way demonstrating the researchers’ art and design universities, offers professionalrecognition that research and knowledge can practice courses and public projects coursesflow across formal academic boundaries,— that teach undergraduate students to formulatewould, in the spirit of TCPS2, be taken as a release documents that reflect various levelsmatter of social justice. of involvement with participants. During the development of the Emily Carr REB, creativeSimilarly, the TCPS2 emphasizes a “propor- producers amongst the faculty have activelytionate approach to REB review.” Proportionate questioned the implications of integratingreview suggests that REBs need to be REB scrutiny into these varied practices. Theresponsive to the conditions in which they debates swirl around central questions ofoperate, as well as responsive to the balance concern in research and creative projects: Do allof harm and benefit proposed in the research creative projects that involve people need to beunder review. A proportionate approach means reviewed by Emily Carr REB? Are art projectsthat the REB will provide more scrutiny to research projects or not? Do all members ofprojects that propose a greater level of potential the community participate in research just byrisk than those which present no greater than definition of there involvement in the university?
11 citations  Address by Dr. David Bogen to the all university“The Emily Carr REB has come to understand meeting on January 5, 2012 at Emily Carr.research as professional practice that intends  Emily Carr Research Ethics Board,to extend or build on existing knowledge…” recommendations for amendment “Policy 5.1.2 Research Involving Humans Procedure”, pending publication, 2011To this end, the Emily Carr REB has come to expected to uphold Respect for Persons,  Panel on Researchunderstand research as professional practice Concern for Welfare, and Justice as guiding Ethics, “Highlights of TCPS2”, PDF, http://that intends to extend or build on existing principles in their work. Creative practitioners www.pre.ethics.gc.ca/knowledge through a disciplined inquiry or are also bound by the ethical conventions eng/policy-politique/systematic investigation, and through the and expectations of their cultural sector. This initiatives/tcps2-eptc2/dissemination of findings. Members of the means that they are expected to conform to Default/ accessed January 16, 2012.Emily Carr REB understand the significant the standards of their discipline, particularlyoverlap between academic research and what concerning how they achieve informed consent  The original 1998is alternatively referred to as creative practice and permission from their participants, edition of the TCPS listedand artistic inquiry. Not all artworks involving subjects, or collaborators. the following eight core principles: “respect forhuman subjects require REB approval. In human dignity”; “respect This is an area of dynamic debate withinArticle 2.6 of the Tri-Council Policy Statement: for free and informed Emily Carr, as it is at other arts-based researchEthical Conduct for Research Involving Human consent”; “respect for institutions and universities across the vulnerable persons”;Subjects (TCPS2) a distinction between creative country. The Emily Carr REB in tandem with “respect for privacypractice and research is clearly articulated. and confidentiality”; faculty and administration looks forward “respect for justice and“Creative practice activities in and of themselves, do to participating in discussions with our inclusiveness”; “balancing not require REB review. However, research that counterparts in other universities and the harms and benefits”; employs creative practice to obtain responses from Tri-council. These discussions are particularly “minimizing harm”; and participants that will be analyzed to answer a useful to understand the implications of “maximizing benefit”. research question is subject to REB review.”  working with review models and standards that resources have developed in research settings that bear The TCPS2 application of this guideline Social Sciences and little resemblance to environment of creative Humanities Research expands on the designation of creative inquiry that has developed here. To help enrich Ethics Special Working practice activities. the debate, and to maintain a vibrant research Committee (SSHWC): A“Creative practice is a process through which an culture across all disciplines at Emily Carr, it Working Committee of The Interagency Advisory artist makes or interprets a work or works of is important for creative practitioners who Panel on Research arts. It may also include a study of the process of undertake work involving human subjects to Ethics (PRE), “Research how a work of art is generated. Creative practice self-identify their research aspirations and Involving Creative activities do not require REB review, but they to interrogate the boundaries between their Practices: A Chapter for Inclusion in the TCPS,” should be governed by ethical practices established creative practices and the knowledge practices 2008. within the cultural sector.”  of other conventional modes of academic pursuit. Recognizing that the imported REB Canadian Institutes While the creative practice leading to the of Health Research, model is dependent upon a responsive and production of art works is significantly Natural Sciences and dialogic approach, the Emily Carr REB has so Engineering Research different from other forms of academic far been informed by the discussions amongst Council of Canada, Social research, when it is undertaken under the peer creative practitioners and researchers Sciences and Humanities auspices of the university, artists, designers, Research Council of within the Emily Carr community. The Emily writers, and media makers are expected to Canada. Tri-council Policy Carr REB is enthusiastic about its role in Statement: Ethical Conduct adhere to the three core principles of TCPS2. guiding and supporting this debate. for Research Involving Creative practitioners of art-based research, Humans, December 2010. like others working in the university, are
Using verticality / Bobbi kyle & Nick Ng this article explores and elucidates the problems and processes involved in conceptualizing interior architecture for single-room micro-dwellings in urban Vancouver as part of the Ninety Square Foot Space project at Emily Carr University of Art + Design. Solutions were developed based off of existing, client-built nine by ten foot rental spaces in downtown Vancouver. We focused our efforts on problem definition and re- framing, and identified the multiple stakeholders involved and their differing interests, in order to discern a feasible intersection within which to design. The intent of this project was to reconcile the issue of adding the basic furniture required for practical living (bed, couch, desk/table) while retaining ninety square feet of usable space. The resulting prototype seeks to offer a design solution that may be utilized in future rental developments as a means of increasing the number of affordable, small-space living environments in urban centres. Introduction / system through the use of discovery research. Urban design, space planning interior architecture, small living space habitat, modular design, hybrid furniture micro-living, 90 square foot living space vertical design Vancouver is home to a wide variety of These primary interest groups can be identified inhabitants including locals, tourists, students, as follows: the property owner (client), tenants business people, and working class people. (users), and contractors/maintainers (secondary The living spaces available in the downtown users). (image 1) core often remain inaccessible to students and Preliminary research revealed that each interest working class people due to the economics of group possesses its own unique set of problems the area. Our client, Instafund, is targeting this and needs; as Richard Buchanan states, the gap in partnership with Emily Carr students to “designer’s task is to identify those conditions retrofit existing, single-room accommodations precisely and then calculate a solution.” The with furniture installations that will better use challenge involved in formulating a solution these spaces to meet the needs of lower-to- for these distinct groups is that the interests middle income inhabitants. of each do not entirely correspond. Through Third-year design students working in teams our research however, we were able to identify of three were challenged to develop full- some of the issues that were common to each scale prototypes of built-in (non-removable) group. These commonalities included the furniture or architecture. The resulting design square footage of the spaces, the feasibility and had to meet the needs of not only the client, usability for all parties involved, the efficiency but also the intended target user. If successful of the space and materials used, and the cost for in the eyes of the client, the system may be all parties. implemented in two existing locations owned by the client, thereby refitting a total of 150 Design constraints provided / one-room tenancy facilities with the newly There were several constraints placed on redesigned furniture or architecture. our design team by the client during project initiation. These constraints included that Defining the problem / the design: As these redesigned spaces must fit within Could not exceed a $1000 fixed budget the rental system in place, our team adopted Susan Squires’ concept of “uncover[ing] and Must be configurable for different rooms understand[ing] the cultural system that frames Should be able to be produced in multiples human action to provide direction for creating” our proposed solution. This meant identifying Needs to leave space for a mini-fridge and a and understanding the multiple stakeholders bed (with the mattress being provided by (or different interest groups) involved in the the tenant)
13 Will ideally increase the length of tenant stay disorganized and cluttered, despite our best efforts. Many furniture items introduced into Should discourage multiple occupancy (the the spaces were discarded or left behind forspaces are intended for single occupancy only) the landlord or site management to dispose of Should discourage conventional cooking at the end of the tenancy. We also noted that(space is not zoned for stoves or hot plates) vertical space was never really used in any creative or meaningful way, with most space Materials and manufacturing should remain existing above eye level remaining unused andas sustainable as possible, thus excluding MDF ignored. We considered this neglected spacecomposite wood to be valuable real estate in terms of space planning.Research and methodology /Target user research Inspirational and existing product researchThe research and discovery conducted by our We considered a plethora of influences duringteam was completed in several different phases. the ideation phase of our development toWe were provided with a set of interests and inspire our design. Some of these sourcesconstraints from the vantage point of the client, included existing small-space living solutionsbut we lacked insight about the situation, such as yacht/boat cabins, recreational vehicles,needs and desires of the target users (tenants). train cabins, submarine facilities, and bus interiors. These examples of space managementTo gather this data we employed the following proved helpful, but did not lend well to a senseresearch steps and methods: of permanence in the space. Conducted a site visit to observe living Influence was also drawn by looking at urbansituations centres in other countries such as New York Photo documented the space and its and Hong Kong for existing examples ofsurroundings compact living. Most examples found possessed a considerably larger budget than what was Established user profile and target audience currently allotted, and therefore proved non-information viable on a limited budget. Other examples Conducted a tenant survey to gather opinions of small-space furniture included hybridized furniture, which strives to combine articles Utilized a co-creation kit (a creative kit such as a couch and bed.that enables the user to answer simple butinsightful questions in a tacit and visual way) Constructed a scale replica of the ninetysquare foot problem-space to examine therelevant issues in context CLIENT image 1 / Stakeholders and their unique set of needs Conducted “day-in-the-life” walk-through budget and limitations are identifiedstudies to glean information about how space & viability through discovery research.the space is moved through and used on a implementationdaily basis return on investment Established a needs vs. wants frameworkanalysis Constructed scale mock-ups of the objects commonthat must exist within the space (bed, fridge, shelter groundetc.) in order to account for their presence in modularity basic needsthe space construction safety/security ease of installImportant observations made during entertainment maintenancethe discovery process began with the comfortrealization that when conventionally sized SECONDARYfurniture is brought into the space, it often USER USERcreates additional problems rather thanviable solutions. The rooms began to look
vehicles, train cabins, submarine facilities, and bus interiors.”“We considered a plethora of influences during the ideationphase of our development…yacht /boat cabins, recreational Most of these solutions contained “Murphy style” beds (beds that lie flat against—and as to reduce the amount of effort needed to configure the space fold out from—flat surfaces and walls). These Allow space for alternate cooking and food hybrid solutions are attractive and work preparation methods well, but still carry the problem of requiring a determinate amount of free floor space in Reduce or control the mattress size to a which to fold the unit out. In this instance, the long twin space allotted was too small to accommodate these solutions, and would require repetitive To create a comfortable and inviting living movement of objects to operate. They also space require repetitive configuration of several different components by the user in order to The resulting approach and concept / be used in a practical way. To adhere to our now streamlined framework, our group attempted to empathize with each of Our design goals and approach / the three main interest groups. This allowed us Since, as noted by Buchanan, “constraints can to make further decisions about material types, best be visualized in terms of three overlapping costs, construction, modularity and aesthetic criteria for successful ideas: [feasibility, qualities. By identifying with and assuming viability, and desirability],” we narrowed our these three roles, our design team was able to design criteria even further in order to conceive avoid imparting too much of our own social, of a feasible, viable and desirable solution. cultural and aesthetic preferences. Following user and existing-product research, Our final concept iteration includes a platform our team identified a new set of refined design surface directly above an extra-long twin- goals in addition to those provided by the client sized mattress and bed frame. The goal of that we felt would strongly address the problem this platform is to permit the bed to nest sets we prioritized. These new, internally underneath when not in use, to enable the generated goals were as follows: bed to be wheeled out half way and locked in Find a way to retain the ninety square feet place to convert into a couch or lounge, and to of space allow the bed to be pulled out all the way from underneath the platform for sleeping. (image 2) Use the vertical space more efficiently A combination counter/desk surface is placed Meet the users’ basic needs and add on the platform above the bed, overlooking the amenities and comforts wherever possible rest of the space, to serve as a sitting, eating or working space. (image 3) Make the design emotionally durable (foster an emotional attachment and give a sense of This platform elevation enables us to solve permanence rather than disposability) several problems at once: Make most of the elements static in order It provides a sitting, sleeping, eating, studying to reduce the feeling of transience as well and working space together in one unit image 2 / This flexible system allows for the bed component to be pulled out from underneath the platform to serve as either seating space or for sleeping.
