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  • 1. Keyboarding Instruction
    • Why?
    • When?
    • What?
    • Who?
    • How?
  • 2. Why Teach Keyboarding?
    • Preschoolers are now using the keyboard
    • Without instruction students develop random “hunt and peck” techniques
    • Creative ideas are lost and frustration occurs while searching for correct keys
    • Bad habits become ingrained and are difficult to break
    • Keyboarding is the one computer skill that will not become outdated.
  • 3. Research Shows Many Benefits
    • Greater gains in reading comprehension, vocabulary, word study skills, and spelling
    • Improved independent reading, superior listening and organization skills, and improved attention span
    • Students are stimulated to compose when they can work quickly and do not have to worry about correct letter formation
  • 4. What About Voice Recognition? Will It Replace Keyboarding?
    • Voice recognition computers need to be programmed to recognize each voice that will be used with that computer
    • Users are limited to the machine that is programmed to their voice
    • Businesses using voice recognition are finding problems with the software recognizing different accents
  • 5. Additional Disadvantages
    • Voice recognition is more time consuming than keyboarding
    • Editing errors and making revisions can be difficult
    • Voice recognition software creates an added expense
    • It is not available on all computers
  • 6. Who Should Teach Keyboarding?
    • Ideally keyboarding should be taught by specialists in the field (usually business education majors) with assistance from the classroom teacher
    • A merging of expertise results in a team teaching situation that would be beneficial to all concerned
  • 7. Without Team Teaching
    • Elementary teachers should be given the opportunity to learn touch keyboarding
    • Those responsible for teaching keyboarding should also receive training in the methods of teaching keyboarding
    • All current and future elementary teacher training programs should include the skill and methods of teaching keyboarding
  • 8. Keyboarding Is A Skill
    • Consistent practice is needed--not just once or twice a week like music or art classes
    • Use “mental” practice for daily reviews if a keyboard is not available
    • The keyboard can be presented in ten lessons but it will take more than one class to learn each lesson properly
    • Each lesson must be mastered by touch before moving on to the next lesson
  • 9. When To Teach Keyboarding?
    • Instruction should be provided before students become involved in computer activities requiring extensive keyboarding
    • A readiness phase is suggested from kindergarten to grade two
    • Experts recommend a working knowledge of the entire alphabetic keyboard at the third grade level
  • 10. Kindergarten
    • Identify letters of the alphabet on the keyboard
    • Identify right-hand and left-hand sides of the keyboard
    • Demonstrate use of the space bar and Return/Enter keys
  • 11. First Grade
    • Identify which keys are specific to the right-hand and left-hand sides of the keyboard
    • Enter simple words using hunt and peck method while maintaining use of correct hand
    • Use specialized computer keys (Esc, Ctrl, and basic Function keys)‏
  • 12. Second Grade
    • Demonstrate proper finger position on Home Row keys
    • Demonstrate correct posture and proper stroking on Home Row keys
    • Keyboard simple sentences looking at keyboard when necessary for non-Home Row keys
  • 13. Third Grade
    • Demonstrate proper stroking technique for each letter of the alphabet
    • Keyboard word lists and sentences using correct posture and proper stroking
    • Demonstrate the proper usage of Shift keys
  • 14. Fourth Grade
    • Demonstrate proper keyboarding techniques while increasing speed and maintaining accuracy
    • Display proper skills for keyboarding from copy
    • Demonstrate correct usage of Shift and numerals on top row to obtain commonly used symbols
  • 15. Fifth Grade
    • Increase keyboarding speed by five words per minute while maintaining accuracy and proper technique
    • Demonstrate proper skills to keyboard from copy
  • 16. Sixth Grade
    • Apply proper keyboarding skills across the curriculum
    • Increase keyboarding speed by five words per minute while maintaining accuracy and proper technique
  • 17. What To Teach
    • Ergonomics and correct posture
    • Basic computer usage skills (power on, use the mouse, log in, access programs, log out)‏
    • The home row keys by touch
    • All other letters are taught by touch in relationship to the home row
    • Simple word processing skills like word wrap, delete, edit, save, backup, and print
