Going by the Rules - Rounding Marks and Passing
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Going by the Rules - Rounding Marks and Passing

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  • IF rule 18 applies, the term Overlap applies to boats on opposite tacks – see definition Clear Astern and Clear Ahead ; Overlap . But rule 18 DOES NOT apply for the reasons given. Note that rules 18.1(a) and 18.1(b) are frequently both relevant at windward marks – their effect is the same.
  • IF rule 18 applies, the term Overlap applies to boats on opposite tacks – see definition Clear Astern and Clear Ahead ; Overlap . But rule 18 DOES NOT apply. This is one of the less common situations where rule 18.1(b) will disapply rule 18, but where rule 18.1(a) is not relevant.
  • At the point at which they will meet, the mark is not relevant to either of them.
  • The primary obligation on YELLOW is to keep clear under rule 11. If YELLOW does so, between the positions shown, she will also be giving mark-room, so rule 18.2(a) is not adding to YELLOW’s obligation, nor does it limit BLUE’s rights. Nor does it yet relax BLUE’s obligations - if BLUE luffs for the mark, she must comply with rule 16.1. Exoneration for breaking rule 16.1 applies only when rounding on a proper course, which is not yet. Since this is not a gybe mark, no part of rule 18 requires BLUE to gybe. However, rule 17 may force BLUE to gybe if BLUE’s overlap was made from clear astern. In the situation in the diagram, rule 18 technically applies, but is not adding to underlying Section A and Section B rights and obligations.
  • It is initially as if the mark were not there. YELLOW becomes right of way boat under rule 12 once on a close-hauled course. If she does it far enough ahead of BLUE that BLUE can keep clear by manoeuvring promptly if necessary in a seamanlike way in the prevailing conditions, YELLOW has also complied with rule 15. To keep clear, BLUE may need to luff or to bear away to comply with rule 12. Rule 18 has nothing to say in these circumstances until YELLOW enters the zone clear ahead of BLUE. When that happens, BLUE must continue to keep clear of YELLOW under rule 12, as well as giving YELLOW mark-room (which does not initially add to the keep-clear obligation) If BLUE, to keep clear, luffs to a windward overlap on YELLOW after YELLOW has entered the zone, BLUE must continue to keep clear under rule 11, windward and leeward, and rule 18.2(c) says that BLUE must also give YELLOW any additional mark-room she needs to bear away round the mark on a proper couse. If BLUE, to keep clear, bears away to an leeward inside overlap on YELLOW after YELLOW has entered the zone, rule 18.2(c) says that BLUE still has to give YELLOW mark-room to sail to the mark, and BLUE is not entitled to room at the mark – she may have to duck out and come round again .
  • ISAF wants to deter boats from tacking from port onto the starboard-tack layline inside the zone, as it spoils things for the boats that got onto the layline further out. YELLOW still has to tack far enough ahead of BLUE to initially give BLUE room to keep clear under rule 12, if necessary. But if in the process BLUE has to luff above close-hauled to keep clear, YELLOW has tacked too close because rule 18.3 says so. Similarly, if BLUE has to dive to a leeward inside overlap, YELLOW must give BLUE mark-room. Rule 15, Acquiring Right of Way, is limited by the requirement to give mark-room, which means that keeping clear and giving mark-room is totally an issue for YELLOW.
  • ISAF wants to deter boats from tacking from port onto the starboard-tack layline inside the zone, as it spoils things for the boats that got onto the layline further out. YELLOW still has to tack far enough ahead of BLUE to initially give BLUE room to keep clear under rule 12, if necessary. But if in the process BLUE has to luff above close-hauled to keep clear, YELLOW has tacked too close because rule 18.3 says so. Similarly, if BLUE has to dive to a leeward inside overlap, YELLOW must give BLUE mark-room. Rule 15, Acquiring Right of Way, is limited by the requirement to give mark-room, which means that keeping clear and giving mark-room is totally an issue for YELLOW.
  • The moored boat is an obstruction, the boats are overlapped when approaching it, and YELLOW shows no signs of passing to windward of it. YELLOW is entitled to room under rule 19.2(b) and, as in all situations under rule 18 or 19, no hail is needed to establish rights. However, it’s sensible to hail, since, in a protest, evidence of a hail would help resist any claim by BLUE that the boats were not in fact overlapped. Had she acted earlier, BLUE could have decided to pass the obstruction on its windward side, in which case YELLOW must continue to keep clear – the decision as which side to pass an obstruction is BLUE’s, as stated in rule 19.2(a). There is no zone under rule 19. If room can be given to an inside overlapped boat, it must be given, unless it is a late overlap.
  • If BLUE does NOT gybe and sails farther from the mark than needed to sail her proper course, YELLOW can protest, but she must continue to keep clear under rule 11.
  • If BLUE does NOT gybe and sails further from the mark than needed to sail her proper course, YELLOW can protest, but she must continue to keep clear under rule 11.
  • Before they reached the zone, GREEN had right of way under rule 10, port and starboard. Rule 18 does not change rights of way. So GREEN remains right-of-way boat, but those rights are strictly limited by her obligation to give mark-room to RED which reaches the zone first. There is therefore no game change, just a more logical way of reaching the same outcome.
  • Before they reached the zone, GREEN had right of way under rule 10, port and starboard. Rule 18 does not change rights of way. So GREEN remains right-of-way boat, but those rights are strictly limited by her obligation to give mark-room to RED which reaches the zone first. There is therefore no game change, just a more logical way of reaching the same outcome.
  • RED was quite possibly several lengths ahead of GREEN only a few seconds ago, but the act of luffing outside the zone will often create an unexpected (and possibly counter-intuitive) overlap on boats like GREEN. This is one of the commonest sources of protests in big-fleet centreboard racing.
  • RED was quite possibly several lengths ahead of GREEN only a few seconds ago, but the act of luffing outside the zone will often create an unexpected (and possibly counter-intuitive) overlap on boats like GREEN. This is one of the commonest sources of protests in big-fleet centreboard racing. RED must now give GREEN mark-room under rule 18.2(b).
