Week 06 design thinking and sketching


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Week 06 design thinking and sketching

  1. 1. Lecture 6 Design Thinking and Sketching UX Theory / IIT 2014 Spring Class hours : Monday 4 pm – 7 pm 7th April
  2. 2. CONSTRUCTING DESIGN-INFORMING MODELS Textbook Chapter 6. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 3 Figure 6-1 You are here; the chapter on constructing design informing models, within understanding user work and needs in the context of the overall Wheel lifecycle template.
  4. 4. DESIGN-INFORMING MODELS: SECOND SPAN OF THE BRIDGE • What Are Design-Informing Models and How Are They Used? – help integrate and summarize the contextual data – point back to the data, to maintain the “chain of custody” to ensure that the design is based on real contextual data – provide a shared focus for analysis now and, later, design – provide intermediate deliverables, which can be important to your working relationship with the customer • Envisioned Design-Informing Models Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 4
  5. 5. SOME GENERAL “HOW TO” SUGGESTIONS • Maintain Connections to Your Data • Extract Inputs to Design-Informing Models • Use Your “Bins” of Sorted Work Activity Notes from Contextual Inquiry and Contextual Analysis • Represent Barriers to Work Practice Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 5
  6. 6. USER MODELS • Work Roles – Sub-roles – Mediated work roles – Envisioned work roles – Relationship of work roles to other concepts Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 6 Figure 6-2 Concepts defining and related to work roles.
  7. 7. USER MODELS • User Classes – Knowledge- and skills-based characteristics – Physiological characteristics – Experience-based characteristics • novice or first-time user: may know application domain but not specifics of the application • intermittent user: uses several systems from time to time; knows application domain but not details of different applications • experienced user: “power” user, uses application frequently and knows both application and task domain very well Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 7
  8. 8. USER MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 8 Figure 6-3 Relationships among work roles, sub-roles, and user class characteristics.
  9. 9. USER MODELS • Social Models – Identify active entities and represent as nodes – Identify concerns and perspectives and represent as attributes of nodes – Identify influences and represent as relationships among entities – Social models in the commercial product perspective – The envisioned social model • User Personas Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 9
  10. 10. USER MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 10 Figure 6-4 Depiction of entities in the slideshow presentation social model. Thanks to Brad Myers, Carnegie Mellon University, and his colleagues for their case study (Cross, Warmack,& Myers, 1999) on which this example is based.
  11. 11. USER MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 11 Figure 6-4 Depiction of entities in the slideshow presentation social model. Thanks to Brad Myers, Carnegie Mellon University, and his colleagues for their case study (Cross, Warmack,& Myers, 1999) on which this example is based.
  12. 12. USER MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 12 Figure 6-6 Depiction of influences in the slideshow presentation social model.
  13. 13. USER MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 13 Figure 6-7 Example social model for MUTTS.
  14. 14. USAGE MODELS • Flow Model – Creating a flow model diagram – Flow models in the product perspective – The envisioned flow model • Task Models – Tasks vs. functions • Task Structure Models—Hierarchical Task Inventory – Task inventories – Task naming in hierarchical task inventories – Avoid temporal implications in hierarchical task inventories – Envisioned task structure model Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 14
  15. 15. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 15 Figure 6-8 Example flow model from the slideshow presentation contextual inquiry. Thanks to Brad Myers, Carnegie Mellon University, and his colleagues for their case study (Cross, Warmack,& Myers, 1999) on which this is based.
  16. 16. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 16 Figure 6-9 Flow model of our version of MUTTS.
  17. 17. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 17 Figure 6-10 Envisioned flow model for the Ticket Kiosk System.
  18. 18. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 18 Figure 6-11 Hierarchical relationship of task A, the super-task, and tasks B and C, subtasks. Figure 6-12 An incorrect hierarchical relationship attempting to show temporal sequencing.
  19. 19. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 19 Figure 6-13 Sketch of the top levels of a possible hierarchical task inventory diagram for MUTTS.
  20. 20. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 20 Figure 6-14 Partial HTI for MUTTS “sell tickets” task.