    • Speed and accuracy development
  • 18. Repetitive Strain Injury
    • RSI is caused by repeating the same task over and over again
    • It can result in the hands and arms from the use of computer keyboards and mice
    • It is a very serious and painful condition that is far easier to prevent than to cure
    • Up to 36% of all Carpal Tunnel Syndrome patients require unlimited medical treatment
  • 19. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • Carpal Tunnel is considered the chief occupational hazard and is one of the more common Repetitive Strain Injuries
    • It is the number one reported medical problem accounting for about 60% of all work-related injuries
    • It is the second most common type of surgery
    • Women are twice as likely as men to develop carpal tunnel syndrome
  • 20. Symptoms of Carpal Tunnel
    • Tightness, discomfort, stiffness, soreness or burning in the hands, wrists, fingers, forearms, or elbows
    • Tingling, coldness, or numbness in hands
    • Clumsiness or loss of strength and coordination in the hands
    • Pain that wakes you up in the night
    • Feeling a need to massage your hands, wrists, and arms
  • 21. Prevention of Carpal Tunnel
    • Correct typing posture and right equipment setup are much more important than ergonomic gadgets like split keyboards
    • Position the chair and keyboard so that the thighs and forearms are level
    • Research shows that a monitor position lower and farther away is helpful
    • Most importantly keep the wrists straight and level
  • 22.
    • Do not rest your wrists on anything while typing
    • Do not bend your wrists to the side. Your fingers should be in a straight line with your forearm
    • Research indicates that all of the above is easier to do if you tilt the back edge of your keyboard down, away from you
    • Rest your hands in your lap instead of leaving them on the keyboard when you stop typing
  • 23.
    • Don’t pound the keys; use a light touch
    • Position the mouse at least six inches from the edge of the desk
    • Hold the mouse lightly, don’t grip it hard or squeeze it
    • Learn and use keyboard equivalent commands to avoid reaching back and forth from the keyboard to the mouse
    • Use two hands to perform double-key operations like Ctrl-C or Ctrl-S
    • Take lots of short breaks to stretch and relax
  • 24. Correct Keyboarding Posture
  • 25. Accuracy Development
    • Use diagnostic tests to pinpoint the source of the students’ errors
    • Individually assign corrective drills that focus on specific letters, fingers, rows, key combinations, or types of errors such as transpositions or opposite fingers
    • Students make more concentration errors than any other type of error
  • 26. Drills To Force Concentration On Each Individual Letter
    • Key each drill line perfectly two to three times before moving to next line
    • Key similar words
    • Key long words
    • Key unusual words
    • Key words in a foreign language
    • Key lines or paragraphs backwards
  • 27. Speed Development
    • Speed development is built by repetition
    • Each line of the speed drill should be keyed perfectly ten times before moving on to the next line
    • Students begin at a slow rate and gradually increase their speed until they are keying at a fast, accurate rate of speed
  • 28. Rotate Types of Speed Drills
    • Sentences containing the most commonly used words
    • Sentences containing long words
    • Sentences containing double letters
    • Sentences requiring vertical strokes
    • Sentences containing one-hand words
    • Sentences containing all letters of alphabet
  • 29. Timed Writings
    • Results are measured in words per minute
    • Every five keystrokes is considered one word (includes spacebar and Enter keys)‏
    • Timings are not designed to improve speed or accuracy and should not be used for that purpose
    • They are used only to measure progress
    • Start with one-minute timings and gradually build to three-minute timed writings
  • 30. What About Accuracy On Timings?
    • Most experts allow one error per minute
    • Opinions vary on whether or not to allow corrections while timing
    • Some experts say not to focus on accuracy until after students learn the key locations.
    • However, allowing unlimited errors at first may cause students to develop bad habits
    • Consider allowing more errors at first and then gradually cut back on number of errors
  • 31. How Shall I Grade?
    • Should I use the top timed writing or should I average timings?
    • Should I include grades on daily work and keying technique?
    • Should I include grading on basic computer knowledge and usage?
    • Should I even be grading at all?
    • Experts cannot agree on these issues!