  • YELLOW closes the door. She can luff as hard as she likes, provided it is consistent with rounding the mark on her proper course. Rule 18.5 exonerates her if she breaks rule 16 while doing so. BLUE was required to give mark-room to YELLOW from the moment YELLOW entered the zone. In team racing, this would be a typical trap. Even if YELLOW deliberately forced the collision,, she cannot be penalized under rule 14, Avoiding Contact, as there was no damage or injury. That was YELLOW’s risk, and the outcome would have been different had there been avoidable contact resulting in damage or injury. A protest committee might find that BLUE could have avoided the contact, and add rule 14 to the rules broken leading to disqualification.
  • YELLOW closes the door. She can luff as hard as she likes, provided it is consistent with rounding the mark on her proper course. Rule 18.5 exonerates her if she breaks rule 16 while doing so. BLUE was required to give mark-room to YELLOW from the moment YELLOW entered the zone. In team racing, this would be a typical trap. Even if YELLOW deliberately forced the collision,, she cannot be penalized under rule 14, Avoiding Contact, as there was no damage or injury. That was YELLOW’s risk, and the outcome would have been different had there been avoidable contact resulting in damage or injury. A protest committee might find that BLUE could have avoided the contact, and add rule 14 to the rules broken leading to disqualification.
  • In both cases, the boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone. The outside boat in each case (RED, BLUE) must give mark-room, as defined. But rule 18 does not ‘switch off’ the rules of Section A (rules 10 to 13), and so give-way boats must still keep clear. In the left-hand example, that may mean that RED will have to go wider than needed just to give mark-room. When they gybe, rule 18.2(c) requires RED to continue to give mark-room, even though the gybes have created a new overlap. In the right-hand example, BLUE has just to give enough mark-room for YELLOW to sail her proper course while at the mark, and YELLOW must keep clear within that room.
  • As soon as BLUE passed head to wind, rule 18.2(c) says that rule 18.2(b) ceases to apply, and the situation is as if there was no mark there. While between head to wind and a close-hauled course, BLUE has to keep clear under rule 13, While Tacking, and once she is on a close-hauled course, she must keep clear under rule 10 (port and starboard). At a starboard hand windward mark, it can be very difficult for a boat clear ahead to tack – which is why port-hand roundings are always favoured, except in match-racing and team racing, where the object of the exercise is to provoke incidents.
  • As soon as BLUE passed head to wind, rule 18.2(c) says that rule 18.2(b) ceases to apply, and the situation is as if there was no mark there. While between head to wind and a close-hauled course, BLUE has to keep clear under rule 13, While Tacking, and once she is on a close-hauled course, she must keep clear under rule 10 (port and starboard). At a starboard hand windward mark, it can be very difficult for a boat clear ahead to tack – which is why port-hand roundings are always favoured, except in match-racing and team racing, where the object of the exercise is to provoke incidents.
  • Another reason for not having starboard-hand rounding at windward marks. While the boats are on opposite tacks, rule 18 does not apply, because of rule 18.1(b). Room is not a relevant concept here. if she does not tack, it is as if the mark were not there, and RED on port has to keep clear of GREEN on starboard. There is no rule that requires GREEN to tack, even if she is now not sailing a proper course.
  • The shore is an obstruction. Normally when passing an obstruction, rule 19.2(a) would apply, and RED would be entitled to room from GREEN if RED could get an overlap, provided that GREEN could give that room, even if the gap was very small at the time the overlap began. But this obstruction is a CONTINUING obstruction, in which case the gap has to be wide enough for RED to sail through it when the overlap begins - you pretend that GREEN was stationary at the moment RED became overlapped inside her. That’s the case here, so RED is entitled to go for the overlap, and while it lasts and while they are passing the continuing obstruction, GREEN’s starboard tack rights are limited by the requirement under rule 19.2(b) to give room to RED.
  • The shore is an obstruction. Normally when passing an obstruction, rule 19.2(a) would apply, and RED would be entitled to room from GREEN if RED could get an overlap, provided that GREEN could give that room, even if the gap was very small at the time the overlap began. But this obstruction is a CONTINUING obstruction, in which case the gap has to be wide enough for RED to sail through it when the overlap begins - you pretend that GREEN was stationary at the moment RED became overlapped inside her. That’s the case here, so RED is entitled to go for the overlap, and while it lasts and while they are passing the continuing obstruction, GREEN’s starboard tack rights are limited by the requirement under rule 19.2(b) to give room to RED.
  • The shore is an obstruction. Normally when passing an obstruction, rule 19.2(a) would apply, and RED would be entitled to room from GREEN if RED could get an overlap, provided that GREEN could give that room, even if the gap was very small at the time the overlap began. But this obstruction is a CONTINUING obstruction, in which case the gap has to be wide enough for RED to sail through it when the overlap begins - you pretend that GREEN was stationary at the moment RED became overlapped inside her. That’s the case here, so RED is entitled to go for the overlap, and while it lasts and while they are passing the continuing obstruction, GREEN’s starboard tack rights are limited by the requirement under rule 19.2(b) to give room to RED.
  • YELLOW is an obstruction to both GREEN and BLUE. But she is not a continuing obstruction, and so there is no specific minimum gap between GREEN and YELLOW that must be there for BLUE to be entitled to become overlapped. If BLUE intervenes between GREEN and YELLOW: BLUE must keep clear of YELLOW GREEN must act promptly to keep clear of BLUE. If she acts promptly, and cannot keep clear, BLUE has broken rule 15 GREEN must give room to BLUE under rule 19.2(a), and must continue to do so while they are passing YELLOW, even if BLUE gybes to port and loses right of way
  • This is a mark-rounding situation where rule 18’s impact is marginal. See ISAF case 2.
  • The requirement on BLUE is not to be giving mark-room at zone entry, but to do so ‘thereafter’. That is more than just giving room at the mark, because mark-room also includes room to sail to the mark, so BLUE must act promptly to give that room. By luffing, BLUE put herself at risk of not being able to give YELLOW room to sail to the mark.