15 It downsizes at once the main living components to an acceptable scale for smaller spaces It accommodates the largest piece of furniture required in the space without reducing the square footage It effectively uses verticality, and needs only a small stepping stool for access It creates additional storage nested along the sides of the platform, thereby reducing the need for additional furniture It functions as interior architecture rather than removable furniture Its solidity and attached relationship to the space gives it a clear sense of permanence It is an enduring object that can be customized by simple colour and accessory choices or modifications The main components cannot be lost or stolen It can be constructed on site with locally sourced materials, and repaired and maintained as needed Outcomes / Undeniably, the greatest hurdle encountered image 3 / Using verticality in small living spaces conserves space while reducing the need for additional furniture. during our design process was the mediation of different interests. Traversing these any specialized training. The floor space has differences required careful consideration and been effectively cleared for users to move compromise throughout the problem-solving through comfortably, leaving ample room for references process. During this time we drew much additional amenities. Most importantly, the Squires, Susan. “Design inspiration from Donald Schön: space successfully fosters a greater sense Research.” Design Studies: A Reader. Eds. Hazel Clark of emotional engagement and permanence.“Designing is a social process. In every building and David Brody. New Furthermore, we hope that our strategy can York: Berg, 2009. 115-120. project, there are many different kinds of be used in future housing developments to Print. participants. [these individuals] pursue different increase the number of affordable, micro-living interests, see things in different ways, and even Buchanan, Richard. environments in other urban centres. speak different languages. [Any] theory of design “Wicked Problems in worth its salt must somehow take into account all Acknowledgments Design Thinking.” Design Studies: A Reader. Eds. of these tensions.” We would like to thank Karla Tull-Esterbrook, Hazel Clark and David our third teammate for being an insightful Brody. New York: Berg, We feel confident that the final prototype and invaluable partner in this project. We 2009. 96-102. Print. takes into account these tensions as identified also wish to thank the client, our investors during the design discovery process. Although Schön, Donald. and our design instructor, Christian Blyt, for “Designing: Rules, Types the concept could be pushed further (given his expertise and support in developing the and Worlds.” Design more time or a larger budget), we feel that the concept. We greatly appreciate the opportunity Studies: A Reader. Eds. solution is certainly “worth its salt.” Hazel Clark and David to design for such a dynamic problem space. Brody. New York: Berg, In conclusion, our prototype was developed We would also like to extend thanks to the 2009. 110-114. Print. with less than five hundred dollars worth University’s staff and shop technicians for of locally-sourced materials. The design is aiding and facilitating our design process, as configured for simple on-site construction well as our classmates for providing and can be reproduced by contractors without valuable feedback.
ealth & ell being Jonat han Jessica Aitken Carson / Yout / The h in transition Lions Gate Hosp ital F oyer ProjHos ect pita l be ds i na train ing room at th e Li ons Gat eH osp ital.
17Introduction / Health Design Labthe health design lab (hdl) is a vibrant research cluster at Emily Carr. It is a virtual lab, in thesense that no dedicated research facilities are involved. Rather, it is an intellectual “home” for designfaculty and students engaged in applied research projects in the general area of healthcare. Of course,this is a broad area of practice that spans all the design streams; it started at least 15 years ago with along-term collaboration on assistive devices with the GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre.At present, from Industrial Design we see work involves the active participation ofprojects from a wood product design course local clinicians and other caregivers, of localthat include an elegant birthing stool for use hospitals and other care facilities, and ofin a delivery room, as well as a thesis project local companies and other research partners.of an intelligent chair for a dementia unit that Through this model, “design thinking” isrecognizes the occupant and plays a cloud based introduced to a system that is in need ofculturally appropriate play list. innovation, while students learn to develop their design skills in real-world situations.Communication designers are working on thedesign of a patient portal for BC Children’s The work at the Health Design Lab is anHospital, and on an iPad-based application example of design-based research, andwith social media components that allow young research-based design. Researchers approachpatients with chronic illnesses to manage their complex problems with a broad view thatdiseases more effectively. Interaction designers attempts to capture complexity, to understandare interested in data visualization for the previous approaches, and to linearize problemsoutputs of numerical simulations of emergency where possible. The work always involvesroom queuing, and on the interaction tools co-design with those intended to benefitneeded by nurses during shift change on a busy from the outcomes, and those intended toward. Much of the work has an architectural implement the solutions. It takes an inclusiveelement. For example a recent research view of product/process life cycle, consideringquestion involved the entrance foyer of Lions manufacturability, cost, training andGate hospital; how could it be re-designed maintenance, and sustainability issues.to incorporate the changing needs of the As with any research, process is documentedpatient and family population, and how could and reported to ensure others can benefitstakeholders be engaged in that re-design. from results.While the work is varied, some central themes Certainly, “design thinking” will not solveare clear. First, faculty and student research is all problems in the health care system. Buthighly applied. Design solutions are sought for equally certainly, this approach and this vibrantproblems that are important to the healthcare research cluster in particular, is contributingsector, which can lead to improved patient practical solutions that have real value inoutcomes, and where practical implementation terms of patient outcomes and other importantis possible in the near term. Second, the improvements.work is highly collaborative. Almost all the / Rob Inkster
youTH in transition CHRONIC ILLNESS TRANSITION, YOUTHCOMMUNICATION DESIGN DESIGN RESEARCH / jonathan aitken a 3rd year communication design class considered the problem of youth with chronic illness transitioning from child-centred to adult-centred healthcare. Current systems have focused on paper or web-based education and information recording, but compliance rates are low. In conjunction with the British Columbia Children’s Hospital the class conducted primary and secondary research and proposed solutions. context / between youth and their caregivers, what media Children with chronic illnesses are well cared would you choose? To whom should your for in British Columbia; they receive excellent design be directed? Are you leading the group care at the British Columbia Children’s or following their preferences? If your research Hospital (BCCH) in Vancouver. Children, suggests that youth engagement is the problem, however, are not necessarily well equipped how could you change the design to effect that to make the transition from child-centred to engagement? In other words, how will you child-centred to adult-centred health care.” adult-centred healthcare. As children, they ensure the “buy-in” from this demographic? This have access to many supportive environments; complex problem has no single simple solution; adults are responsible for their care. As adults, it has many conflicting perspectives and equipped to make the transition from they are expected to manage this care on their requirements. Decide how you would proceed to “Children [...] are not necessarily well own—a task for which many have not been solve the problem. adequately prepared. Various initiatives are in place to ease this transition, but none are Methodology / completely satisfactory. Much of the materials Using a variety of techniques—primary and are print-based, with many charts and tables secondary research; co-creation; human-centred that need to be completed by the youth. Some design; brainstorming; emotional probes; of the materials seem designed for a younger demographics; etcetera—students considered or older audience. None of it seems to “fit” the problem. While access to youth with chronic today’s 18 year old. Other initiatives are illness in transition was limited, students did online-based, but they too have had only partial create co-creation toolkits and ethnographic “buy-in” from youth. Representatives from the probes. These were used with a more general BCCH approached me in the summer of 2011 population, so results will need testing and with the goal of considering this problem from further research, but the process itself is valid a communication design perspective. I agreed and revealed many different possible design to offer it as a major research project for my directions. These included: gaming metaphors 3rd year communication design class. in a web site to maximize usage and retention; expansion of health self-care education to the design problem / general population in high school; community- The class was asked to consider the following focused websites that facilitate the creation of problem: using any of the tools and techniques support groups and communication with others of design research discussed in this class with similar issues; parent-centred education; or others, consider solutions to the problem customizable iPad apps that facilitated self-care. described above. If you find that media Two of these directions are outlined below by preferences are fundamentally different student creators.