  21. 21. USAGE MODELS • Task Interaction Models – Usage scenarios as narrative task interaction models – Elements of scenarios. • Agents (users, people in work roles, often in personas, system, sensors) • User goals and intentions • User background, training, needs, etc. • Reflections on work practice, including user planning, thoughts, feelings, and reactions to system • User actions and user interface artifacts • System responses, feedback • User tasks, task threads, workflows, including common, representative, mission critical, and error and recovery situations • Environmental and work context (e.g., phone ringing) • Barriers, difficulties encountered in usage • And, of course, a narrative, a story that plays out over time Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 21
  22. 22. USAGE MODELS • Task Interaction Models – Envisioned usage scenarios or design scenarios – Step-by-step task interaction models – Essential use case task interaction models – Envisioned task interaction models • Information Object Model – Analyzing scenarios to identify ontology Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 22
  23. 23. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 23 Figure 6-15 Branching and looping structures within step-by step task interaction models.
  24. 24. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 24 Figure 6-16 Task interaction branching and looping for MUTTS.
  25. 25. USAGE MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 25 User Intention System Responsibility 1. Ticket seller to computer: Express intention to pay 2. Request to insert card 3. Ticket seller or ticket buyer: Insert card 4. Request to remove card quickly 5. Withdraw card 6. Read card information 7. Summarize transaction and cost 8. Request signature (on touch pad) 9. Ticket buyer: Write signature 10. Conclude transaction 11. Issue receipt 12. Take receipt Table 6-1 Example essential use case: Paying for a ticket purchase transaction (with a credit or debit card)
  26. 26. WORK ENVIRONMENT MODELS • Artifact Model – Constructing the artifact model • Physical Model – Envisioned physical model Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 26
  27. 27. WORK ENVIRONMENT MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 27 Figure 6-17 Part of a restaurant flow model with focus on work artifacts derived from the artifact model.
  28. 28. WORK ENVIRONMENT MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 28 Figure 6-18 Physical model for one slideshow presentation case. Thanks to Brad Myers, Carnegie Mellon University, and his colleagues for their example (Cross, Warmack, & Myers, 1999) on which this is based.
  29. 29. WORK ENVIRONMENT MODELS Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 29 Figure 6-19 A physical model for MUTTS.
  30. 30. BARRIER SUMMARIES Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 30 # Trigger Goal Barrier 18 Question from remote audience member Answer questions Audio unintelligible. Local members instruct remote members to adjust audio setting. 19 Comment from remote member Respond to comment Audio unintelligible. Local members instruct remote members to reconnect. 20 Comments from local members Respond to comments by referring to slide from earlier in presentation Presenter tries to return to slide. Presenter searches through slides rapidly but cannot find it. 21 Question from local member Answer question Presenter tries again and eventually finds slide. 22 Local member asks presenter to bring up previous slide. Go backward one slide Presenter tries to go back one slide but goes forward one slide instead. 23 Remote audience reconnected Continue discussion 24 Question from remote member Answer question 25 Comment from local member Respond to question Presenter flips through slides searching for “system architecture” slide. Table 6-2 Summary of selected barriers discovered within the step-by-step task interaction models for slideshow presentations
  31. 31. BARRIER SUMMARIES Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 31 Description Model % of Talks Count (Over all Talks) Average Severity Average Duration (Each Time) 1. Changing slides is difficult and awkward because of the placement of the mouse or laptop. Physical 67 166 1.2 2 sec 2. Presenter loses track of time, must ask for verbal update. Sequence 44 6 1.5 55 sec 3. Reference provided is incomplete or skimmed over, audience members would be unable to find it after the talk. Cultural 44 6 1 19 sec 4. Camera view is unclear or pointed at wrong information. Flow 33 3 1.7 60 sec 5. Audio level for demos is not set correctly. Flow 33 3 2 46 sec Table 6-3 Summary of most frequent barriers observed in presentation cases
  32. 32. MODEL CONSOLIDATION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 32 Figure 6-20 Flow model from a group who observed and interviewed the event manager, event sponsors, the financial manager, and the database administrator.
  33. 33. MODEL CONSOLIDATION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 33 Figure 6-21 Flow model from a group who mainly observed and interviewed ticket buyers and ticket sellers.
  34. 34. MODEL CONSOLIDATION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 34 Figure 6-22 Flow model from a group who observed and interviewed the office manager, the advertising manager, and external advertisers.