  • Once again, the room to be given includes room to sail ‘to the mark’, which is additional to the room to be given at the mark. When RED reaches the zone, YELLOW will be entitled to room to sail to the mark when nearly six lengths from it. In this way, the removal of rule 18 starting to apply when boats are ‘about to round’ has not changes things. The definition Overlap says that boats are overlapped, although one is clear astern of the other, if they overlap a boat between them. All of these boats are overlapped on each other, and all those overlaps give rise to a right to room, even though YELLOW would not be overlapped on RED and the outside BLUE in the absence of the inside BLUE. Note that the spinnakers are relevant to whether there is an overlap - the inside BLUE would still have a spinnaker overlap on RED in the absence of the outside BLUE.
  • This is another example of the multiple requirements that can develop under rule 18. Rule 18.2(b) decides rights and obligations based on zone entry, and those obligations do not change while rule 18 continues to apply, unless (as on a previous slide) one of the boats ahead tacks. It would be common for RED to lose position during the rounding and fall astern of the inside BLUES, finding herself wide of the mark. YELLOW may now be much closer to RED but must continue to give her mark-room – but if RED then decides to tack while near the mark to a starboard-tack course upwind, YELLOW’s obligation ends when RED passes head to wind.
  • Note that RED must give the BLUE nearer to her room to sail ‘to the mark’. Because of the presence of the other boat(s), RED cannot physically give the nearer BLUE room actually to be alongside the mark – it is not in her gift. So ‘to the mark’ means ‘ as close to the mark as the presence of other boats allows.
  • BLUE’s proper course may be to keep her spinnaker set and keep that course until well into the zone, but she is not entitled to room for a proper course. Her entitlement is room to sail to the mark, and room is the space she needs to sail in a seamanlike way, which must be safe, but may be inefficient. Only when she is AT the mark is YELLOW entitled to room to sail a proper course.
  • See ISAF case 86. It is rule 18.4 that obliges YELLOW, until she gybes, not to sail farther from the mark than needed to sail that course. That gives YELLOW considerable opportunity for a tactical rounding – in wide, out tight, which would be a proper course for her – the way she would round in the absence of BLUE.
  • This assumes that they were overlapped on zone entry. If YELLOW had become overlapped by tacking to a leeward overlap from port inside the zone, rule 18.3 would apply, which switches off rule 18.2 and its mark-room obligations. YELLOW would not then be taking ‘mark-room’ to which she was entitled, and so would not be exonerated for breaking rule 16.1, since the exoneration rule, 18.5, applies only when a boat is taking mark-room to which she is entitled – another deterrent against tacking in the zone. BLUE has to keep clear under rule 11, regardless of which part of rule 18 applies (or does not apply) to YELLOW. If in fact it was BLUE that tacked inside the zone, a ‘slam-dunk’ to windward of YELLOW, which then become overlapped inside BLUE, rule 18.3(b) says that BLUE has to give mark-room (as well as keep clear), and so if YELLOW broke rule 16.1 in bearing away, rule 18.5 exonerates her.
  • If GREEN gybes, rule 17 will not prevent RED from sailing above a proper course because the same-tack overlap was not created from clear astern. As stated, the boats were overlapped as defined while on opposite tacks, but rule 17 only applies when the overlap begins while the boats are on the same tack.
  • If RED becomes overlapped when there is no room to pass between YELLOW and the shore, YELLOW has gained right of way under rule 19.2(c) because of RED’s action, and so rule 15 says that YELLOW does not have initially to give RED room to keep clear
  • Room in rule 18 is clarified to mean ‘room to round or pass…’. Note that if BLUE had become overlapped inside YELLOW by completing a tack inside the two-length zone, rule 16.1 would still apply to BLUE because rule 18.3 overrides the switch-off at marks of rule 16 contained in rule 18.2(d).
  • Room in rule 18 is clarified to mean ‘room to round or pass…’. Note that if BLUE had become overlapped inside YELLOW by completing a tack inside the two-length zone, rule 16.1 would still apply to BLUE because rule 18.3 overrides the switch-off at marks of rule 16 contained in rule 18.2(d).
  • Rule 18.4 requires an inside overlapped right of way boat in this situation to gybe so as not to sail farther from the mark than her proper course requires. It makes no distinction as to how the overlap was established. It is also irrelevant if they were not overlapped when the first of them entered the zone.
  • Rule 18.4 requires an inside overlapped right of way boat in this situation to gybe so as not to sail farther from the mark than her proper course requires. It makes no distinction as to how the overlap was established.
  • The preamble to section C says that rule 18, and therefore the right to mark-room under rule 18.2(a) or (b), applies only when the starting mark is surrounded by navigable water, and then only while approaching the starting line to start.
  • The preamble to section C says that rule 18, and therefore the right to mark-room under rule 18.2(a) or (b), applies only when the starting mark is surrounded by navigable water, and then only while approaching the starting line to start.