19 image 1 / UConnect enables youth with chronic illness to gain independence and responsibility in the management of their illness through a user-controlled mobile app and social media site.Case Study 1 /author : Craig Fleisch friends list or a forum-based online community. referencesproject title : UConnect Users also had the option to control privacy Sarasohn-Kahn, Jane.project members : Craig Fleisch, settings, as well as search for health-related “The Wisdom of Patients: Health Care MeetsSaba Taghvai-Arabi, and Paul Rarick articles, research, treatments, symptoms, and Online Social Media.” conditions. California Health CareOur team proposed that youth would be better Foundation. April We chose to incorporate a web-based mobile (2008): 1-24. Print.able to manage their chronic illness and gain app to complement the website. The appindependence and responsibility for their employs only a few key features of the website, McKay, Laurenown healthcare needs by incorporating their S. “A Prescription including search options for symptoms,individual experiences with a user-controlled for Social Media.” treatments, and conditions, as well as a Customer Relationshipplatform such as a mobile app or social messaging centre to get in touch with friends Management no. 18.media site. and healthcare professionals.(image 1) October (2010): 18-24.To support our thesis, we looked through Print. The core values of the website and app aresecondary research that focuses on the role patient engagement and empowerment.of design research in healthcare and existing Therefore, we named our project UConnect–successful social media platforms. We also A place to learn, share & grow. Ideally, a health-looked at the benefits and risks of social media focused app or social media site will act as ain healthcare, and how it can engage and starting point for engaging individuals, andempower patients. grow into a support network that can remainOur primary research included a cultural with them throughout their adult lives.probe in the form of a survey. It consisted of asix-page interactive survey in PDF form. Thirtyeight participants, ranging in age from 18 to image 2 / UConnect web-based mobile app24, completed the survey. The results show that that complements theyouth are constantly engaged with one another UConnect website inonline; the majority of them have access to a creating a space for patient engagementlaptop or smartphone. Ninety-seven percent and empowerment.are not satisfied with the current healthcaresystem, with two-thirds saying they would usea health-focused social media site. There is aclear demand for social media to play a role inhealthcare.Analysis of our primary and secondary researchshowed the tenability of our thesis andinformed the final design. We created a health-focused social media website on a simple,easy-to-navigate platform.(image 2) Key featuresinclude personal health biographies and aplace to share similar experiences with either a
Case Study 2 /author :Katherine Pihlproject title : Pushing Independenceproject members : Katherine Pihl,Natalie Straub, and Daisy Aylott According to Hara Estroff Marano andOur group proposed that children attending Lenora Skenazy, this overprotection occursBCCH have difficulties transitioning to because parents are anxious about turningadult healthcare systems because they are responsibilities over to their children, becausenot adequately prepared for adulthood. Our they do not believe that their child will besecondary research on parenting indicates able to handle it. Jim Taylor suggests that ifthat some parents, nicknamed “helicopter parents provide a variety of opportunities forparents,” hover over their children, paying their children to be independent, and if theyextremely close attention to them and their address their children as if they are capableneeds. Over time, these parents get involved of completing these tasks, both parents andin, and eventually take over, their children’s children will gain confidence in the children’sresponsibilities. Our group suggests that abilities. Other studies support thesethis “helicopter” behaviour has extended into parenting theories, demonstrating that in orderthe realm of healthcare, with parents making to raise self-reliant children, parents need to beappointments for and attending medical both flexible and demanding. Drawing fromsessions with their children. These children this research, we proposed to educate parentsconsequently become more reliant on their by providing them with a toolkit to help raiseparents, as they are subconsciously aware that independent children.their parents will take care of them. This toolkit, named Pushing Independence, consists of four components that guide parentsimage 1 / A guidebook introduces parents through various family-oriented activities thatto the components of Pushing will facilitate independence in their children.Independence, a toolkit tohelp raise independent The first element of our toolkit, a guidebook,children. describes how our toolkit can help (image 1) parents, and explains how to use the different components of Pushing Independence. The second component is advice cards. (image 2) These postcard-sized cards are categorized into three age groups, 12, 14, and 17, which are then divided into three themes: school, home, and health. The front of the cards show for whom the tips are applicable, and the back of the cards list helpful suggestions and explanations of what goals the tips aim to achieve. The advice suggests activities that centre on two goals: providing opportunities for the child to act independently and facilitating connection and conversation between parents and children. The third component is “ASK” cards that help facilitate conversations between family members. (image 2) These small cards are divided into two categories: “ASK your child” and “ASK your parent.” A child will grab an “ask your parent” card and vice versa, and ask the question written on the back of the card. These questions revolve around independence and provide an opportunity for parents and children to openly and specifically discuss independence.
21image 2 / Pushing Independence toolkit includes a set of ask cards that facilitate dialogue betweenchildren and their parents as well as calendars that encourage children to write their activities and plans. Citations  Lum, Lydia. “Handling ‘Helicopter Parents.’”“What media would you choose? To whom Diverse: Issues in Higher Education 23.20 (2006):should your design be directed? Are you leading 40-42. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.the group or following their preferences?” 25 Oct. 2011. <http:// search.ebscohost.com/ login.aspx?direct=true&d b=aph&AN=23188035&si te=ehost-live>For the last component of our toolkit, we from youth to adult-centred healthcare. We  Myers, David G.included a few calendars. By encouraging the have not covered the problem of what parents Psychology. New York: Worth, 2010. Print.child to write down their future plans, their should do if their child is reluctant to engagedaily activities, or even whether they took their with them or the suggested activities. We did  Skenazy, Lenora.medication that day, the calendars will help the not consider how to get a child interested “Why Parents Should Stop Overprotectingchild to be more organized and responsible. in being independent or interested in their Kids and Let Them Play.”Since we only provided a few calendars, we healthcare. American Journal of Playhope that parents will purchase or make their 3.4 (2011): 423-42. Print. Our aim, however, was to create step-by-stepown calendars.  Taylor, Jim. Positive advice for raising independent children, Pushing: How to RaiseWe hope that with further development, our which we have achieved; further research and a Successful and Happytoolkit will encourage parents to raise their development will improve the outcomes of Child. New York:children independently, easing their transition our toolkit. Hyperion, 2002. Print.
the lions gate hospitalfoyer project /jessica carson the lions gate hospital foyer project is a detailed example of how participatory, human-centred research can aid the design process and contribute to more effective solutions in architectural design. In this paper, I outline the unique research methods implemented by a research team of four students from Emily Carr over the course of the project. I also explain how the findings from this research led the team to make recommendations that, if implemented, have the potential to dramatically improve the functionality of the hospital. INTRODUCTION / HUMAN-CENTERED, PARTICIPATORY ETHNOGRAPHY, ACTION RESEARCH HEALTHCARE, DESIGN, ARCHITECTURE Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) and Emily months of research, intended to contribute Carr University of Art + Design commissioned to fundraising efforts for the hospital by four design students to help identify effectively pinpointing areas of high priority opportunities related to the redesign and for the renovation project. renovation of the Lions Gate Hospital (LGH) foyer space. Team leader and Industrial Design PARTICIPATORY DESIGN PROCESS / (ID) student Irene Schmid, along with ID In order to achieve cohesive results, the Emily students Jesse Mah and Solveig Johannesen, Carr team looked to innovative techniques and Interaction Design student Jessica Carson. including action and human-centred research. The team worked closely with IBI Group, the Cal Swann describes action research as a “… architecture firm that developed the master participatory activity where the researchers plan for the future reconstruction of Lions Gate work in equitable collaboration… [and] the Hospital. IBI has a history of incorporating project proceeds through a spiral of cycles participatory design research into their of planning, acting, observing and reflecting planning process. Using unique research in a systematic and documented study.” The methods to gather data, the Emily Carr team Emily Carr team aimed to do just that, while was able to generate detailed recommendations also looking to the professional field of design for IBI, VCH and LGH to consider for the research for inspiration. interim renovation of the foyer space. The Many design firms incorporate human- initial goal of the Emily Carr team was to centred research in the design process. For determine the current functionality of the foyer example, Frog Design, an interdisciplinary space in order to make recommendations for firm with experience in design research for improving it. We designed our custom research a healthcare setting, self-describes their methods to analyze issues of way-finding, method as a three-step process: Discover, traffic flow, space allocation and service Design and Deliver. usage, while engaging hospital stakeholders in the process. The outcome was a design During the Discover phase, intensive document that details the findings of four participatory research and strategic analysis
23“We designed our custom research methods to analyze issues of way-finding, traffic flow, space allocation and service usage…”allows designers to gain insight into and Ethnographyhighlight opportunities presented by a Spending time in the foyer space interviewingparticular problem. Results from the Discover volunteers, visitors and staff allowedphase provide usable data and credibility to the researchers to take note of the subtleDesign and Deliver phases. interactions that occur in the space on a day- to-day basis. Observations and interview notesThe Emily Carr team worked with a similar were carefully documented and made availablesystem, creating methods for user engagement to all team members using Google Docs, anto generate usable data to be synthesized and online, file-sharing system. This rigorousanalysed for design and delivery to the client, observation tracking allowed the Emily Carrin this case Lions Gate Hospital, Vancouver team to reference our notes and added anotherCoastal Health and IBI Group. In “Healthcare layer of depth to the findings generated inNow,” Frog Design states that “the healthcare other exercises.experience isn’t just about medical needs: itincludes financial issues, personal goals, and Quantitative data is also important to thedaily behaviour. That’s why effective innovation research process; for the LGH project, thestarts by understanding people—both patients Emily Carr team conducted a survey over anand professionals—and by considering how eight-hour period, gathering 130 responses.their needs can be met and aligned.” Through a (image 2) The survey questions were designedseries of research methods designed to engage to investigate how participants used the space,the hospital community, including visitors, definitions of user types (e.g. staff or visitor,patients and staff, the Emily Carr team set out first time or experienced) and what featuresto understand the real needs of the Lions Gate and services were most used. The surveyHospital foyer users. results, combined with statistics provided by the hospital cafeteria and the volunteer-runRESEARCH METHODOLOGIES / information desk, allowed the research teamParticipatory research methods can be to create information graphics and visuallycustomized to a given project. In the case of outline how the space is currently used.the LGH foyer renovation project, the EmilyCarr team noted that a healthcare setting is image 1 / The Emily Carr team conducts a visioning session exercise with LGH stakeholders to tap into their tacit knowledge of what a hospital should be like.particularly unique. When conducting researchinvolving human participants, care must betaken to ensure that participants are not put atrisk; receiving approval from the Emily CarrResearch Ethics Board is a critical part ofthe process.Upon approval, the Emily Carr team proceededto carry out a series of custom researchmethods including ethnographic research,visioning sessions, space-related studies andan engagement session involving an interactivearchitectural model. Data gathered frommultiple, participatory exercises designedaround the research question allowed forcross-referencing and triangulation ofinformation, allowing us to generate viablerecommendations.
