PHP and MySQL Architectures

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Web applications requires robust PHP and MySQL architectures. This may be for high availability, for sheer performances, or even both. Yet, there is always the nagging question of doing so in an economically viable way. Architecture is not black magic : coming right from the mission goal, it will take most of the load and still look nice in the accounting tables.

During this session, we'll study a number of architectures solutions available to modern PHP architects, and discuss about their impact on availability, performances, PHP programmation, MySQL organization and econometrics.

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PHP and MySQL Architectures

  1. 1. PHP/MySQL Architectures November 7th, 2007, Washington DC, USA
  2. 2. Who is speaking? Damien Seguy Expert services for Nexen Services Statistics provider (and ISP killer) Phather of thousands of elePHPants damien.seguy@nexen.net
  3. 3. Architecture Up to two servers is quite obvious Organize PHP/MySQL application to go beyond 2 servers How one can add more servers then? Keep going up in scale and size
  4. 4. What is your problem? Too much to process? Too much traffic? Too much data? Too much reads? Too much writes?
  5. 5. Architecture criteria Performances Fast to answer High availability (HA) Always accessible, even slowly Evolutivity Going up, going down Marginal cost of adding one server
  6. 6. Two opposing strategies Scale up Scale out
  7. 7. Scale up 'Mine is bigger' Syndrom Really expensive To buy To keep up Less impact on PHP code Actually solve problems Temporarily No way to go back, or just a little
  8. 8. Scale out The Farming syndrom Cheap to reasonnable Easier to evolve one piece a time Significant impact on PHP code The virtualization buzz Automate your installations puppet, Phing, Pear channels,
  9. 9. Web servers farms Balancer : Proxy, load
  10. 10. Web servers farms Lots of work for PHP Dispatching, personnalization, tracking Solutions Export static to a CDN Akamaï, Amazon S3, Youtube, Caches, caches, caches HTML, data, SQL, PHP, Use the 'Share nothing' strategy
  11. 11. Web servers farms Don't tie yourselves to servers When you need to share : sessions Session via NFS Session in a filer Session in the database Zend platform Sessions in memcache
  12. 12. Database problems Read Writing Catch Replication Yes No Lag Partitions No Yes Application Cluster Yes Yes Management
  13. 13. Replication Writing Reading
  14. 14. Replication Ideal for backup or reports Works great to spread the load geographically Excellent for web applications Lots of read, less writes Easy to set up and on budget
  15. 15. Replication : the writes Initial Master Slave1 Slave2 Idle Read Write
  16. 16. Replication Limited by writing Master is idle Slaves are overworked Master is SPOF Master fails, world crumble Persistant problem of lag Will slaves ever catch up? The chore of resynching.
  17. 17. Replication strategies Synchrone replication from Google Ensure queries are also on the slaves Send writing to master, reading to slaves Share tables on different servers Avoid round trip for fast info What kind of lag can you accept?
  18. 18. Partitions Slice your data on several servers MySQL 5.1 has partitions Start early by splitting your tables Then put those tables on two servers. Allow extra storage capacity Raise the writing performances Reduce size of each tables Easy on budget
  19. 19. Partitions Make every group command a chore No GROUP BY, no UNIQUE The key is the partition strategy Bills : by dates Users : by accounts, by group? Need yellow pages to know where is what Huge impact on the PHP application Need for consistent admin scripts
  20. 20. Partitions + replication : shard Master-master replication Writing goes to both servers Easy to set up and configure High availability No waste of ressources Handles reads and insert BUT subtle delete and update
  21. 21. Cluster SQL Management Storage
  22. 22. Cluster Useless below four machines Individual performances start lower Then, they don't change much NDB is not InnoDB nor MyISAM Still difficult to configure This is the way to go
  23. 23. Questions? http://www.nexen.net/ conferences.php damien.seguy@nexen.net
  24. 24. Elements graphiques

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