  35. 35. ABRIDGED METHODS FOR DESIGN-INFORMING MODELS EXTRACTION • Be Selective about the Modeling You Need to Do • Designer-Ability-Driven Modeling • Use a Hybrid of WAAD and Relevant Models • Create Design-Informing Models on the Fly during Interviews Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 35
  36. 36. Exercise 6-3: A Social Model for Your System • Goal – Get a little practice in making a social model diagram. • Activities – Identify active entities, such as work roles, and represent as nodes in the diagram. – Include groups and subgroups of roles and external roles that interact with work roles. – Include system-related roles, such as a central database. – Include workplace ambiance and its pressures and influences. – Identify concerns and perspectives and represent as attributes of nodes. – Identify social relationships, such as influences between entities, and represent these as arcs between nodes in the diagram. – Identify barriers, or potential barriers, in relationships between entities and represent them as red bolts of lightning . • Deliverables – One social model diagram for your • Schedule – This could take a couple of hours. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 36
  37. 37. Exercise 6-4: A Social Model for a “Smartphone” • Sketch out an annotated social model for the use of an iPhone or similar smartphone by you and your friends. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 37
  38. 38. Exercise 6-5: Creating a Flow Model for Your System • Goal: Get a little practice in creating a flow model for an enterprise. • Activities: – Follow up on your flow model initial sketch that you did in Exercise 4-1. – Again represent each work role or system entity as a node in the diagram. – Use arcs between nodes to show all communication and coordination necessary to do the work of the enterprise. – Use arcs to represent all information flow and flow of physical artifacts. – Include all forms of communication, including direct conversations, email, phones, • letters, memos, meetings, and so on. – Include both flow internally within the enterprise and flow externally with the rest of the world. • Deliverables – One flow model diagram for your system, with as much detail as feasible. • Schedule – This could take a couple of hours. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 38
  39. 39. DESIGN THINKING, IDEATION, AND SKETCHING Textbook Chapter 7. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 39
  40. 40. INTRODUCTION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 40 Figure 7-1 You are here; the first of three chapters on creating an interaction design in the context of the overall Wheel lifecycle template.
  41. 41. DESIGN PARADIGMS • Engineering Paradigm – a practical approach to usability with a focus on improving user performance, mainly through evaluation and iteration. – The engineering paradigm also had strong roots in human factors, where work was studied, deconstructed, and modeled. – Success was measured by how much the user could accomplish, and alternative methods and designs were compared with statistical summative studies. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 41
  42. 42. DESIGN PARADIGMS • Human Information Processing (HIP) Paradigm – based on the metaphor of “mind and computer as symmetrically coupled information processors” – About models of how information is sensed, accessed, and transformed in the human mind and, in turn, how those models reflect requirements for the computer side of the information processing, was defined by Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) and well explained by Williges (1982). – it is about human mental states and processes; it is about modeling human sensing, cognition, memory, information understanding, decision making, and physical performance in task execution. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 42
  43. 43. DESIGN PARADIGMS • Design-Thinking Paradigm – “phenomenological matrix.” – brings a vision of the desired user experience and product appeal and how the design of a product can induce that experience and appeal. – They used participatory design techniques to experiment with and explore design through early prototypes as design sketches. – The design-thinking paradigm is about social and cultural aspects of interaction and the design of “embodied interaction” because it is about interaction involving our whole bodies and spirit, not just our fingertips on a keyboard. It is also about “situated” design because it is about the notion of “place” with respect to our interaction with technology. – A primary characteristic of the design-thinking paradigm is the importance of emotional impact derived from design—the pure joy of use, fun, and aesthetics felt in the user experience. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 43
  44. 44. DESIGN THINKING • Design Thinking – Design thinking is a mind-set in which the product concept and design for emotional impact and the user experience are dominant. It is an approach to creating a product to evoke a user experience that includes emotional impact, aesthetics, and social- and value-oriented interaction. As a design paradigm, design thinking is an immersive, integrative, and market- oriented eclectic blend of art, craft, science, and invention. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 44
  45. 45. DESIGN THINKING • Ideation – Ideation is an active, creative, exploratory, highly iterative, fast-moving collaborative group process for forming ideas for design. With a focus on brainstorming, ideation is applied design thinking. • Sketching – Sketching is the rapid creation of free-hand drawings expressing preliminary design ideas, focusing on concepts rather than details. Multiple sketches of multiple design ideas are an essential part of ideation. A sketch is a conversation between the sketcher or designer and the artifact. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 45
  46. 46. DESIGN PERSPECTIVES • Ecological Perspective – is about how the system or product works within its external environment. – is about how the system or product is used in its context and how the system or product interacts or communicates with its environment in the process. within its external environment. • Interaction Perspective – is about how users operate the system or product. • Emotional Perspective – is about emotional impact and value-sensitive aspects of design. – is about social and cultural implications, as well as the aesthetics and joy of use. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 46