Coffee shop (Mehri’s Cafe) Hand sanitizer dispenser Cafeteria Gift shop Information desk Temporary vendors Bank machines“The evolving diversity of human-centred research methodologies Patient location telephone *Other responses includes: Cashier Admissions Candy vending machine Newspaper vending machine Chapel or Chaplain’s office Collective parking meter Public telephone Food and drink dispensers All other responses* Courtesy telephone for taxis 0 10 20 30 40 Number of Respondentswill undoubtedly propel the field of design forward,” image 2 / A survey was designed to investigate the way the foyer space is used, estimate user categories and establish a hierarchy of uses. Visioning Sessions Space study Visioning sessions were held twice with groups Conducting video walk-through exercises with of LGH stakeholders. During the approximately targeted participants highlighted key problems two-hour long sessions, participants were with way-finding and physical navigation in the asked to complete two exercises. In the first foyer space. This exercise was carried out with activity, participants were given a collection of multiple participants including those participants 130 evocative images.(image 1) using wheelchairs, those over 65 years of age, and those who spoke English as a learnt language. They were asked, in some cases individually Each participant was given a problem scenario, and in other cases working in groups, to select such as finding a patient on a particular floor, nine images from the collection that most and had to attempt to carry it out. With cameras represent what a hospital should be and to attached to their chests, participants narrated their provide a word or phrase corresponding to experiences aloud, making comments when they each selected image. Results from this exercise encountered problems or when things were going gave the Emily Carr team visual clues as to smoothly. This observational narrative allowed colour palette and general feeling that most the Emily Carr team to capture screen shots and stakeholders find important in a healthcare commentary during relevant moments. setting. The second activity in the visioning sessions, the Post-it exercise, involved placing Five different entrances provide access to the foyer, colour-coded Post-it notes on large-scale, wall- and assumptions had been made about which mounted panoramic images of the foyer space entrances were used most often. To determine and surrounding outdoor areas. Orange Post-it if the assumptions were correct, the Emily Carr notes represented negative elements within the team produced custom door counters using space, green notes represent positive elements magnetic sensors and Arduino microprocessors and blue notes represented elements necessary and installed them over a four-day observational to the functioning of the space. Participants period. The data from the door counters produced were also asked to write specific comments on interesting results, dispelling assumptions as each note they placed. This exercise generated well as providing insight on where to locate the a wealth of specific comments that overlapped information desk within the space. extensively in both sessions.
25 Engagement Session Our last participant-oriented exercise was an Based on survey results and statistical analysis, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS interactive architectural model activity. The the Emily Carr team concluded that certain I thank the Emily Carr engagement session was held in late October, service areas, including the gift shop and the design research team, including Irene Schmid, and included a presentation of the team’s cafeteria, could be reallocated to make better Jesse Mah and Solveig findings based on research to that date. The use of the space. Johannesen, as well as model itself is a large-scale floor plan showing Emily Carr, Vancouver Results from the nine images and Post- Coastal Health, Lions the hospital’s current layout under a plexiglass it exercises highlight the importance of Gate Hospital and IBI sheet.(image 3) Colour-coded acrylic cubes incorporating a sense of community into the Group Architects. represent the various services available, and space. can be moved around on the floor plan to REFERENCES create different space configurations. Dry-erase Feedback from volunteers at the information Swann, Cal. “Action markers are used directly on the plexiglass desk prompted the team to develop a new Research and the Practice of Design.” to denote any desired custom re-working of way-finding map for the information desk to Design Issues 18.2 (2002): the structure itself. This game environment hand out. 49-61. allowed LGH stakeholders to contribute Because the nature of the research allowed for “We Meet Design physical suggestions about how the space could Challenges with a Simple a high level of stakeholder engagement, the potentially work better. Yet Powerful Process.” results and recommendations are likely to be frogdesign.com. Frog well received. Not only that, but the findings Design Inc., 2011. Web. 8 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS / can be conclusively verified with documented December 2011. By analyzing the findings of these various data and a comprehensive understanding “Healthcare Now.” research methods, the Emily Carr team was of the specific needs of Lions Gate Hospital frogdesign.com. Frog able to make ten concise recommendations for foyer users. This kit of methodologies can be Design Inc., 2011. Web. 8 the Lions Gate Hospital foyer renovation. Some applied to almost any design problem, and is December 2011. examples of recommendations based on data of particular use in architectural design. The Schmid, I., J. Mah and analysis include: evolving diversity of human-centred research J. Carson. Research & methodologies will undoubtedly propel the Methods for Medical Ethnographic research combined with data field of design forward, allowing for improved Design, (2011), 33. from the door counters suggested suggests that communication with users and a higher quality re-locating Mehri’s Place Café, the coffee shop of designed artifacts, systems and spaces. in the foyer, should be a high priority in order to reduce congestion at the north entrance. rin ed du cod g ed r- us lou as h co n. es w wit sio ic l es erv de t s t s mo en en ral em fer tu ag dif tec ng g hi t e tin arc an en e ip es tiv tic pr ac ar re ter r p es in he ub n ot c c / Aan ryli e 3 ac ag im
nteractivity Celeste Vivian Martin Ziereisen / Intervie & Kendra w with ale Stalder xandra samuel / Designing Processes Th e vignellis in eb ook : productionBoo ks g o pa perl ess and inte ract ive on t he i Pad .
27 Social + interactiveIntroduction / media centrethe social + interactive media centre (sim ) helps BC companies tap the design, creativeand technical expertise of Emily Carr faculty and students. Funded by a 5-year grant fromthe Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), SIM supports a widerange of applied social, interactive and design projects. The Centre’s research programengages BC companies as collaborators in uncovering new ways to use social technologiesand tackle interactive design challenges.The applied research capacity of the SIM and largely built by Emily Carr students, withCentre gives BC companies direct access to the technical support from Steam Clock Software.innovative thinking, design skills and research For web developers Affinity Bridge, partneringexpertise of BC’s most creative faculty and to build Participedia, an innovative researchstudents. Our partners span the technology platform that convenes world leaders in theand creative sectors, including everything from research and practice of deliberative democracyweb and software developers to film publishing and democratic innovation.companies. SIM Centre projects have included: For epublishing startup BookRiff, developing aFor web developer Work at Play, testing the set of ebook prototypes that represent the eclecticpotential of their DEQQ social software tool possibilities for ebook ideation and design.by using it to support online conversations inan English class. The insights Work at Play got As the SIM Centre grows, epublishing hasfrom this test helped them position DEQQ for emerged as one of our core areas of research.its successful launch as the social platform for The advent of tablet computing has openedall the Canadian teams in the NHL. the doors to new kinds of books that integrate rich media, touchscreen interactivity, nonlinearFor broadcast producer Paperny Films, storytelling and social interaction. Companiesdeveloping the concept for a web and mobile in a range of industries, including not onlyapp to support their Food Network Canada publishing but also software, film, and gaming,show, Eat Street, and connecting them with are moving toward ebooks as new medium forVancouver’s Invoke as a development partner. their work. But the creative and implementationTogether, Paperny and Invoke received challenges of creating enhanced books requiressignificant funding from the Bell New Media a diverse set of skills and expertise. Emily Carr’sFund, and have made Eat Street one of the top varied strengths, which run from print andLifestyle apps on the Apple iOS app store. interaction design to film and animation toFor the web mavens at Mozilla, creating an illustration, are helping BC companies exploreebook version of Learning, Freedom & the this new medium.Web, a book about the future of learning andeducation. This enhanced ebook was designed / Alexandra Samuel
interview withalexandrasamuel /celeste martinJanuary 12, 2012 / you might have a videographer, a director, aceleste martin : We are here today with whole film crew in fact, going into the processAlexandra Samuel, director of the Social and of building that title. Illustrators, soundInteractive Media Centre (SIM) at Emily Carr. engineers, it is almost limitless.The SIM Centre has been engaged in eBookdevelopment in the last year through a wide And the other part that changes is the role ofrange of projects involving design students and the reader; we are used to the reader as thisindustry partners. How would you characterize passive vessel into whom the book’s contentDesign’s contribution to the future of the book? is poured. But when you look at a title that includes interactivity, or even just collaborativealexandra samuel : The whole idea of the book annotation, the notes that I read, the highlightsis breaking down because of this evolution somebody else has left, are able to becomefrom the printed codex to the digital book, first part of the book’s content. So, I think it’sthrough e-readers like the Amazon Kindle and reasonable to think about readers as partnersthe Nook, and now with the advent of tablet in the creation of the book and in somedevices, most notably the iPad. We are really sense co-authors of that book or that readingopening up the possibility of what a book can experience.be, and introducing all sorts of interactiveelements, multimedia, and social elements that CM: Interesting; so, within this context, howchallenge our conventional notions of books. useful is the term ebook? Should we insteadAnd once you start bringing in those kinds of being talking about (digital) device-basedmedia elements and those design possibilities reading, digital literature, new media literacies,the design of the book becomes so much more or some thing else?than just font selection or layout and becomes AS: It’s still useful to talk about books asreally part of the way a book is conceived, opposed to reading, because reading is goingdeveloped and even written. to fail to describe a lot of what might happen in an ebook. So, for example, if we were toCM: Can you illuminate us a bit on the ebook talk about a traditional coffee table book thatecology? Who are the major stakeholders and might be a collection of photography or awhat do you see them gaining access to? catalogue it’s not really accurate to describeAS: Sure. To create an enhanced ebook you need that as reading when you are flipping througha much wider range of expertise than what it photographs. When you are looking at antakes to publish a traditional book. With a tablet ebook that includes elements of film or image,book you are starting to blur the lines between photography, illustration, interaction, readingbook and app, so the team of people it takes to may only be a portion of what you are doingcreate a title might include a software architect, when you are using that title and it may bea software developer, an interaction designer, a actually totally beside the point, you mightcommunication design team who are thinking have not any text within the title at all.about how the book will look but also how it Arguably for that reason you might want towill function. You may have various kinds of dispense with the label of book as well, but Imedia artists; if you are incorporating video, think that book is still a useful term because
