Lecture 1

Introduction to User Experience Research
UX Theory / IIT 2014 Spring
Class hours : Monday 4 pm – 7 pm
3rd March
Beginning of the Semester

HELLO & WELCOME

Lecture #1

IIT_UX Theory

2
Goals & Overview
•

UX theories, and methodologies.
– User experience in practice needs a wide range of knowledge from com...
Class Operations
•

Lectures
– This is a lecture focused course that will cover introductory literatures of HCI and User
E...
Evaluation
• Homework 30 %
• Midterm 30%
• Final 30%
• Attendance 10%

Lecture #1

IIT_UX Theory

5
Textbooks
– Hartson, R., & Pyla, P. (2012) The UX Book : Process and Guidelines for
Ensuring a Quality User Experience, Mo...
Lecture

INTRODUCTION

Lecture #1

IIT_UX Theory

7
The components of UX
• User Experience
– User experience is the totality of the effect or effects felt by a user as a
resu...
The components of UX
•

Usability
– Usability is the pragmatic component of user experience, including effectiveness,
effi...
The components of UX
• Emotional Impact
– Emotional impact is the affective component of user experience that
influences u...
Ubiquitous Interaction
• Desktop, Graphical User Interfaces, and the Web Are Still Here and
Growing
– The “old-fashioned” ...
Ubiquitous Interaction
• The Changing Concept of Computing
– Computer systems are being worn by people and embedded within...
Ubiquitous Interaction
•

The Changing Concept of Interaction
–

With an obviously enormous market potential, mobile commu...
Ubiquitous Interaction
•

The Changing Concept of Interaction
– When this happens, it is sometimes called “ambient intelli...
From Usability to User Experience
• The Traditional Concept of Usability
– Usability is that aspect of HCI devoted to ensu...
From Usability to User Experience
• Misconceptions about Usability
– First, usability is not what some people used to call...
From Usability to User Experience
•

The Expanding Concept of Quality in Our Designs
– The field of interaction design has...
From Usability to User Experience
• Is Not Emotional Impact What We Have Been Calling User Satisfaction?
– Some say the em...
From Usability to User Experience
• Functionality Is Important, but a Quality User Experience Can Be Even
More So
– The iP...
From Usability to User Experience
•

Functionality Is Important, but a Quality User Experience Can Be Even More So
– Hasse...
From Usability to User Experience
•

A Good User Experience Does Not
Necessarily Mean High-Tech or “Cool”
– The best user ...
From Usability to User Experience
• Design beyond Just Technology
– Design is about creating artifacts to satisfy a usage ...
From Usability to User Experience
•

Components of a User Experience
– The newer concept of user experience still embodies...
From Usability to User Experience
• User Experience Is (Mostly) Felt Internally by the User
– User experience, as the word...
From Usability to User Experience
• User Experience Cannot Be Designed
– A user experience cannot be designed, only experi...
From Usability to User Experience
•

User Experience Cannot Be Designed
– We illustrate this concept with a non-computer e...
From Usability to User Experience
• User Experience Cannot Be Designed
– When this semantic detail is not observed and the...
From Usability to User Experience

Figure 1-2

User experience occurs within interaction and usage context

Lecture #1

II...
From Usability to User Experience
• Role of Branding, Marketing, and Corporate Culture
– For example, consider the case of...
From Usability to User Experience
• Role of Branding, Marketing, and Corporate Culture
– Similarly, when Apple sent call c...
From Usability to User Experience
• Role of Branding, Marketing, and Corporate Culture
– And, again, it is all about desig...
From Usability to User Experience
• Why Have Such a Broad Definition?
– We believe that the user experience can begin well...
From Usability to User Experience
• Why Have Such a Broad Definition?
– It needs to implicitly recognize the need for mult...
Homework
•

Personal Statement
–

Length : 1,000 words or less

–

Who I am, and What I have been through

–

Things that ...
Contacts
• Email
– digital.sd.lab@gmail.com

• Facebook
– https://www.facebook.com/UX.theory

Lecture #1

IIT_UX Theory

3...
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Lecture 1 : Introduction to UX research