Going by the Rules - Rounding Marks and Passing Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’re rounding! (and also passing) Main Menu Section Start 1
  • 2. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’re approaching the windward mark,which is to be rounded to port, onto adeep reach.We are GREEN, and RED is overlappedinside us. Is she entitled to mark-room?No, because of rule 18.1(a) – the boatsare on opposite tacks on a beat towindward. Also because of rule 18.1(b) –RED will have to tack, GREEN won’t.Sono part of rule 18 applies.Nothing here limits the application of rule10, and RED, on port must keep clearunder rule 10. Main Menu Section Start 2
  • 3. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsThis is the ‘top mark’ of an ‘outer loop’ ofa trapezoid course. GREEN is reachingto it from the windward mark. RED isbeating towards it from the loop’s ‘bottommark’. They are overlapped.Does GREEN have to give mark-room toRED?No. They are on opposite tacks, andRED will have to tack to round the mark,while GREEN does not need to tack.Rule 18.2(b) says that rule 18 does notapply. RED will break rule 10 if she luffs, Course to nextor rule 13 if she passes head to wind and markdoes not keep clear of GREEN. Main Menu Section Start 4
  • 4. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsRED had entered the zone wellahead of GREEN. They meet whileRED is leaving the mark while Course from previous markGREEN is approaching the mark.Does GREEN have to give mark-room to RED?NO. RED had been too far ahead.Rule 18 does not apply becauseRule 18.1(c) says so when oneboat is leaving a mark and meetsanother boat approaching it. Rule Course to next mark10 applies, RED is on port tack andmust keep clear. Main Menu Section Start 6
  • 5. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsAs we will see, at most marks, their three-length zone may beimportant when questions of room arise, and the room to begiven at marks is a special type of room called ‘mark-room’.Very occasionally, a mark may big enough (or long enough)to be also a CONTINUING OBSTRUCTION.• It could be a small island if it has to be rounded.• It could be a large island, like the Isle of Wight in a raceround the Island.• It could even be a continent. (‘Leave Antarctica to starboard’– Vendée Globe sailing instructions).• It could be any structure of sufficient length if it’s a mark.In all these exceptional cases, the right to room is dealt withunder rule 19.2(c), which deals with room at continuingobstructions. Rule 18 does not apply, and there is no ‘zone’. Main Menu Section Start 8
  • 6. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give theinside boat mark-room, unless rule 18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches thezone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the insideboat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reaches the zone,the boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter give her mark-room.• These are the core rules related to the giving of mark-room• Either rule 18.2(a) or 18.2(b) applies, but not both• Rule 18.2(b) is probably more likely to apply than rule 18.2(a), as we’ll see• We meet two new defined terms – Mark-Room and Zone. Let’s look at them Main Menu Section Start 10
  • 7. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsMark-RoomRoom for a boat to sail to the markand then room to sail her proper course while at the mark.However, mark-room does not include room to tack unless the boatis overlapped to windward and on the inside of the boat required togive mark-room.• We will look at examples of this as we meet them. Within thedefinition Mark-Room, the term Room is used in its defined senseRoomThe space a boat needs in the existing conditions while manoeuvringpromptly in a seamanlike way. Main Menu Section Start 11
  • 8. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsZoneThe area around a mark within a distance of three hull lengths of theboat nearer to it. A boat is in the zone when any part of her hull is inthe zone.Rule 86.1(b)…the sailing instructions may change to ‘two’ or ‘four’ the number ofhull lengths determining the zone around marks, provided that thenumber is the same for all marks and all boats using those marks…• the ‘zone’ concept applies only at marks to which rule 18 applies,and not at obstructions to which rule 19 applies• clubs that share marks where two races may meet must be carefulnot to make different provisions Main Menu Section Start 12
  • 9. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outside boatshall give the inside boat mark-room, unless rule18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first ofthem reaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reachesthe zone, the boat clear astern at that momentshall thereafter give her mark-room.Which rule applies here?They are too far apart for any right-of-way rule tobe relevant. Main Menu Section Start 13
  • 10. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outside boatshall give the inside boat mark-room, unless rule18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first ofthem reaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reachesthe zone, the boat clear astern at that momentshall thereafter give her mark-room.Which rule applies here?• Rule 18 does not apply, as they are beating on opposite tacks (rule 18.1(a))•Rule 10 requires BLUE on port to keep clear of YELLOW on starboard Main Menu Section Start 14
  • 11. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outside boatshall give the inside boat mark-room, unless rule18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first ofthem reaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reachesthe zone, the boat clear astern at that momentshall thereafter give her mark-room.Which rule applies here?•They are now on the same tack, so rule 18 now applies•Rule 18.2(b) does not apply, as no part of rule 18 applied at zone entry Main Menu Section Start 15
  • 12. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outside boatshall give the inside boat mark-room, unless rule18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first ofthem reaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reachesthe zone, the boat clear astern at that momentshall thereafter give her mark-room.Which rule applies here?• Since rule 18 applies, but rule 18.2(b) does not apply, it is rule 18.2(a)that applies. BLUE has right of way but must give mark-room to YELLOW Main Menu Section Start 16
  • 13. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe are YELLOW, and BLUE is overlappedinside us when the first of us reaches thezone. Do we have to give her mark -room?YES, under rule 18.2(b). If boats are overlapped when the first of themreaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boatmark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear astern at thatmoment shall thereafter give her mark-room.What is ‘mark-room’? Main Menu Section Start 17
  • 14. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsMark-Room is, first of all, room to sail ‘to themark’. BLUE will need to luff a little to sail tothe mark, and we in YELLOW must also luffto keep clear of her while she does. next urse to k Co marOnce BLUE is ‘at the mark’, what now mustYELLOW do?She must give room to BLUE to ‘sail herproper course while at the mark’.Is BLUE required to sail no higher than a proper course round the mark?Only if BLUE’s overlap was from clear astern, and rule 17 applies.If BLUE does NOT bear away, YELLOW’s obligation to give BLUE roomis overtaken by YELLOW’s unchanged obligation to keep clear as awindward boat. RULE 18 DOES NOT OVERRIDE SECTION A RULES. Main Menu Section Start 18