29it helps us define expectations about what thisexperience is going to be. If you look at apps thatare on the line between book and app, if theydidn’t come with the label “book” you wouldn’tnecessarily perceive them as a book: it is acollection of content, you may be navigating ina way that is totally non linear, but once you putthe book label on it, certain expectations that weinherit from the codex.That includes expectations about a book as introducing all sorts of interactive elements, multimedia, and social “We are really opening up the possibility of what a book can be, andsomething you are engaging with deeply,something that presents an idea or set ofideas, and something that, I would argue, hasthe potential to change the reader. Unlike amagazine or an app that presents content or elements that challenge our conventional notions of books.”headlines, when you open a book you havethis sense that you are going to be having anexperience that is coherent and that has thepotential to leave you as a different person evenif that just means a person with a different idea CM: Would you discuss some of the majorof the world, a different idea about a particular affordances you see developing around ebooks?topic or a different set of knowledge. AS: Ebooks open the door to engaging with soCM: If we were to think in a longer time line, many forms of creativity and skill within thesubjecting ebooks to the historical perspective Emily Carr community, from illustration to filmof the codex or even movable type, what do you making, and from print design to interactionforesee in this digital transition, transformation, design. You might even get into thinkingtranslation? creatively about the ebook as an experience in a way that our performance art students andAS: I think a lot about video games. We are really faculty will have very interesting ideas around.on the early stages of recognizing video gamesas part of our cultural repertoire, we still think Ebooks are amenable to all of those differentof them as gadgets or distractions. There a lot forms of creativity because of the parameters ofof folks out there making the argument that a the devices themselves. With an Android tabletvideo game is an important form of narrative, or iPad you can do anything you can do in a webespecially for younger people who spend more browser, and actually more than that becausetime with video games than any other media, they are gesture and touch-based. You can haveand we are seeing examples of video games that simulated tactile experiences which engagereally do tell a story, have a creative vision, and us in a synesthetic way: you can have a title inhave challenging content.. If you think about which when somebody slams the door, yourebooks as experiences that might converge with tablet physically vibrates. You can have a bookthe way video games are experienced or the way where if you tip the tablet the text slides off thesome very interactive websites are experienced, screen, because most of these tablets have anwe can anticipate a time when ebooks will accelerometer.become a part of our cultural repertoire, as one The part that interests me the most is that youform of narrative that we may enjoy alongside can have titles that are deeply social; we arefilm, gaming or traditional reading. now having an experience of the web throughRight now the vast majority of ebook experiences social media where interaction and conversationare linear. Many people talk about the possibility is an expected part of the web experience; thatfor ebooks to become more like the “choose your expectation is coming to the book. The idea ofown adventure” books that were popular for a a book as a solitary engagement is really deeplywhile. That starts to bring us closer to video embedded in our culture. Younger people whogames: the idea that the reader would actually are growing up with this ubiquitous socialshape the experience of the narrative, the order layer in everything they do, because they arein which the text is experienced or the order in constantly facebooking and texting, are actuallywhich the content is navigated. nostalgic or protective of that solitary quality of
reading, the idea that reading is immersive. For Books are also really core to our notions of many titles that will continue to be the preferred democracy. If you look at the history of the way of engaging. printed word and the rise of the printing press, they are very tightly intertwined. It was only But for a lot of titles it is also going to be with the advent of print and the ability to create deeply enriching and exciting to see a book as books, and later periodicals, that you were able“Ebooks open the door to engaging with so many forms of creativity a community, to have your reading experience to create a sense of a common discourse: people and skill within the Emily Carr community, from illustration to film enhanced by your simultaneous opinions or reading, sharing and discussing the same set of asynchronous comments of other people reading ideas. When you start to chip away at the edges the same text. To see the pages that most people of what we understand that artifact to be you have commented on or that most people have start challenging our notions of the role of the read rising to the fore of your text because book as a core part of our democratic discourse. presumably they are the most important pieces If people don’t engage deeply with ideas the of content. To share in real time, so that if you way that you would in a book, what will fuel our are reading a passage that you think is amazing, democratic conversations? you can take that paragraph and you can tweet itmaking, and from print design to interaction design.” right away, or you can facebook it, you can post CM: You’ve participated in a number of projects it to your online community site, you can put it through the “Art of the Ebook” program in the on to your blog. SIM Centre and you’ve worked with teams of designers and content providers. What would Conventional reading has been increasingly you identify as the major challenges of working sidelined because people are putting their with these teams? attention into the forms of content that are socially enriched, or that they are able to AS: One of the challenges that we face at this integrate into their own narrative by pulling moment is that we are all excited about the it on to their blog. The idea that those reading possibilities for transcending the traditional experiences can now become part of my social book but we are also really bounded in our stream and my fellow readers can be part of my imagination by that experience. If you look at community, really speaks in a very exciting way what has been done by publishers versus what to the social power of reading. How many of us is being done by software developers, I would have had these wonderful conversations with argue that the most exciting work in the ebook friends where they just read the book you just space is coming from people who do not have a read, and you really connect around it. Now that background in publishing simply because they experience is easier to find because you’ll be are less constrained in their imagination. One of able to see the people who are reading the same the sponsors of our first big ebook project was book as you and maybe even discuss it as you BookRiff, which is a spin off of a very eminent are reading it. Then you’ll also be able to take Canadian publisher, Douglas & McIntyre, and I that experience of reading directly into the social think it is telling that it is a spin off because you networks where you are all being engaged. do need to create that space for an epublishing project to be something of its own that isn’t too CM: Moving away from the technicalities and tightly connected to the way that publishers characteristics of ebooks, and thinking of them traditionally work. In the case of BookRiff, they as a cultural artifact, why do we care about how are creating the kind of the iTunes of books; we define them or about how they are received? instead of a book being something that a AS: Books are one of the central artifacts of our publisher defines and binds and hands to you, a culture, and they are important both in terms book is something you essentially create or co- of knowledge creation and learning. The book create by finding the content that is relevant and remains the core of our model of learning; packaging it up and reading it as a single volume now, that model is changing, but if you can either online or in print. find a student that hasn’t had a book assigned throughout the course of their education I’d be very surprised.
31CM: eBook or website? Where do we put That really points to the convergence of thecontent? Do we need ebooks? web and the ebook, and both the limitations and the value of ebook as a label. Using theAS: One the more interesting projects we title of “book” you are framing the expectationhad a chance to work on here is the Learning, for how people are going to interact with it, andFreedom & the Web that we developed for Mozilla. encouraging them to dig deeper, to engage withMozilla is known very much as a web entity: the content. I hope the word ebook will persist,they are the folks behind Firefox and their because I think it speaks to a really importantwhole mission is to support an open web and need in our culture, which is for people toto support the technologies, the processes, the engage deeply with ideas.people that make the web such an extraordinaryand vibrant place. So it is very appropriate that At the end of the day it doesn’t matter whetherwhen we looked to create an ebook for a title people are deeply engaging on a laptop screenthey had authored about the future of learning or a tablet screen or a phone: if they are havingthat we wanted to do that in a way that was as that experience of diving into the text or into aopen as the web that Mozilla advocates for. We collection of content, they are readers. They arecreated the title in HTML5 because that is open experiencing a book.standard, it has the ability to run not only onthe iPad but the Android and just about anytablet, desktop or phone. The irony of that isthat the experience of reading Learning, Freedom& the Web does feel quite book-like in the sensethat there is a linear order, a table of contentssort of turned into a navigation bar, but youwould ultimately recognize it as a book. At thesame time, precisely because it was built inthis open way, it works beautifully as a website.You can access this title on the web and youwouldn’t necessarily feel that you were missingsomething by not reading it on a tablet.
Processes in ebook productionDesigning the vignellis: vivian ziereizen & kendra stalder this paper focuses on the process of making the vignellis, a digital publication for the iPad and the technical challenges that came along with it. The end result was a functional ePublication that could be read on the iPad in iBooks. The publication explored the life and work of two famous designers, Lella and Massimo Vignelli of the Vignelli design firm. The goal of the project was to introduce us to a technology we had not yet learned much about and allowed us to gain some experience in sourcing material and gathering assets to make an entire publication from front to back./ It is very important for designers to realize the that pass from the digital to the physical realm. ipad, application Digital publishing, Digital culture technology, Vignelli importance of the shift from print to digital There is no denying that there is something and to accommodate this change as best as beautiful about print—the textures, the smell, possible within their practice. the ability to say “this is mine.” The electronic book, on the other hand, is not finite; it is According to Ron Burnett, “there is no doubt forever changeable and belongs to no one. It is that we have entered an unstable period of not a physical object one can hold on to. This change as various traditional forms of media group project focusing on digital books was shift to accommodate the impact of the assigned to us in a third-year typography class Internet and digital culture in general.” Since instructed by Celeste Martin titled Typographic the introduction of tablets such as the iPad, Systems at Emily Carr University of Art + there has been a shift in how users interact Design in Vancouver, BC. The project involved with content. Contemporaneously, the process sourcing content, both text and imagery, to of publishing material in the electronic realm create an EPUB-type ebook from scratch. Since has become increasingly easier. we were given the option of selecting our The shift from print to digital has many own material, we chose three articles about benefits. Books, which previously took up designers Lella and Massimo Vignelli. While physical space, can be stored in electronic form. their names may not be familiar, their work on By making print more of a valued commodity, American Airlines and the United Colors of designers can enhance the quality of books Benetton is instantly recognizable.
33 “The electronic book, on the other hand, is not finite; image 1 / The Final cover embodies the Vignelli’s bold design style with colourful graphics and clean type. it is forever changeable and belongs to no one.”The three articles and accompanying assets, The EPUB files seemed to take on a mind oftaken from the Design Observer website, focus their own; once exported from Adobe InDesign,on the life and work of these two people, both they often had myriad problems that had toas individuals and as a team. From start to be manually fixed in programs such as Adobefinish, this project was a learning process; one Dreamweaver or Terminal. The most importantof the main challenges was designing a piece lesson that we learned from this experienceabout designers who themselves already have was that there is no real value in memorizingvery strong opinions on what design should be. any workflow. The technology is constantlyWe wanted to make their visual voice apparent changing and is being improved to the pointthroughout the ebook despite the restrictions where users have to do less and less.of the medium. Craig Mod, a designer and writer, points out in “Post-Artifact Books and Publishing,” thatDefining the problem / “the rules for iPad content are still ambiguous.Simplicity can be a beautiful thing; most None of us have had enough time with thetimes, less is more. An EPUB, however, device to confidently define them.” Being newdemands simplicity. When our team first began to the technology, our group did not yet knowdesigning the ebook, we were not clear on what we could and could not do. We frequentlywhat we could and could not do. We quickly turned to the internet for tips on how to fixrealized that in addition to being restricted to certain issues; when one person did not havethe 1024 x 768 pixel dimensions of the iPad the solution, someone else did.screen, we were also limited by the marginsof the “iBooks’,” which did not leave us with Getting started /a big workspace. The level of interactivity The first step in creating our publicationan EPUB offers the user is also considerably involved sourcing the material and gettinglow, especially when compared to the digital permission to use it. We contacted the Designmagazines one can produce using Adobe Observer, and obtained written consent to usePublishing Suite, both in the technical and their articles for our specific purpose. Next, weaesthetic realm. were started creating a concept for our ebook.