  47. 47. USER PERSONAS • What Are Personas? – Personas are a powerful supplement to work roles and user class definitions. Storytelling, role-playing, and scenarios go hand in hand with personas. – A persona is not an actual user, but a pretend user or a “hypothetical archetype” (Cooper, 2004). – A persona represents a specific person in a specific work role and sub- role, with specific user class characteristics. Built up from contextual data, a persona is a story and description of a specific individual who has a name, a life, and a personality. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 47
  48. 48. USER PERSONAS • What Are Personas Used For? Why Do We Need Them? – Edge cases and breadth • Personas are essential to help overcome the struggle to design for the conflicting needs and goals of too many different user classes or for user classes that are too broad or too vaguely defined. • What if the user wants to do X? Can we afford to include X? Can we afford to not include X? How about putting it in the next version? • “Sorry, but Noah will not need feature X.” Then someone says “But someone might.” To which you reply, “Perhaps, but we are designing for Noah, not ‘someone.’” – Designers designing for themselves • Because of their very real and specific characteristics, personas hold designers’ feet to the fire and help them think about designs for people other than themselves. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 48
  49. 49. USER PERSONAS • How Do We Make Them? – Identifying candidate personas – Goal-based consolidation – Selecting a primary persona Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 49 Figure 7-2 Overview of the process of creating a persona for design.
  50. 50. USER PERSONAS • Mechanics of Creating Personas – Your persona should have a first and last name to make it personal and real. – Mockup a photo of this person. – Write some short textual narratives about their work role, goals, main tasks, usage stories, problems encountered in work practice, concerns, biggest barriers to their work, etc. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 50
  51. 51. USER PERSONAS • Characteristics of Effective Personas – Make your personas rich, relevant, believable, specific, and precise – Make your personas “sticky” – Where personas work best • Goals for Design – As Cooper (2004) tells us, the idea behind designing for a persona is that the design must make the primary persona very happy, while not making any of the selected personas unhappy. Buster will love it and it still works satisfactorily for the others. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 51
  52. 52. USER PERSONAS • Using Personas in Design – As you converge on the final design, the nonprimary personas will be accounted for, but will defer to this primary persona design concerns in case of conflict. If there is a design trade- off, you will resolve the trade-off to benefit the primary persona and still make it work for the other selected personas. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 52 Figure 7-3 Adjusting a design for the primary persona to work for all the selected personas
  53. 53. IDEATION • Essential Concepts – Iterate to explore – Idea creation vs. critiquing • Doing Ideation – Set up work spaces – Assemble a team – Use ideation bin ideas to get started – Brainstorm Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 53
  54. 54. IDEATION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 54 Figure 7-4 The Virginia Tech ideation studio, the “Kiva” (photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma,Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  55. 55. IDEATION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 55 Figure 7-4 Individual and group designer work spaces(photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma,Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  56. 56. IDEATION Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 56 Figure 7-6 Ideation brainstorming within the Virginia Tech ideation studio, Kiva (photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Department of Industrial Design).
  57. 57. SKETCHING • Essential Concepts – Sketching is essential to ideation and design – What sketching is and is not – Sketches are not the same as prototypes – Sketching is embodied cognition to aid invention Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 57 Figure 7-7 Comparison between Buxton design exploration sketches and traditional low-fidelity refinement prototypes.
  58. 58. SKETCHING • Doing Sketching – Stock up on sketching and mockup supplies – Use the language of sketching • Everyone can sketch; you do not have to be artistic • Most ideas are conveyed more effectively with a sketch than with words • Sketches are quick and inexpensive to create; they do not inhibit early exploration • Sketches are disposable; there is no real investment in the sketch itself • Sketches are timely; they can be made just-in-time, done in-the-moment, provided when needed • Sketches should be plentiful; entertain a large number of ideas and make multiple sketches of each idea • Textual annotations play an essential support role, explaining what is going on in each part of the sketch and how Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 58
  59. 59. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 59 Figure 7-8 A sketch to think about design (photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  60. 60. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 60 Figure 7-9 Freehand gestural sketches for the Ticket Kiosk System (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  61. 61. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 61 Figure 7-10 Ideation and design exploration sketches for the Ticket Kiosk System (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  62. 62. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 62 Figure 7-11 Designers doing sketching (photos courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  63. 63. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 63 Figure 7-12 Early ideation sketches of K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Department of Industrial Design).