  • 15. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsAnother pair of boats approaches the windwardmark. Yellow completes a tack to a clear-aheadposition before she enters the zone.Which rules apply?Rule 10 (port and starboard) at firstthen rule 13 (tacking)then rule 12 (clear ahead and clear astern), withrule 15, Acquiring Right of WayFavours BLUEThen still rule 12, and also rules 18.2(b) and (c)Now favours YELLOW Main Menu Section Start 19
  • 16. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsYet another pair of boats approachesthe windward mark. Yellow completesa tack to a clear-ahead position insidethe two-length zone.Which rules apply?Rule 15, as beforerule 12 as beforebut then rule 18.3, Tacking at a Mark,and NOT rule 18.2(b) or (c)BLUE is favoured throughout as longas she keeps clear Main Menu Section Start 21
  • 17. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsYet another pair of boats approachesthe windward mark. Yellow completesa tack to a clear-ahead position insidethe two-length zone.Which rules apply?Rule 15, as beforerule 12 as beforebut then rule 18.3, Tacking at a Mark,and NOT rule 18.2(b) or (c)BLUE is favoured throughout as longas she keeps clearWhat if BLUE has to take avoidingaction? Main Menu Section Start 23
  • 18. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsYet another pair of boats approaches YELLOWthe windward mark. Yellow completes infringes if shea tack to a clear-ahead position inside forces BLUE above close-the two-length zone. hauledWhich rules apply? YELLOW must not stop BLUE from passingRule 15, as before mark, must give BLUErule 12 as before mark-roombut then rule 18.3, Tacking at a Mark,and NOT rule 18.2(b) or (c)BLUE is favoured throughout as longas she keeps clearWhat if BLUE has to take avoidingaction? Main Menu Section Start 24
  • 19. Start show Start Section We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsDown the reach, there’s aninconveniently moored motor cruiser.We are BLUE. Our course will take usastern of it. YELLOW does not hail forroom to pass it.Do we in BLUE have to give room toYELLOW?YES, the moored boat is an obstruction,we are overlapped, we can give room,so we must. No hail needed. Main Menu Section Start 26
  • 20. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’ve reached the gybe mark.We are the BLUE boat.Our proper course to the nextmark requires us to gybe.Must we gybe?Yes. We must not sail beyond aproper course round the mark –rule 18.4. Main Menu Section Start 28
  • 21. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’ve reached the gybe mark.We are the BLUE boat.Our proper course to the nextmark requires us to gybe.Must we gybe?Yes. We must not sail beyond aproper course round the mark –rule 18.4.18.4 GybingWhen an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at amark to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail nofarther from the mark than needed to sail that course. Rule18.4 does not apply at a gate mark. Main Menu Section Start 29
  • 22. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’re approaching the port-hand leewardmark, after which the course is a beat.The race committee is signalling that thewindward mark has been moved to a newbearing.How it’s done Main Menu Section Start 30
  • 23. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’re approaching the port-hand leeward mark,after which the course is a beat. RED on portreaches the zone ahead of GREEN.Until then, which boat had right of way?And which boat now has right of way? Main Menu Section Start 32
  • 24. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’re approaching the port-hand leeward mark,after which the course is a beat. RED on portreaches the zone ahead of GREEN.Until then, which boat had right of way?And which boat now has right of way?Before RED reached the zone, GREEN hadright of way under rule 10.After RED reached the zone, GREEN still hasright of way under rule 10. But GREEN mustnow give RED mark-room. Main Menu Section Start 33
  • 25. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe’re approaching the port-hand leewardmark, after which the course is a beat. REDon port reaches the zone ahead of GREEN.Until then, which boat had right of way?And which boat now has right of way?Although they are on opposite tacks, RED isclear ahead of GREEN. When RED reachesthe zone clear ahead, Rule 18.2(b) requiresGREEN clear astern to give RED mark-room - room to sail to the mark and roomwhile at the mark to sail her proper course .Rule 18.2(c) deters GREEN from trying toget a late inside overlap. Main Menu Section Start 34
  • 26. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsRED, which has been forced wide byBLUE and YELLOW inside her, hails‘No room!’ to GREEN. Is shecorrect? No room! Main Menu Section Start 36
  • 27. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsRED, which has been forced wide byBLUE and YELLOW inside her, hails ‘Noroom!’ to GREEN. Is she correct?In turning for the mark, RED’s transomline has swept round to create an overlapbefore she enters the zone. If they meetat the mark , GREEN is entitled to roomfrom RED under rule 18.2(b).HOWEVER – if in a protest the protestcommittee finds that was found that RED No room!was initially clear ahead, and was unsurewhether GREEN had established anoverlap in time, it is to presume that shedid not. Main Menu Section Start 37
  • 28. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsYELLOW enters the two-lengthzone clear ahead of BLUE.YELLOW starts to round wellwide of the mark.BLUE, sailing faster, goes forthe gapIs she allowed to do this?BLUE is not entitled to mark-room, but she can take the roomgiven, at her own risk. Main Menu Section Start 39
  • 29. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsYELLOW now luffs hard, andBLUE hits both YELLOW and themark, no damage or injury. There isa protest. No penalty is takenBLUE claims that YELLOW did notgive BLUE room to keep clear asrequired by rule 16.1, ChangingCourse. YELLOW agrees!Your decision?Penalize BLUE?Penalize YELLOW?Penalize both? Main Menu Section Start 40
  • 30. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsYELLOW was clear ahead at thezone, BLUE was not entitled tomark-room. Indeed BLUE had togive YELLOW mark-room.Rule 18.5(b) exonerates a boatthat breaks rule 16 while roundinga mark on her proper course.Penalise BLUE under:• Rule 11, for not keeping clear• Rule 18.2(c) for not continuing togive the mark-room YELLOW wasentitled to under rule 18.2(b)• Rule 31, for touching the mark Main Menu Section Start 41
  • 31. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsGREEN would like to come in wide, to come out tight on the mark,but RED is nearby. Main Menu Section Start 43
  • 32. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsGREEN would like to come in wide, to come out tight on the mark,but RED is nearby.So, some while later, would YELLOW, but BLUE is nearby. Are theirsituations different under the rules? Main Menu Section Start 44
  • 33. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsGREEN has right of way YELLOW is give-way (windward),(starboard), can go wide until BLUE must give mark-room -required to gybe. RED must enough for YELLOW to sail herdo more than give mark-room proper course while at the mark– she must keep clear Main Menu Section Start 45