Our research included looking at the body of work the Vignelli design firm has created. We considered some of their more influential work, such as the designs for the New York City subway systems, and some print designs they have produced over the years that prominently feature the colour red. The NYC subway maps, especially the older ones, are quite beautiful and simple. The various colourful lines overlapping and spreading over an egg-white surface was a visual that particularly appealed to our team. Iterations / Our final design is the product of various initial iterations that were simplified as the project neared its end. We had the text and imagery that we needed from the Design Observer, but we had nothing that tied the everything together with one cohesive visual language. Our solution was to create a cover and openings for each section that included vector images inspired by Vignelli’s subway map. Cover Iterations The cover went through a process of simplification throughout the project.(image 1) We started by featuring a portrait of theimage 2 / Each article’s opening page is assigneda different coloured circle which corresponded Vignellis together, and while it was a beautifulwith the eBook cover. image, it did not suit the publication. We next appropriated the cover of the NYC subway maps (seen here: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ dsostatic/3947688462/in/photostream). We started with an overabundance of dots and simplified the design as we worked toward the final version. The cover we ultimately chose was the one with colourful dots on a light coloured background, as it most embodied what we think of as Vignelli’s bold design style. Section Iterations The openings for each article also underwent changes throughout the process. Our first iteration was heavily inspired by the colourful
35“Simplicity can be a beautiful thing;most times, less is more. An EPUB, references Big Think. “We Use Too however, demands simplicity.” Many Fonts.” Interview with Massimo Vignelli. Big Think. 15 April 2010. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <http://bigthink.com/lines that are present in the NYC subway map I don’t use more than three or four in my life.” ideas/19591>(seen here: http://www.vignelli.com/recent2. With this in mind, we chose two fonts he uses Burnett, Ron. “Digitalhtml). We started by including the title and often: Helvetica and Bodoni. We soon realized Culture Notes: Partauthor of the article as part of the image, but that this was a poor choice; as anyone can Two.” Blog entry. Criticalthis soon proved to be problematic as the unzip an EPUB file, only freeware fonts can be Approaches to Culture + Media. Emily Carrtext could not be linked to from the contents included. Additionally, high contrast fonts like University of Art +page without using a cheat. The text also Bodoni do not read as well on screen as in print. Design, 6 June 2010.detracted from the beauty and simplicity of the Web. 4 Dec. 2011. As an alternative to our initial choices, we <http://rburnett.ecuad.colourful lines and weighed the image down decided on two open-source fonts from Google ca/archive/2010/6/6/with its bold black presence, so we removed digital-culture-notes- Webfonts. We wanted to keep a degree ofthe typographical element. We then noted part-two.html>. similarity to Helvetica and Bodoni, so we chosethat the article openings did not connect well Mod, Craig. “Books in a sans-serif typeface named Questrial for thewith the simplicity of the cover. We liked the the Age of the iPad.” titles and headers and a serif typeface named Blog entry. Journal.simplicity of the cover, and wanted to carry that Sorts Mill Goudy for the body text. To further Craigmod.com, 4 Marchover into this element of the publication. As establish a connection to Massimo Vignelli’s 2010. Web. 4 Dec. 2011.such, we decided to match the illustrations at <http://craigmod.com/ design, we used two of his favourite colours:the beginning of each article to the cover by journal/ipad_and_ red and black. Red was used for all the titles and books/>assigning a different coloured circle to each headers, while black was used for the body copy.article.(image 2) —.“Post-Artifact Books and Publishing.” Blog Findings / entry. Journal. Craigmod.What the font? / Working on a piece that was about such com, 14 June 2011. Web.When reading a book on iBooks, there is a 4 Dec. 2011. <http:// influential designers was a challenge as we hadshort list of predefined fonts the user can craigmod.com/journal/ to make sure to stay true to their voice, while post_artifact/>choose from, such as Georgia, Baskerville maintaining our own. We also had to workand Verdana. They work, but using presets as a team and play off each others’ strengthswould not add any sense of originality to the acknowledgements to achieve the final product. Mod states, “Ofpublication. As such, we decided to choose our We would like to thank the books we do print — the books we makeown fonts. the Design Observer — they need rigor. They need to be books for letting us use theirMassimo Vignelli is renowned for being very where the object is embraced as a canvas by content and Celesteparticular when it comes to typefaces. In one designer, publisher and writer. This is the only Martin, our typography teacher, who provided usinterview about the proliferation of fonts, he way these books as physical objects will carry with invaluable technicalhad this to say about how many good typefaces any meaning moving forward” (emphasis in help while working onexist: “there’s no more than a dozen, actually original). The same might be said for ebooks. our epublication.
37 lantin : h eon with on researc r’s N maria ouv e ws vanc a dialogue vie changing ating umi n owry / / Ill Stereoscopic 3d centre Louie Introduction / LGlen Paige in september 2009, Kerner Optical approached us with the idea of forming a Stereoscopic 3D Centre at Emily Carr. We took up the challenge, and by November 2009, during the ign Des Interactive Futures conference (on the theme of Stereo) at Emily Carr, we were ready to rt + announce the initiative. Preliminary funding came from Western Economic Diversification of A in February 2010, and by May we officially launched the Centre. rsity nive The S3D Centre allows us to bring together to strengthen connections between artists, arr U people and resources, and to increase the level students, academics, industry representatives ly C of exploration and production of stereoscopic and professionals. The master classes are more Emi images, videos, interactive work, and hybrid in-depth explorations of topics of interest to the e of forms. We are now able to support a full S3D community. Guest speakers and lecturers at the tsid pipeline, from pre-production, to capture, edit, Centre have included Ian Herring of Parralax n ou and display. Members of the S3D Centre team Productions, Dylan Reade of IMAX, and Marty isio possess a complimentary set of skills that Banks of the Visual Space Perception Lab at 3D v include stereoscopic photography, filmmaking, UC Berkeley. dels editing, animation, stop-motion, time-lapse, i mo interactivity, and rigging. Given the technical Our Sponsors / üss complexities of the medium, it is essential that From its inception, the Emily Carr S3D Centre h St all practitioners and researchers involved in the has benefited from the support of many Eric production of S3D develop an understanding of organizations and funding bodies, including the theory and practice of stereoscopic image- Western Economic Diversification (WED), making. The activities of the Centre aim to Natural Sciences and Engineering Research bring together industry professionals, students, Council (NSERC), the Graphics, Animation artists, and independent filmmakers to and New Media Network Centre of Excellence promote the art and practice of S3D. We want (GRAND NCE), and the NRC Industrial to support those who, through their practice, Research Assistance Program (IRAP). This are generating a new cinematic language for support has enabled us to quickly build an S3D. Our objective is to give British Columbia’s applied research portfolio and liaise with local screen-based professionals the training needed industry to align our objectives with their needs. to build the province’s competitive advantage, and to ensure that creators use the third Our Priorities / dimension to produce new ways of telling Our mission is to advance the art of stereoscopic narrative and non-narrative stories. 3D through research, education and training. In addition to workshops and training events, we We have started a series of meetups and master offer courses through Emily Carr’s Continuing classes that feature well-known experienced Studies Program, and are integrating S3D into practitioners in the field of stereoscopic 3D. the regular undergraduate curriculum. The meetups serve as free informal gathering of the S3D community and have helped / Maria Lantin
Before coming to Emily Carr to start up IDS, Lantin led the Visualization Lab within the Advanced Research Technology (ART) Labs at the Banff Centre, and she has an impressive knowledge of the interactive new media. Consequently, Lantin is well aware of the unique challenges involved in reformulating her work in relation to practices and processes creative inquiry. It is clear that she is excited about her work at Emily Carr and the potential to transform the “art school” context into a new space of creative and critial inquiry. “The opportunity to go into an art school was an opportunity for me to define for myself what it means to be a researcher.” For Lantin, the Emily Carr art and design research context is a space of possibility. Deciding what and how to publish in this new research environment, thinking about how “toChanging Views on integrate the practice and the research,” as Lantin suggests, is vital to understanding ofResearch: A Dialogue the transformation of twenty-first century universities. The contributions of artists and designers have the potential to positively affectwith Maria Lantin /Glen Lowry broader thinking about research methodologies and new modes of knowledge production and knowledge mobilization. Recognizing that the question of “art and “ design research” asserts an unstable monad that points to a disparate cluster of practices “It was a very conscious decision and contexts; it is, nevertheless, a key point for me to merge into the art world...The of entry into the transformation of academic innovation with digital media was happening practices across disciplines and institutions. with artists.” Recently, I had the privilege Trans-disciplinary collaborations among artists, of sitting down to video tape a conversation designers and other academics, such as those with Maria Lantin, the director of Emily Carr’s staged with IDS and S3D, reshape knowledge ground-breaking Intersections Digital Studio production (and consumption) in this age (IDS) and new Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) Centre of digital media, or what Communication of Excellence. Lantin’s particularly blend of theorist Henry Jenkins calls an age of “media energy and enthusiasm for contemporary art convergence.” As Lantin’s work demonstrates, practice and background in Computer Science creative practice research is vital to ongoing allowed her to speak eloquently to emergent discussions that are reformulating connections areas of cross-disciplinary practice between throughout the university, not only within creative practitioners (artists, designers, media Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, but makers) and more conventional academics. also across the fields of Science and Applied Taking her PhD in Computer Science into Sciences. new areas of creative practice research, Lantin In our conversation, Lantin and I touched on has built a strong reputation for working with the opportunities and expectations one faces artists to develop and code visual projects. working with artists. Careful to avoid the pitfalls Something of a refugee from the more obvious of an art/scholarship binary, Lantin reflected on climes of the Computer Science Department, her Computer Science training and the larger Lantin has worked inside the university and out. institutional context within which she sees this
39 “For Lantin, the Emily Carr art and design research context is a space of possibility.” work at Emily Carr. On one side of the spectrum, dissertation completion times and the fact that Lantin discussed instances when she is called many of the current crop of PhDs were working on to provide her highly specialized skills and or expecting to work in outmoded forms of knowledge to help the artists or team of artists print culture. It was pointed out that many had realize their creative vision—computer coder entered the field before the advent of social as hired gun. On the other end of the spectrum, media. It seems that artists and designers might she mentioned the work she is doing with Lela have significant methods they can share here. Sujir, Concordia Professor and video artist, with The need to broach difficult ideas and subject whom Lantin has developed a more fluid or matter and to present their research to diverse dialogic form of collaboration in which the two audiences or stakeholders drives creative practice work together to articulate and realize a shared and as such, has allowed professional artists and creative vision. In discussing these different designer to develop vital skills and approaches approaches and possibilities, Lantin is clear that that they might share with other academics. both are crucial and suggest a wider conception All too often however the focus of disciplinary of cross-disciplinary collaboration and to her inquiry and training makes this cross- ongoing growth as a researcher. fertilization difficult, and as Lantin suggests, Computer Scientists do not necessarily recognize“You are not in a discipline; you the contribution of artists. are disciplined.” At the heart of our conversation is the question of changing academic practice, “There’s a lot of joy in making something both from within the Art and Design university happen for someone else. An idea that had and across the larger inter-institutional contexts been brewing in an artist mind could be our academic training allows or expects us to realized by the skills that I have.” traverse. While interdisciplinarity—likewise Challenging the trans or cross disciplinarity—is seen a key desire to speed up the research process and the element of contemporary academic development push to bring ideas to light quicker—in the blink and has been an administrative buzz word of a tweet—Lantin mused on the importance for many years, the practice tends to be of slowing down, of carefully crafting thoughts misunderstood or, worse, oversimplified. There and articulation and situating them within the are many reasons for this, but two key aspects of broader field. With the realm of visualization the problem can be linked to the public nature and computer driven media innovations that of creative enterprises—the fact that artists are integral to Lantin’s multifaceted practice, and designers work very much in the world. the attention to scholarship and to time-tested Notwithstanding the rarified nature of the art scholarly processes provide an important counter gallery system or exclusive nature of significant point to the rush to public that is underwriting areas of design, artists and designers are used academic endeavour across the disciplines. to articulating their goals and intentions for While it might be useful for Humanists to speed nonacademic end users, often lay people. That things up and to engage in a more open, less is in contrast to other specialized scholars obfuscating process of publication, this need whose primary audience is their peers or at least not necessarily be the case for areas of study other specialists in a given field, specialists who that have developed their research agendas in will be conversant with the terms and stakes of the midst of rapid technological change—data a shared discourse. visualization and new media, being obvious examples. Another key issue or related difference has to do with time it takes to develop and disseminate The careful, critical approach Lantin brings to art and design work relative to conventional her collaborations underwrites the powerful scholarship. Lantin and I discussed research potential of Emily Carr’s new research agenda methods, critical precision, and the importance and the influence of IDS and S3D. Her of disciplinary training as a means of engaging commitment to working among artists to hone “in-depth curiosity.” We discussed a recent her own visual methods, while remaining debate among members of the Modern conversant with the training, interests and Language Association (MLA), an international expectation of computer scientists, is a testament organization that represents scholars from to the transformation of 21st century universities across the Arts and Humanities, around long and the influence of hybrid researchers.