  64. 64. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 64 Figure 7-13 Mid-fidelity exploration sketches of K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  65. 65. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 65 Figure 7-14 Sketches to explore flip-open mechanism of K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  66. 66. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 66 Figure 7-15 Sketches to explore emotional impact of form for K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  67. 67. SKETCHING Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 67 Figure 7-16 Examples of rough physical mockups (models courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  68. 68. SKETCHING • Physical Mockups as Embodied Sketches – Just as sketches are two-dimensional visual vehicles for invention, a physical mockup for ideation about a physical device or product is a three-dimensional sketch. Physical mockups as sketches, like all sketches, are made quickly, highly disposable, and made from at-hand materials to create tangible props for exploring design visions and alternatives. – A physical mockup is an embodied sketch because it is an even more physical manifestation of a design idea and it is a tangible artifact for touching, holding, and acting out usage Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 68 Figure 7-17 Example of a more finished looking physical mockup (model courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  69. 69. MORE ABOUT PHENOMENOLOGY • The Nature of Phenomenology – the philosophical examination of the foundations of experience and action. – But it is not about logical deduction or conscious reflection on observations of phenomena; it is about individual interpretation and intuitive understanding of human experience. • The Phenomenological View in Human–Technology Interaction – an affective state arising within the user. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 69
  70. 70. MORE ABOUT PHENOMENOLOGY • The Phenomenological Concept of Presence – presence of technology as part of our lives: – “We argue that the coming ubiquity of computational artifacts drives a shift from efficient use to meaningful presence of information technology.” – This is all about moving from the desktop to ubiquitous, embedded, embodied, and situated interaction. – the “new usability” as a shift from use to “presence.” • The Importance of Phenomenological Context over Time – Usage develops over time and takes on its own life, often apart from what designers could envision. Users learn, adapt, and change during usage, creating a dynamic force that gives shape to subsequent usage (Weiser, 1991). Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 70
  71. 71. Exercise 7-1: Creating a User Persona for Your System • Goal – Get some experience at writing a persona. • Activities – Select an important work role within your system. At least one user class for this work role must be very broad, with the user population coming from a large and diverse group, such as the general public. – Using your user-related contextual data, create a persona, give it a name, and get a photo to go with it. – Write the text for the persona description. • Deliverables – One- or two-page persona write-up • Schedule – You should be able to do what you need to learn from this in about an hour. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 71
  72. 72. Exercise 7-2: Practice in Ideation and Sketching • Goal – To get practice in ideation and sketching for design. • Activities – Doing this in a small group is strongly preferable, but you can do it with one other person. – Get out blank paper, appropriate size marking pens, and any other supplies you might need for sketching. – Start with some free-flow ideation about ways to design a new and improved concept of your system. Do not limit yourself to conventional designs. – Go with the flow and see what happens. – Start with design sketches in the ecological perspective. – Make some sketches from an interaction perspective showing different ways you can operate the system. – Make sketches that project the emotional perspective of a user experience with your product. This might be more difficult, but it is worth taking some time to try. – Ideate. Sketch, sketch, and sketch. Brainstorm and discuss. • Deliverables – A brief written description of the ideation process and its results, along with all your supporting sketches. • Schedule – Give yourself enough time to really get engaged in this activity. Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 72
  73. 73. Set up your Pinterest Page Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 73
  74. 74. Set up your Pinterest Page Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 74
  75. 75. Link it to your blog Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 75
  76. 76. Homework Lecture #6 IIT_UX Theory 76 Complete Chapter 6 Exercises Complete Chapter 7 Exercises 1 2 Your Blog Post #9 - Social Model - Sketch for a “smartphone” - Draw a flow model diagram for your system Your Blog Post #10 - Create a user persona - Try your Initial sketches - Upload to the Pinterest “Sketch” Folder. Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 13th April Complete the Online Survey 3 Google Doc Survey on System Concept Statements - TBA on Facebook page - https://www.facebook.com/UX.t heory