  1. 1. Lecture 1 Introduction to User Experience Research UX Theory / IIT 2014 Spring Class hours : Monday 4 pm – 7 pm 3rd March
  2. 2. Beginning of the Semester HELLO & WELCOME Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 2
  3. 3. Goals & Overview • UX theories, and methodologies. – User experience in practice needs a wide range of knowledge from computer science, design, and psychology. It requires technological understandings, process refinements, and humanity insights. – The course will discuss each perspective of the theoretical fields that complete the full picture of HCI/UX. User experience is the area of managing the user experience cycles and issues in the help of sophisticated analytical skills. – For the introductory overview, the course will track the basic steps of analysis, design, implementation and evaluation in a brief and essential way. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 3
  4. 4. Class Operations • Lectures – This is a lecture focused course that will cover introductory literatures of HCI and User Experience, which will give an overview of the subject area leading to in-depth selfmotivated studies later. • Class discussions – The class participation, and active discussion will be highly recommended and the activities will be reflected in grades. • Homework – Weekly homework will guide the successful midterm and final achievements so that students should be attentive to each week class activities and assignments following to them. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 4
  5. 5. Evaluation • Homework 30 % • Midterm 30% • Final 30% • Attendance 10% Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 5
  6. 6. Textbooks – Hartson, R., & Pyla, P. (2012) The UX Book : Process and Guidelines for Ensuring a Quality User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann. – Alber, W., & Tullis, T., (2013) Measuring the User Experience: Collecting, Analyzing, and Presenting Usability Metrics, Morgan Kaufmann. – Buxton, B. (2007) Sketching User Experiences: Getting the Design Right and the Right Design, Morgan Kaufmann. – Carroll, J. (Ed.) (2003) HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks: Toward a multidisciplinary Science, Morgan Kaufmann. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 6
  7. 7. Lecture INTRODUCTION Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 7
  8. 8. The components of UX • User Experience – User experience is the totality of the effect or effects felt by a user as a result of interaction with, and the usage context of, a system, device, or product, including the influence of usability, usefulness, and emotional impact during interaction, and savoring the memory after interaction. – “Interaction with” is broad and embraces seeing, touching, and thinking about the system or product, including admiring it and its presentation before any physical interaction. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 8
  9. 9. The components of UX • Usability – Usability is the pragmatic component of user experience, including effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, ease-of-use, learnability, retainability, and the pragmatic aspects of user satisfaction. • Usefulness – Usefulness is the component of user experience to which system functionality gives the ability to use the system or product to accomplish the goals of work(or play). • Functionality – Functionality is power to do work(or play) seated in the non-user-interface computational features and capabilities. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 9
  10. 10. The components of UX • Emotional Impact – Emotional impact is the affective component of user experience that influences user feelings. Emotional impact includes such effects as pleasure, fun, joy of use, aesthetics, desirability, pleasure, novelty, originality, sensations, coolness, engagement, appeal and can involve deeper emotional factors such self-identity, a feeling of contribution to the world and pride of ownership. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 10
  11. 11. Ubiquitous Interaction • Desktop, Graphical User Interfaces, and the Web Are Still Here and Growing – The “old-fashioned” desktop, laptop, and network-based computing systems are alive and well and seem to be everywhere, an expanding presence in our lives. – Word processing, database management, storing and retrieving information, spreadsheet management. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 11
  12. 12. Ubiquitous Interaction • The Changing Concept of Computing – Computer systems are being worn by people and embedded within appliances, homes, offices, stereos and entertainment systems, vehicles, and roads. – Computation and interaction are also finding their way into walls, furniture, and objects we carry (briefcases, purses, wallets, wrist, watches, PDAs, cellphones) – Most of the user-computer interaction attendant to this ubiquitous computing in everyday contexts I staking place without keyboards, mice, or monitors. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 12
  13. 13. Ubiquitous Interaction • The Changing Concept of Interaction – With an obviously enormous market potential, mobile communications are perhaps the fastest growing area of ubiquitous computing with personal devices and also represent one of the most intense areas of designing for a quality user experience. – Interaction, however, is doing more than just reappearing in different devices such as we see in Web access via mobile phone. Weiser (1991) said “. . . the most profound technologies are those that disappear.” – Russell, Streitz, and Winograd (2005) also talk about the disappearing computer—not computers that are departing or ceasing to exist, but disappearing in the sense of becoming unobtrusive and unremarkable. They use the example of electric motors, which are part of many machines we use daily, yet we almost never think about electric motors per se. They talk about “making computers disappear into the walls and interstices of our living and working spaces.” Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 13
  14. 14. Ubiquitous Interaction • The Changing Concept of Interaction – When this happens, it is sometimes called “ambient intelligence,” the goal of considerable research and development aimed at the home living environment. In the HomeLab of Philips Research in the Netherlands (Markopoulos et al., 2005), researchers believe “that ambient intelligence technology will mediate, permeate, and become an inseparable common of our everyday social interactions at work or at leisure.” – In these embedded systems, of course, the computer only seems to disappear. The computer is still there somewhere and in some form, and the challenge is to design the interaction so that the computer remains invisible or unobtrusive and interaction appears to be with the artifacts, such as the walls, directly. So, with embedded computing, certainly the need for a quality user experience does not disappear. Imagine embedded computing with a design that leads to poor usability; users will be clueless and will not have even the familiar menus and icons to find their way! Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 14