Illuminating Vancouver’sNeon /paige louie this paper investigates the definition of design and the topic of the design process in relation to a Museum of Vancouver (MOV) exhibition: The Visible City: Illuminating Vancouver’s Neon. With the growing popularity of design in North American culture, there is an increasing desire to classify and categorize what constitutes design and its impact on everyday life. But is there really a need to separate design from any other field of study? To be a designer, there is a need not only to have knowledge of your subject, but also to have understanding of culture, technology and people. When designers do not understand the world around them, their designs cannot be successful. Through an exploration of the design process that emerged in conjunction with the MOV exhibition, this paper describes my outlook on what design currently is and how I see it maturing and adapting in the future. Introduction / city’s landscape and the public’s memories. As communication design interaction design mobile application augmented reality The Museum of Vancouver (MOV) was Vancouver’s downtown core undergoes rapid founded in 1894 by the Art, Historical and transformation, the MOV strives to bring back Scientific Association. This museum has had the inviting atmosphere of the city’s heyday many changes of address over the years, but by way of exploring the narratives behind it has maintained its purpose: to engage their Vancouver’s neon heritage. Although these audience in Vancouver’s wealth of culture and signs will never again occupy the bustling history. The MOV is currently located in close streets of downtown, this exhibition’s goal is to proximity to the downtown core. According to re-illuminate these neon signs in the minds of its directors, the MOV is working to create a the public. Doing so re-constructs a collective more relatable and dynamic museum. Their memory of the history and heritage of the city goal is to draw in a more diverse audience of Vancouver. Along with a physical showcase to share in the rich history of Vancouver. In of the neon signs, their exhibit includes an September 2011, representatives from the interactive, virtual exhibit online. The design MOV approached Emily Carr third-year team for this project was comprised of myself, Communication Design students to collaborate Ease Poon, Alejandra Rivera, and Dafne on the interactive portion of an upcoming Sagastume. We began by brainstorming on exhibition. This exhibition, The Visible City: the general topic of neon signs, which led us Illuminating Vancouver’s Neon showcases over to create a collaborative mind map. Elzbieta fifty of Vancouver’s heritage neon signs. Only Kazmierczak suggests that creating mind fifty years ago, Vancouver was a riot of colour maps is an effective way of clarifying the that exploded along the downtown streets “mental diagrams of our conceptualizations by way of the largest displays of neon in the about objects and events.” Throughout our world. Vancouver was known nationally as time working as a team, we grew to value the a city of neon. Today, these loud, bright and individual ways each team member approached bold fixtures have all but disappeared from the a design problem.
41 image 1 / Final iPhone Application. Inspiration for the final design it is told, depending on the narrator and the audience.” came from images and illustrations from 60’s. “A single story can be interpreted differently every timeDesign brief / Research and methodology / The goal for this project was to create an Given that we had only four weeks to complete interactive application for smartphones that this project, we were quite limited with the ties the narrative behind a single neon sign amount of research we could do. Luckily, to a larger narrative about the history of University of British Columbia (UBC) students Vancouver. Each team of students was asked to who had already worked in collaboration with the explore a specific sign in a particular location MOV on this interactive exhibition shared their in the city. Taking a multi-sense approach, we research and findings with us. The MOV also gave were to place a particular emphasis on the us access to their newspaper archives from which holistic examination of the social, political and we explored and developed an understanding of economic impacts of each particular sign on the opinions on neon signage during Vancouver’s the city and its residents. We were also asked to most prosperous era. While there was a include the use of an auditory component and substantial amount of information gathered by Augmented Reality (AR) within the application. the UBC students, this data lacked insight into We were shown an example of AR made for the character of the Heights community. As the Museum of London. This application such, as a group we toured the neighbourhood allowed smartphone users to use their Global and talked with the local business owners and Positioning System to find the location of residents. Many businesses in the area are an environment pictured in an artwork that owned by second or third-generation merchants. was currently on exhibit. Once at the site of Overall, we found the community to be a tight- the artwork, museum-goers could use the knit group of individuals from varying walks of application in conjunction with their phone’s life. Through our observations of the Heights, we camera to see the exhibited artwork on top of clearly saw a close bond between the merchants the live view of their current location. Our target and the community at large. After coming to an audience was any person using a smartphone. understanding of the Heights community, we The neon sign assigned to my group was moved on to the story behind the unique kinetic the Helen’s Children Wear sign. This sign is sign. The store, Helen’s Children Wear, opened in located on the border of Vancouver and North 1948; it closed in 2007 because the owner, Helen Burnaby in an area called the Heights. Helen’s Arnold, felt that running a store at the age of 87 sign was bought by the city of Burnaby in 2009 was too much for her. After she sold her store, the and was changed to read “Heights” instead of City of Burnaby bought the sign and changed it“Helen’s.” (image 3) The Heights sign, also known to read “Heights” instead of “Helen’s.” The sign as the swinging girl, is the only kinetic neon currently stands in its original location, having sign left in Vancouver. gained heritage status in 2010.
“... design must be seen as a cultural forming and shaping process because design is much more than creating a simple product.” Development / After familiarizing ourselves with the story that would hypothetically house all of the behind Helen’s sign and the rich history of unique narratives of the neon signs. (image 2) the community surrounding this heritage We wanted the front page to be unbiased landmark, we knew that emphasizing this towards any particular neon sign; the design, community history was going to be our therefore, had to generally represent the time design’s core. As Jodi Forlizzi and Cherie period of the 1950s and 1960s. Through many Lebbon affirm, “at the heart of design is the sketch iterations, we struck an idea we all goal of communication, and installing a belief agreed upon. Each square shows a different in the audience about the past, present or neon sign in black and white, creating a neutral future.” As Forlizzi and Lebbon recommend, background while showcasing the variety of we also strived to create empathy with our the signage. For the final design, we chose target audience. Since our goal was to mitigate five bold colours to illustrate the vitality and the absence of visual and cultural knowledge of playfulness of neon. The second component neon signs, we decided to find a way to use our of our project consisted of the narratives of designs to form and shape a new neon culture. the neon sign and the Heights community. To paraphrase M.P. Ranjan in his work Hand- Because the sign was created in the 1960s, Head-Heart: Ethics in Design, design must be we drew our graphic inspiration from images seen as a cultural forming and shaping process and illustrations from that era. For the final because design is much more than creating a design, we chose to keep the interface mostly simple product. To frame our core narrative of graphic orientated so as to avoid cluttering up the Helen’s/Heights sign, we created a shell the small space of a phone screen. This part of image 2 / A shell application (first two from left) houses all of Vancouver’s neon signs and acts as a portal to applications developed specifically for each sign, such us the Heights (right).
43the mobile application also contained the ARcapability. From our research on effective ARapplications, we came to the conclusion thatsimple graphics and well-planned activitieswere the most engaging. As such, the ARwithin our application only does two things.Firstly, when the user is in AR mode and pointstheir phone’s camera at the Heights sign, itwill display the original Helen’s sign, whether image 3 / The Heights sign at the original location on the boarder of Vancouver and Burnaby. It is the only kineticit is day or night. Secondly, when one is in the sign left in VancouverHeights area with the AR mode activated, textbubbles will appear on top of the shops. When Conclusion /the user clicks on a text bubble, a short sound This project showed me my limitations asclip of a Heights citizen interview will play. a designer and also the effectiveness of a well-organized and diverse design team. As referencesFindings / Robert Harland states in his article “The Almquist, Julka andThis project has given me a better Dimensions of Graphic Design and Its Spheres Julia Lupton. “Affordingunderstanding of the importance of meaning of Influence,” “design is a portmanteau term: Meaning: Design-when creating a design. A single story can be it covers a number of interlaced activities that Oriented Research frominterpreted differently every time it is told, do not fall into distinct categories.” In the the Humanities and Social Sciences.” Designdepending on the narrator and the audience. future, I will strive to extend my knowledge on Issues 26.1 (2010): 3-14.After doing our research and interacting with any and all activities relating to design. I wasthe community surrounding the Heights sign, fortunate enough to have group members with Forlizzi, Jodi andI can fully appreciate Julka Almquist’s and Juila varying skill sets and I feel we all learned and Cherie Lebbon. “From Formalism to SocialLupton’s contention that “while use is most grew stronger as designers during our time Significance infrequently the manifest function of an artifact, collaborating. We worked very hard on creating Communication Design.”meaning can also fill this role.” The sole a visual language that was easily accessible to Design Issues 18.4 (2002):function of this swinging neon girl is to be the our audience. I believe that our project’s focus 3-13.symbol of an affable and caring community. A was on the right scale to engage our target Harland, Robert. “Theparticular strength of our group’s proposal was audience. Additionally, its visual language can Dimensions of Graphicincluding a macro consideration of the entire become the starting point for conversation Design and Its Spheresmobile application exhibition as well as the and new ideas, a concept recommended by of Influence.” Design Issues 27.1 (2011): 21-34.micro consideration of our assigned neon sign. Ann Thorpe. This project also helped cementBecause we included the platform of the main for me the importance of looking back at the Kazmierczak, Elzbieta.application, containing links to the individual past to understand and design for the present “Design as Meaningsigns and their histories, an individual using and future. As Harland asserts, “mapping Making: From Making Things to the Design ofour mobile application for the first time the future of the profession will be difficult Thinking.” Design Issueswould be able to understand the context of without looking back at our history to get a 19.2 (2003): 45-59.the interactive exhibition. Furthermore, for better idea of where we are going.” Designersthe narrative of the Heights sign, we closely have been generally thought of as producers of Ranjan, M.P. “Hand- Head-Heart: Ethics inconsidered the ease of transition between pleasing appearances. Kazmierczak, however, Design.” The Trellis Issuethe individual story told about the sign and suggests that a designer really “create[s] 2.5 (2010): 17-28the collective narrative told by the citizens of relationships among singular symbols.”the Heights. The two parts of our application, These relationships are the means we use Thorpe, Ann. “Design’s Role in Sustainablewhich are entirely distinct in their appearance, to communicate data. This concept is what I Consumption.” Designshare an intuitive and consistent user interface. believe to be the heart of any design. Issues 26.2 (2010): 3-17.