  • 34. We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe are BLUE, on starboard tack. REDis not keeping clear of us. Can we getroom from YELLOW to duck RED?Not directly. RED is required to keepclear of us. She is therefore not anobstruction, as defined, and so rule 19(which applies only at obstructions)does not apply. However, rule 14requires us to avoid contact if possible,and if we bear away to duck RED, thenYELLOW must also try to avoid contactwith us if she can.In a protest, RED would be disqualified. If we in BLUE do not keep clearof YELLOW in trying to avoid contact with RED, we will be exonerated forbreaking rule 11 because RED’s breach compelled us to break a rule. Main Menu Section Start 46
  • 35. We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe are BLUE, on starboard tack. REDis not keeping clear of us. Can we getroom from YELLOW to duck RED?Not directly. RED is required to keepclear of us. She is therefore not anobstruction, as defined, and so rule 19(which applies only at obstructions)does not apply. However, rule 14requires us to avoid contact if possible,and if we bear away to duck RED, thenYELLOW must also try to avoid contactwith us if she can.Definition Obstruction: …a boat racing is not an obstruction to other boatsunless they are required to keep clear of her, give her room or mark-room, or, if rule 22 applies, avoid her. Main Menu Section Start 47
  • 36. Start show Start Section We’re rounding!Back to the windward mark, thistime to be rounded to starboard.The race committee is signallingthat the next leg has beenshortened.Here’s how it’s done Main Menu Section Start 48
  • 37. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsAt the windward mark, this time tobe rounded to starboard.BLUE is clear ahead at the two-lengths zone, then tacks for themark. YELLOW has to avoid her.There is a protest. Yourdecision?Penalize BLUE.She lost her entitlement to roomunder rules 18.2(b) and (c) whenshe passed head to wind. It’s rule10 (or13). Main Menu Section Start 50
  • 38. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsAt the windward mark, this time tobe rounded to starboard.BLUE is clear ahead at the two-lengths zone, then tacks for themark. YELLOW has to avoid her.There is a protest. Yourdecision?Penalize BLUERule 18.2(c)When a boat is required to give mark-room by rule 18.2(b), she shallcontinue to do so even if later an overlap is broken or a new overlapbegins. However, if either boat passes head to wind or if the boatentitled to mark-room leaves the zone, rule 18.2(b) ceases to apply. Main Menu Section Start 51
  • 39. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsRED comes into the mark high enough forGREEN to tack for the mark inside her.GREEN does not tack, and both have totake avoiding action. They protest. Your decision? Rule 18 does not apply. No rule requires GREEN to tack. Penalize RED, rule 10.18.1 When This Rule Applies Rule 18 applies between boats when they are required to leave a mark on the same side and at least one of them is in the zone.However it does not apply… (b) Between boats on opposite tacks when the proper course at the mark for one but not both of them is to tack Main Menu Section Start 52
  • 40. Start show Start Section We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsBack down the run, we’re near the shore.Is RED allowed to get an overlap betweenGREEN and the shore? Main Menu Section Start 53
  • 41. Start show Start Section We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsBack down the run, we’re near the shore.Is RED allowed to get an overlap between GREEN and the shore?Yes, provided at that time there is room to pass between them – Rule19.2(c). Ifso, GREEN must then give her room. The shore is a continuing obstruction toboth boats. At ‘ordinary’ obstructions, the gap may not need to be so big for anintervening boat to be entitled to room – if the outside boat can give room shemust. At continuing obstructions, the gap may be wide enough to give room, yettoo narrow to allow a legal inside overlap. Main Menu Section Start 54
  • 42. Start show Start Section We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsBack down the run, we’re near the shore.Is RED allowed to get an overlap betweenGREEN and the shore?19.2 Giving Room at an Obstruction(c) While boats are passing a continuingobstruction, if a boat that was clear astern andrequired to keep clear becomes overlappedbetween the other boat and the obstruction and, atthe moment the overlap begins, there is not roomfor her to pass between them, she is not entitledto room under rule 19.2(b). While the boatsremain overlapped, she shall keep clear and rules10 and 11 do not apply.As stated, overlaps from astern need bigger gapsat continuing obstructions - as we will see. Main Menu Section Start 55
  • 43. Start show Start Section We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWe are BLUE. Further down the run, a gust catches us up with GREEN and YELLOW.GREEN hails ‘No Room! The gap is not big enough for you to sail through!’. Is GREENright to try to deny room tom to BLUE?NO. That would be true if YELLOW were a continuing obstruction. But the definitionObstruction now says ‘A vessel under way, including a boat racing, is never a continuingobstruction.’If BLUE can keep clear of YELLOW (rule 11) while getting anoverlap to leeward of GREEN and If GREEN then has the room to luffto keep clear (rule 15) of BLUE, BLUE is entitled to becomeoverlapped between them. GREEN must then keep clear of BLUE. Main Menu Section Start 56
  • 44. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions Wind 4 - 6 KnotsDoes Rule 18 apply here? From previous mark18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outsideboat shall give the inside boat mark-room,unless rule 18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first ofthem reaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boatmark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear astern at thatmoment shall thereafter give her mark-room. To next markThe boats are not overlapped, so it’s not rule 18.2(a). It is the boat clearastern that reaches the zone first, so the last sentence of rule 18.2(b) doesnot apply and will never apply. So no part of rule 18.2 yet applies Main Menu Section Start 57
  • 45. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions Wind 4 - 6 KnotsDoes Rule 18 apply here? From previous mark18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outsideboat shall give the inside boat mark-room,unless rule 18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches thezone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the insideboat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reaches thezone, the boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.They are overlapped at positions 2 and 3. Rule To next mark18.2(a) now applies. YELLOW must give BLUEmark-room – room to sail to the mark, which shedoes. BLUE must keep clear – under rule 10 andthen under rule 11 after she gybes. Main Menu Section Start 58
  • 46. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions Wind 4 - 6 KnotsDoes Rule 18 apply here? From previous mark18.2 Giving Mark-Room(a) When boats are overlapped the outsideboat shall give the inside boat mark-room,unless rule 18.2(b) applies.(b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches thezone, the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the insideboat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reaches thezone, the boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.BLUE is briefly ahead, the overlap ends before To next markthe contact, so 18.2(a) stops applying. ThenYELLOW runs into her. 18.2(b) never applied. It’s not now a rule 18 situation.YELLOW does not keep clear under rule 12, and the question is whetherBLUE gave her room to keep clear under rule 15. Yes, if YELLOW couldhave avoided contact by bearing away when BLUE became clear ahead. Main Menu Section Start 59