  15. 15. From Usability to User Experience • The Traditional Concept of Usability – Usability is that aspect of HCI devoted to ensuring that human–computer interaction is, among other things, effective, efficient, and satisfying for the user. So usability1 includes characteristics such as ease of use, productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, learnability, retainability, and user satisfaction (ISO 9241-11, 1997). Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 15
  16. 16. From Usability to User Experience • Misconceptions about Usability – First, usability is not what some people used to call “dummy proofing.” – Usability is not equivalent to being “user-friendly.” – To many not familiar with the field, “doing usability” is sometimes thought of as equivalent to usability testing. – Finally, another popular misconception about usability has to do with visual appeal. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 16
  17. 17. From Usability to User Experience • The Expanding Concept of Quality in Our Designs – The field of interaction design has grown slowly, and our concept of what constitutes quality in our designs has expanded from an engineering focus on user performance under the aegis of usability into what is now widely known as user experience. – Thomas and McCredie (2002) call for “new usability” to account for “new design requirements such as ambience or attention.” – At a CHI 2007 Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting (Huh et al., 2007), the discussion focused on “investigating a variety of approaches (beyond usability) such as user experience, aesthetic interaction, ambiguity, slow technology,2 and various ways to understand the social, cultural, and other contextual aspects of our world.” Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 17
  18. 18. From Usability to User Experience • Is Not Emotional Impact What We Have Been Calling User Satisfaction? – Some say the emphasis on these emotional factors is nothing new—after all, user satisfaction, a traditional subjective measure of usability, has always been a part of the concept of traditional usability shared by most people, including the ISO 9241-11 standard definition. – Technology and design have evolved from being just productivityenhancing tools to more personal, social, and intimate facets of our lives. Accordingly, we need a much broader definition of what constitutes quality in our designs and quality in the user experience those designs beget. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 18
  19. 19. From Usability to User Experience • Functionality Is Important, but a Quality User Experience Can Be Even More So – The iPod, iPhone, and iPad are products that represent cool high technology with excellent functionality but are also examples that show the market is now not just about the features—it is about careful design for a quality user experience as a gateway to that functionality. – To users, the interaction experience is the system. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 19
  20. 20. From Usability to User Experience • Functionality Is Important, but a Quality User Experience Can Be Even More So – Hassenzahl and Roto (2007) state the case for the difference between the functional view of usability and the phenomenological view of emotional impact. People have and use technical products because “they have things to do”; they need to make phone calls, write documents, shop on-line, or search for information. – Hazzenzahl and Roto call these “do goals,” appropriately evaluated by the usability and usefulness measures of their “pragmatic quality.” Human users also have emotional and psychological needs, including needs involving self-identity, relatedness to others, and being satisfied with life. – These are “be goals,” appropriately evaluated by the emotional impact and phenomenological measures of their “hedonic quality.” Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 20
  21. 21. From Usability to User Experience • A Good User Experience Does Not Necessarily Mean High-Tech or “Cool” – The best user experience requires a balance of functionality, usability, aesthetics, branding, identity, and so on. (eg. Microsoft Vista Package) – In addition to user experience not just being cool, it also is not just about technology for technology’s sake. (eg. University Figure 1-1 A new Microsoft software packaging design Conference Call system) Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 21
  22. 22. From Usability to User Experience • Design beyond Just Technology – Design is about creating artifacts to satisfy a usage need in a language that can facilitate a dialog between the creator of the artifact and the user. That artifact can be anything from a computer system to an everyday object such as a door knob. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 22
  23. 23. From Usability to User Experience • Components of a User Experience – The newer concept of user experience still embodies all these implications of usability. How much joy of use would one get from a cool and neat-looking iPad design that was very clumsy and awkward to use? Clearly there is an intertwining in that some of the joy of use can come from extremely good ease of use. – The most basic reason for considering joy of use is the humanistic view that enjoyment is fundamental to life. (Hassenzahl, M., Beu, A., & Burmester, M. (2001). Engineering joy. IEEE Software, 18(1), pp. 70–76.) – As a result, we have expanded the scope of user experience to include: • effects experienced due to usability factors • effects experienced due to usefulness factors • effects experienced due to emotional impact factors Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 23
  24. 24. From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Is (Mostly) Felt Internally by the User – User experience, as the words imply, is the totality of the effect or effects felt (experienced) internally by a user as a result of interaction with, and the usage context of, a system, device, or product. – Here, we give the terms “interaction” and “usage” very broad interpretations, as we will explain, including seeing, touching, and thinking about the system or product, including admiring it and its presentation before any physical interaction, the influence of usability, usefulness, and emotional impact during physical interaction, and savoring the memory after interaction. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 24