contributors Dr. Rob Inkster / is Emily Carr’s Associate Vice-President of Research and Industry Liaison. His academic training is in Physics, and he holds degrees from University of Victoria and McGill. Dr. Inkster is a serial entrepreneur, who hasJonathan Aitken / is Assistant Dean of Design at Emily Carr founded or acted in senior management positions in threeUniversity of Art + Design. He teaches communication Canadian advanced technology companies, both private anddesign as well as kinetic typography and ebook design. His public. His companies have operated in diverse businessresearch interests have included the application of kinetic areas, including remote sensing, marine acoustics, and fibretypography to live interactive performance. He is currently optics. He currently manages the Research Office, whichexploring the emerging media of ebook design. His involves developing new research programs and funding,educational background is in Communication Design (BFA, the coop and intern programs at ECU, and supporting theYork University) and Industrial Design (MVA, University of Research Ethics Board.Alberta). He previously owned his own design studio and Lois Klassen / is a recent graduate of the Master of Appliedtaught at Ryerson University. Art (Visual Art) at Emily Carr University of Art + Design.David Bogen / is the Vice President Academic + Provost at Her collaborative and interdisciplinary artworks have beenEmily Carr. He served as the Associate Provost for Academic hosted by public galleries, libraries, museums and artsAffairs at the Rhode Island School of Design from 2007- councils in Canada and abroad. She is a Past President of2011, and as the Executive Director of the Institute for VIVO Media Arts Centre Board of Directors in Vancouver.Liberal Arts and Interdisciplinary Studies at Emerson She is currently the Assistant to the Emily Carr UniversityCollege in Boston, Massachusetts from 1997-2007. He has Research Ethics Board.led major initiatives and projects in areas of art and design Maria Lantin / is the Director of the Intersections Digitalresearch, industry/academic partnerships, international Studios research centre at the Emily Carr University of Artprograms, public engagement, and innovative program + Design. For many years she has been joining her loveand curriculum design. His most recent work explores of Computing Science with her belief in the innovativesocial, organizational, and perceptual issues in the design of potential of the arts. A circuitous route led her fromemerging media environments. obtaining her PhD in Computing Science at Simon FraserGrant Gregson / is the Coordinator of Emily Carr’s Teaching University to leading the Visualization Lab at the Banff Newand Learning Centre providing research, training and Media Institute. She has had the joy of bringing to life manyadministrative support of faculty and staff with learning artist projects involving digital technology, and continuesnew technologies that are employed in the classroom, online this practice at Emily Carr where the IDS provides an amplepublishing environments and their own research projects. playground for experimentation.
View of the North Shore Mountains taken from the Vancouver Convention Centre Deborah Shackleton / is an Associate Professor who teaches design and critical studies courses. She attended Ryerson University to study design and media arts, and Royal Roads to study leadership and learning. Deborah’s research andGlen Lowry / has PhD in Literary Studies and has published teaching interests include design theory and research,widely on contemporary Canadian Literature and Culture– human-centred designing, and learning theory for designliterature, photography, film, and television. Recent work development. In addition to her teaching practice Deborahinvestigates new forms of cultural expression and social is a published designer, writer and photographer. Deborahcontexts, particularly around questions of globalization and is one of the founding editors of Current, the university’surbanization. Lowry’s work focuses on new media platforms design journal, and one of several NSERC-fundedthat link scholars, artists, and audiences across cultural researchers looking into design initiatives for the healthand geographical distances: e.g, Maraya project, connecting care sector. In 2010, she was awarded the Ian Wallaceurban waterfronts in Vancouver and Dubai. From 2002- Teaching Award.11, Lowry edited cultural journal West Coast Line. Pacific Julie York / is a sculptor who works in traditional craftAvenue (2009), his collection of poems, looks at image- materials with non-traditional approaches. She receivedbased memory and geography. Lowry regularly shares ideas, a BFA from Emily Carr and an MFA from the New Yorkimages, lectures, and commentary on his blog: http:// State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, Alfred, NY.glenlowry.com. Her work has been included in numerous exhibitions andceleste martin / is an Assistant Professor at Emily Carr. She galleries including the Garth Clark Gallery in New Yorkhas a background in communication design and specializes and Perimeter Gallery in Chicago. York is also the recipientin typography. She has a B.F.A. and M.F.A. from the of Pew Fellowship in the Arts and Window of OpportunityUniversity of Iowa. Her creative work examines the forms of Grant from the Leeway Foundation, and two Creativewritten language, the shapes of letters and their relationship Production Grants from the Canada Council. Her workto space. She is a researcher at Emily Carr’s Social and is included in the permanent collections of the HustonInteractive Media Centre and her current design research Museum, the Schein Joseph International Museum of Art,focuses on the development of enhanced interactive eBooks. and the Burchfield Penny Art Center.Alexandra Samuel / is the Director of the Social and Interactive Bonne Zabolotney / is the Dean of Design + Dynamic MediaMedia Centre. Alex is an expert on social media and online at Emily Carr. She began her career as a communicationparticipation. Her work at the Centre focuses on developing designer in Vancouver in 1993. Her most notable workresearch projects, industry partnerships and community can be found in the philatelic section of Canada’s Nationalevents that connect BC companies with Emily Carr faculty Archives, including her 1999 stamp design recognizing theand students. Alex’s current research projects address the formation of the Nunavut territory, along with five otherpersonal and social impact of technology adoption, and the stamp designs. She has worked with some of the largestrelationship between social media and creativity. Alex blogs arts groups in Vancouver including Vancouver Opera,at Harvard Business Online and on her personal website, Vancouver Recital Society, and Vancouver International Jazzalexandrasamuel.com. She holds a Ph.D. in Political Science Festival. Areas of learning and teaching include typography,from Harvard University and a B.A. in Politics from design and material culture, consumerism, and the visualOberlin College. vernacular.
AcknowledgementsThis Journal would not have been possible without the SOC 309 S001 Spring 2011 /contributions of the following people: Daisy Aylott, Benjamin C. Chan, Krystin M. Clarke, Razia R.Current is the product of many conversations, meetings, Daudjee, Craig Fleisch, Isak Frosta, Lindsay H. Hoy, Ke-Wenhours of writing, editing, and many reviews. We could not Huang, Lindsey P. Kenler, Kyoungmin Kim, Se Na Kwon,have realized this project without the support of Dr. Ron Clea M. Lautrey, Man Hark Law, Joshua H. Linklater, YingBurnett, Dr. Rob Inkster, Sandra Dametto and Lois Klassen L. Liu, Xue Ling C. Loh, Paige N. Louie, Li F. Ma, Katie A.of the Industry Research Office; Grant Gregson, Coordinator Mah, Sabrina G. Ng, Melissa A. Olsen-Peet, Leigh A. Selden,of the Teaching Learning Centre; Barry Patterson and Cari Kendra N. Stalder, Hanna C. Stefan, Erich Stussi, Makiko C.Bird, of Communications, University Advancement. Umezawa, Jordi Vilanova, Emily Y. Woo, Erin E. Worksbeck- er, Han Q. Xu, Shiyao Angel Yu, Andrea V. Ziereisen. SOCS 309 F002 Fall 2011 /Acknowledgement of Financial Support / Darryl J. Agawin, Sophia S. Cai, Jessica L. Carson, Yin TingCurrent is grateful for the support of the Emily Carr A. Chow, Yu-Hui Chuang, Marina T. DeVeiteo, Bree D. Gal-President’s Research Fund, the University’s Industry and braith, Matthew J. Gee, Andrea L. Husky, Arron R. Jackson,Research Office and our advertisers. Ji-Ha Kim, David C. Knauf, Jared R. Korb, Bobbi-Lynn M.DESN 324 Spring 2012 / Kyle, Jeremy T. Lee, Jieun J. Lee, Aaron H. MacDonald, Sa-Razia Daudjee, Jieun (Jane) Lee, Alanna Munro, Sabrina matha K. Matheson, Taegan K. Morgan, Nicholas T. Ng, LilyNg, Janna (Yumi) Simonson, Tracy Tsui, Makiko Umezawa, Orcsik, Maia A Rowan, Yu-Ting A. Su, Joakim N Sundal, Mi-Amanda Wangen, Kieran Wallace, Hailey Yang, Dylan Yee. chelle R. Tanner, Vanessa M. Whitely, Lan Yan, Hee Kyung Yang, Dylan Yee, Fan Yu.
design every dayJune 11 - 25Join us for exhibits, workshops and hands-on experiments to re-imagine daily designencounters and reconsider the processesand products of design.ecuad.ca/cs
creativity shapesour worldEmily Carr University of Art + Design encouragesexperimentation at the intersection of art,design, media and technology. Alumni andfaculty are internationally recognized asaward-winning creators and thought leaders.Our learning community merges research,critical theory and studio practice in aninterdisciplinary environment.Find out more about our Graduate andUndergraduate Programs at ecuad.ca.Nathalie Lavoie | MAA Candidate“An Attempt to Measure Duration with Water”