  • 47. 18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear asternat that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.BLUE must bear away to give YELLOW room to sail to the mark, and thenroom for YELLOW to sail her proper course while at the mark Main Menu Section Start 60
  • 48. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear asternat that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.BLUE tries unsuccessfully to break the overlap before the zone. She will beable to give room at the mark, but at zone entry cannot immediately giveYELLOW room to sail to the mark. Does BLUE break rule 18.2(b)?YES. Mark-room is not only room to sail a proper course at the mark, butalso room from zone entry to sail to the mark. BLUE should not have luffed. Main Menu Section Start 61
  • 49. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear asternat that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.When RED will reach the zone, she must give mark-room to thethree other boats. They are all overlapped on her. If she doesnot, she will break rule 18.2(b). To avoid that, she must takeearly action before the zone so as to be able to give mark-room.So must the two BLUE boats, to give YELLOW room. Is thereany exception to this? Not here, since mark-room can be given Main Menu Section Start 62
  • 50. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear asternat that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.If RED and the BLUE boats have been overlapped for sometime, RED has to be ready to give them mark-room at the zoneYELLOW, clear astern of the other three, will have to give all ofthem mark-room if she enters the zone after them, even if shethen gybes onto starboard tack with right of way under rule 10. Main Menu Section Start 63
  • 51. 18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear asternat that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.If RED and the BLUE boats have been overlapped for sometime, RED has to be ready to give them mark-room at the zoneIf YELLOW has only just become overlapped from clear astern,and the BLUE boat next to her will not be able to give her mark-room at the zone, BLUE is not required to give it. If she canthen give it after zone entry, she must do so Main Menu Section Start 64
  • 52. 18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear asternat that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.(c) If a boat obtained an inside overlap from clear astern and,from the time the overlap began, the outside boat has beenunable to give mark-room, she is not required to give it.But if instead RED and the BLUE boats had overhauled YELLOW, they willhave no excuse for not giving mark-room, and should already have started to‘move over’ to be able to give that room Main Menu Section Start 65
  • 53. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear asternat that moment shall thereafter give hermark-room.BLUE may try to shake off YELLOW’s overlap, before the zone isreached. If BLUE succeeds, she may sail for the mark knowing thatYELLOW must now give her mark-room. This is at the risk of failing toshake off the overlap. If YELLOW is still overlapped at BLUE’s zone entry,nothing exempts BLUE from her obligation to give mark-room Main Menu Section Start 66
  • 54. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when the first ofthem reaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boatmark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear astern at thatmoment shall thereafter give her mark-room.Ideally, both boats would like to hold theircourse under spinnaker into the zone – it wouldbe a proper course for both of them Main Menu Section Start 67
  • 55. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when the first ofthem reaches the zone, the outside boat at thatmoment shall thereafter give the inside boatmark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when shereaches the zone, the boat clear astern at thatmoment shall thereafter give her mark-room.Ideally, both boats would like to hold theircourse under spinnaker into the zone – it wouldbe a proper course for both of themThey cannot. YELLOW, the right-of-way boat, on starboard tack, must giveBLUE , the inside keep-clear boat, room to sail to the markBLUE cannot continue as far as she would like before gybing, and musttake only the room she needs to sail in a seamanlike way to the mark Main Menu Section Start 68
  • 56. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when thefirst of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shallthereafter give the inside boat mark-room…However, if an inside right-of-wayboat wants to take more room thanjust room to sail to the mark, she maydo so (subject to not delaying hergybe beyond her proper course), andthe outside boat must keep clearunder rule 11. Main Menu Section Start 69
  • 57. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.2 Giving Mark-Room(b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone, theoutside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room…Once at the mark, the mark-room that has to be given is room for a boatto sail her proper course while at the markA proper course is the most efficient route she would take in theabsence of the boat required to give her mark-room. This might entitleher to go wider to come out tight on the mark, but this right begins onlyonce the boat is ‘at the mark’. If the inside boat did not have right of wayfrom zone entry ‘to the mark’, she was not entitled to sail wider duringthat period, so she has little opportunity to exploit a proper coursestarting from the moment she is ‘at the mark’. Main Menu Section Start 70
  • 58. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.4 GybingWhen an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark tosail her proper course, until shegybes she shall sail no farther fromthe mark than needed to sail thatcourse. Rule 18.4 does not apply ata gate mark.The new last sentence means thatYELLOW can belatedly decide tosail for the other gate mark and isnot required to gybe at the onebeing passed Main Menu Section Start 71
  • 59. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsSECTION C, AT MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS18.5 ExonerationWhen a boat is taking mark-room to which she isentitled, she shall be exonerated(a) if, as a result of the other boat failing togive her mark-room, she breaks a rule of SectionA, or(b) if, by rounding the mark on her propercourse, she breaks a rule of Section A or rule 15 or16 This gives exoneration for rule breaches that theboat entitled to mark-room may not have beencompelled to make, so rule 64.1(c) cannot apply,but these clauses will Main Menu Section Start 72
  • 60. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.5 ExonerationWhen a boat is taking mark-room to whichshe is entitled, she shall be exonerated(a) if, as a result of the other boatfailing to give her mark-room, she breaksa rule of Section A, or(b) if, by rounding the mark on herproper course, she breaks a rule ofSection A or rule 15 or 16.GREEN was not giving RED mark-room and will be penalized. Rule 10 is notdisapplied by rule 18, but RED is exonerated under rule 18.5(a) for breakingrule 10. Note however that there is no exoneration for RED for breaking rule14 if there is avoidable injury or damage Main Menu Section Start 73
  • 61. 18.5 ExonerationWhen a boat is taking mark-room to whichshe is entitled, she shall be exonerated(a) if, as a result of the other boatfailing to give her mark-room, she breaksa rule of Section A, or(b) if, by rounding the mark on herproper course, she breaks a rule ofSection A or rule 15 or 16.Rule 18.2(b) requires YELLOW to give mark-room to inside overlappedBLUE. YELLOW breaks the overlap inside the zone. YELLOW must stillgive mark-room (Rule 18.2(c)). She does not. BLUE is rounding on herproper course. BLUE is exonerated under rule18.5(a) for breaking rule 12 Main Menu Section Start 74