  25. 25. From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Cannot Be Designed – A user experience cannot be designed, only experienced. You are not designing or engineering or developing good usability or designing or engineering or developing a good user experience. – There is no usability or user experience inside the design; they are relative to the user. Usability occurs within, or is revealed within, the context of a particular usage by a particular user. The same design but used in a different context—different usage and/or a different user— could lead to a different user experience, including a different level of, or kind of, usability. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 25
  26. 26. From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Cannot Be Designed – We illustrate this concept with a non-computer example, the experience of enjoying Belgian chocolates. Because the “designer” and producer of the chocolates may have put the finest ingredients and best traditional processes into the making of this product, it is not surprising that they claim in their advertising a fine chocolate experience built into their confections. However, by the reasoning in the previous paragraph, the user experience resides within the consumer, not in the chocolates. That chocolate experience includes anticipating the pleasure, beholding the dark beauty, smelling the wonderful aromas, the deliberate and sensual consumption (the most important part), the lingering bouquet and after-taste, and, finally, pleasurable memories. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 26
  27. 27. From Usability to User Experience • User Experience Cannot Be Designed – When this semantic detail is not observed and the chocolate is marketed with claims such as “We have created your heavenly chocolate experience,” everyone still understands. Similarly, no one but the most ardent stickler protests whenBMWclaims “BMWhas designed and built your joy!” In this book, however, we wish to be technically correct and consistent so we would have them say, “We have created sweet treats to ensure your heavenly chocolate experience” or “BMW has built an automobile designed to produce your ultimate driving experience.” Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 27
  28. 28. From Usability to User Experience Figure 1-2 User experience occurs within interaction and usage context Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 28
  29. 29. From Usability to User Experience • Role of Branding, Marketing, and Corporate Culture – For example, consider the case of Apple. The culture of designing for user experience is so deeply engrained in their corporate culture that everything they produce has a stamp of tasteful elegance and spectacular design. This kind of fanatic emphasis on quality user experience at Apple extends beyond just the products they produce and even seeps into other areas of their company. When they make an employment offer to a new employee, for example, the package comes in a meticulously designed envelope that sets the stage for what the company stands for (Slivka, 2009b). Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 29
  30. 30. From Usability to User Experience • Role of Branding, Marketing, and Corporate Culture – Similarly, when Apple sent call center technical support employees a Tshirt as a gift, it arrived in a carefully designed box with the T-shirt folded in a way that inspires a sense of design emphasis (Slivka, 2009a). From the time one walks into an Apple store to the sleek industrial design of the device, everything comes together in one harmonious whole to ensure that users love the device. (NB: We are agnostic in the PC vs. Mac religious wars, so please consider this objectively.) Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 30
  31. 31. From Usability to User Experience • Role of Branding, Marketing, and Corporate Culture – And, again, it is all about design for the user experience. A New York Times article (Hafner, 2007) extols the enchanting aura of Apple stores, “Not only has the company made many of its stores feel like gathering places, but the bright lights and equally bright acoustics create a buzz that makes customers feel more like they are at an event than a retail store.” The goal of one new store in Manhattan was to make it “the most personal store ever created.” This carefully designed user experience has been very successful in generating sales, return visits, and even tourist pilgrimages. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 31
  32. 32. From Usability to User Experience • Why Have Such a Broad Definition? – We believe that the user experience can begin well before actual usage. It can start as early as when the user beholds a system or product and its packaging or presentation. It does not necessarily end with actual usage. After usage, the pleasure, or displeasure, can persist in the user’s mind. This perspective of what the user experiences about the product includes initial awareness of the product, to seeing its advertising, to visiting the store, to viewing it and buying it, to taking it out of the box, to using it, to talking with others who have used it—in other words, it is about a broad cultural and personal experience. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 32
  33. 33. From Usability to User Experience • Why Have Such a Broad Definition? – It needs to implicitly recognize the need for multiple roles to work together, to collaborate and communicate, and to work synergistically to ensure a quality user experience. It frames the efforts toward designing for a user experience in an interdisciplinary context, where everyone from hardware engineers, to visual designers, to branding experts, to interaction designers need to collaborate and coordinate their efforts to define and execute a shared design vision. Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 33
  34. 34. Homework • Personal Statement – Length : 1,000 words or less – Who I am, and What I have been through – Things that I like – What I like to study/research • • – • In general Relating to HCI/UX My dreams Upload on one of below – – Wordpress – • Blogger Tumblr Due – Lecture #1 11: 59 pm Sun. 9th March IIT_UX Theory 34
  35. 35. Contacts • Email – digital.sd.lab@gmail.com • Facebook – https://www.facebook.com/UX.theory Lecture #1 IIT_UX Theory 35
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