  • 62. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions18.5 ExonerationWhen a boat is taking mark-room to whichshe is entitled, she shall be exonerated(a) if, as a result of the other boatfailing to give her mark-room, she breaksa rule of Section A, or(b) if, by rounding the mark on herproper course, she breaks a rule ofSection A or rule 15 or 16.Before the mark, BLUE is (just) keeping clear. At the mark, YELLOW bearsaway hard, but on her proper course, and does not give BLUE room to keepclear. YELLOW breaks rule 16.1 but is to be exonerated. BLUE breaks rule11 by now not keeping clear – she must expect YELLOW’s bear-away Main Menu Section Start 75
  • 63. We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsBLUE, with rule 11 right-of-way, hasto decide whether to pass theobstruction to windward or toleeward of the obstruction (rule19.2(a)If she decides to pass it towindward, then when she changescourse to do so, she must giveYELLOW room as required by rule16, Changing Course, to continue tokeep clear under rule 11If she decides to pass it to leeward,she must give room for YELLOW todo likewise (rule 19.2(b) Main Menu Section Start 76
  • 64. We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsBecause there is no ‘zone’, BLUE’sobligation to give room depends onwhether she can do so when anoverlap begins near an obstruction Main Menu Section Start 78
  • 65. We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsBecause there is no ‘zone’, BLUE’sobligation to give room depends onwhether she can do so when anoverlap begins near an obstructionRule 19.2(b)When boats are overlapped, theoutside boat shall give the insideboat room between her and theobstruction, unless she has beenunable to do so from the time theoverlap began. Main Menu Section Start 79
  • 66. We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and ObstructionsWhen boats are approaching an obstructionoff-wind on opposite tacks, they areoverlapped, because the definition Overlap(which normally confines that term to same-tack boats and opposite tack boats at marks)extends it to boats sailing more than ninetydegrees from the true windGREEN, on starboard, has rule 10 right ofway and decides which way to pass theobstruction (rule 19.2(a)). If she bears away,she must give room to RED (rule 19.2(b)) ifRED follows, and if in bearing away shegybes to port she must now keep clear ofRED under rule 11 Main Menu Section Start 80
  • 67. We’re passing! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions19.2(c) While boats are passing acontinuing obstruction, if a boat that wasclear astern and required to keep clearbecomes overlapped between the otherboat and the obstruction and, at the momentthe overlap begins, there is not room for herto pass between them, she is not entitled toroom under rule 19.2(b). While the boatsremain overlapped, she shall keep clear andrules 10 and 11 do not apply.RED is a clear-astern keep-clear boat under rule 12. If she becomesoverlapped inside YELLOW and there IS room to pass between, she isentitled to room, and she becomes right-of-way boat under rule 11If there is no room for RED to pass between, she is not entitled to room.She instantly becomes required to keep clear, and rule 11 does not apply Main Menu Section Start 81
  • 68. We’re rounding! PART 2 - WHEN BOATS MEET, Section C – At Marks and Obstructions19.2(c) While boats are passing acontinuing obstruction, if a boat that wasclear astern and required to keep clearbecomes overlapped between the otherboat and the obstruction and, at the momentthe overlap begins, there is not room for herto pass between them, she is not entitled toroom under rule 19.2(b). While the boatsremain overlapped, she shall keep clear andrules 10 and 11 do not apply.GREEN is astern, but is the right-of-way boat under rule 10, and not theone required to keep clear. Rule 19.2(c) does not apply. Technically, thegeneral right to room for GREEN under 19.2(b) applies, but moreimportantly rule 10 still applies. RED on port has to keep clear of GREENon starboard, and the bank or shore is not relevant to that obligation Main Menu Section Start 82
  • 69. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! Test your knowledgeThe boats were overlapped at thezone. BLUE bears away hard roundthe windward mark, and there iscontact (that is not immediate) withYELLOW, but no damage or injury.YELLOW’s protest: BLUE should have given me room to keep clear whenshe bore away. BLUE also should have avoided the contact.Your decision?Penalize YELLOW. YELLOW must not only keep clear but (if more) giveBLUE mark-room to sail her proper course while at the mark (rule 18.2(b).BLUE may break rule 16.1 by not giving room to YELLOW, but rule 18.5exonerates BLUE – BLUE is taking mark-room to which she is entitledand rounding the mark on her proper course.BLUE did break rule 14 by not avoiding contact, but cannot be penalisedas there was no damage or injury. Main Menu Section Start 83
  • 70. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! Test your knowledgeThe same, except that they becameoverlapped on the same tack whenBLUE tacked from port to starboard toa leeward overlap, changing tack inthe zone.YELLOW’s protest: BLUE should have given me room to keep clear whenshe bore away. BLUE also should have avoided the contact.Your decision?Penalize BLUE. By tacking in the zone, BLUE had no right to mark-roomunder rule 18.2(a). Rule 18.3, Tacking When Approaching a Mark, saysso. YELLOW must keep clear under rule 11, and does so. BLUE breaksrule 16.1 by bearing away too hard. There is no exoneration under rule18.5, as BLUE was not taking mark-room to which she was entitled.BLUE did break rule 14 by not avoiding contact, but cannot be penalisedfor that as there was no damage or injury. Main Menu Section Start 84
  • 71. Start show Start Section Next Section We’re rounding! Test your knowledgeWhich one is true?1. BLUE will not have to gybe at the mark.2. BLUE must gybe at the mark only if she became overlapped to leeward of YELLOW from clear astern To n mark ext3. BLUE must gybe at the mark if they remain overlapped at the mark. Main Menu Section Start 85
  • 72. Start show Start Section Next Section We’re rounding! Test your knowledgeWhich one is true?1. BLUE will not have to gybe at the mark.2. BLUE must gybe at the mark only if she became overlapped to leeward of YELLOW from clear astern To n mark ext3. BLUE must gybe at the mark if they remain overlapped at the mark. Main Menu Section Start 86
  • 73. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! Test your knowledge Which one of the following is true of an inside overlapped give-way boat like YELLOW at a starting mark?1. She is never entitled to room2. She is always entitled to room3. She is sometimes entitled to room Main Menu Section Start 87
  • 74. Start show Start Section We’re rounding! Test your knowledge Which one of the following is true of an inside overlapped give-way boat like YELLOW at a starting mark?1. She is never entitled to room2. She is always entitled to room3. She is sometimes entitled to room Main Menu Section Start 88
  • 75. GOING BY THE RULESWhat’s cooking?THE MAIN COURSE STARTERSBasically and Fundamentally… What’s new for 2009 – quick guideWe’re racing! What’s new for 2009 – in detailWe’re starting! INGREDIENTSWe’re rounding! Reading the signalsWe’re taking turns! Major definitions in actionWe’re finishing! The Racing Rules of SailingWe’re unhappy! The Definitions 89